John Curtin was an Australian politician who served as the 14th Prime Minister of Australia from 1941 until his death in 1945. He led the country for the majority of World War II, including all but the last few weeks of the war in the Pacific, he was the leader of the Australian Labor Party from 1935 to 1945, its longest serving leader until Gough Whitlam. Curtin's leadership skills and personal character were acclaimed by his political contemporaries, he is cited as one of Australia's greatest prime ministers, is the only prime minister to represent a constituency in Western Australia. Curtin became involved in the labour movement in Melbourne, he joined the Labor Party at a young age and was involved with the Victorian Socialist Party. He became state secretary of the Timberworkers' Union in 1911 and federal president in 1914. Curtin was a leader of the "No" campaign during the 1916 referendum on overseas conscription, was gaoled for refusing to attend a compulsory medical examination, he moved to Perth the following year to become the editor of the Westralian Worker, served as state president of the Australian Journalists' Association.
After three previous attempts, Curtin was elected to the House of Representatives at the 1928 federal election, winning the Division of Fremantle. He remained loyal to the Labor government during the party split of 1931, he lost his seat in Labor’s landslide defeat at the 1931 election, but won it back in 1934. The following year, Curtin was elected party leader in place of James Scullin, defeating Frank Forde by a single vote; the party gained seats at the 1937 and 1940 elections, with the latter resulting in a hung parliament. The ALP formed a minority government in October 1941, when the Fadden Government lost a confidence motion; the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor occurred two months after Curtin became prime minister, Australia entered the war against Japan. Bombing raids on northern Australia soon followed. Curtin made significant decisions about how the war was conducted, he placed Australian forces under the command of the American general Douglas MacArthur, with whom he formed a close relationship, negotiated the issue of overseas conscription that had split his party during World War I.
The ALP won two-thirds of the seats in the House of Representatives at the 1943 election, which remains a party record. Curtin died in office in July 1945, after months of ill health attributed to the stresses of the war. Many of his post-war reconstruction plans were implemented by his successor Ben Chifley, who in 1946 led the ALP to consecutive victories for the first time. John Curtin was born in Creswick, Victoria, on 8 January 1885, he was christened "John Joseph Ambrose", although his middle names were not recorded on his birth certificate and he stopped using them in life. Within his family he was known as "Jack". Curtin was the oldest of four children – his younger brother George was born in 1887, followed by his younger sisters Molly and Hannah in 1889 and 1891, his parents were both born in Ireland. His father, John Curtin Sr. had arrived in South Australia in 1873, with two of his brothers. His brothers settled in Adelaide, but he moved on to Victoria and found work as a warder at Pentridge Prison.
He joined the Victoria Police, wherein thirteen years he never rose above the rank of a constable. In 1883, he married Catherine Agnes Bourke, who had arrived in Melbourne in 1875, she was the sister of one of his police colleagues. Curtin was born with congenital strabismus of the left eye, which remained noticeable throughout his life, it was a cosmetic defect, but he was quite self-conscious about it. According to his biographer David Day, it had "a considerable psychological effect" on him, exacerbated his natural shyness. Curtin lived in Creswick until 1890, his father suffered from chronic rheumatoid arthritis and syphilis, was assessed as medically unable to resume his police duties. He was offered a choice between an annual pension and a lump-sum pay-out, opted for the latter, he subsequently moved his family to inner Melbourne, taking over the lease of a pub on Little Lonsdale Street and moving into rented accommodation in Brunswick. Curtin began his education at St Francis' Boys School, a Christian Brothers school attached to St Francis' Church.
He briefly attended St Bridget's School in Fitzroy. He attended Macedon Primary School in Macedon. In 1894, Curtin and his family moved to a small country town in north-west Victoria, his father had failed to prosper in Melbourne, in the middle of an economic downturn. In Charlton, he took over the lease of a pub owned by John Bourke. Curtin was enrolled in the local state school, he excelled academically, was seen as a potential "scholarship boy". However, he and his family left Charlton in 1896. Struggling financially, they spent the following two years moving around country Victoria, as his father managed pubs in Dromana and Mount Macedon. Curtin attended the local state schools, ending his formal education in 1898 at the age of 13. In early 1899, Curtin began working as an office boy at a weekly magazine called The Rambler, earning five shillings per week, his employer was the artist and writer Norman Lindsay, who had grown up in Creswick and knew his family. The magazine did not last long, over the following years Curtin held down a series of short-term jobs, including as a copy boy at The Age, a p
War Metal Battle Master is the third studio album by Chicago-based sludge/thrash metal band Lair of the Minotaur. There was a music video recorded for the title track, directed by Gary Smithson. All lyrics and music written by Steven Rathbone. Horde of Undead Vengeance - 4:42 War Metal Battle Master - 3:28 When the Ice Giants Slayed All - 3:08 Slaughter the Bestial Legion - 5:04 Black Viper Barbarian Clan - 3:35 Assassins of the Cursed Mist - 5:18 Doomtrooper - 9:45 Hades Unleashed - 4:31Note The LP version of this album includes a bonus track at the end of side one, called "Terror Tyrannus". Steven Rathbone - Vocals and mixing D. J. Barraca - Bass Chris Wozniak - Drums Steve Moore - synth on "Doomtrooper" Sanford Parker - Mixing, executive production Jeremy Mohler - Illustrations Erica Barraca - Photos Seldon Hunt - Layout Scott Hull - Mastering
New unionism is a term, used twice in the history of the labour movement, both times involving moves to broaden the trade union agenda. Ben Tillett was a prominent leader of the London Dock strike of 1889, he formed the Dock, Wharf and General Labourers' Union in 1889, which had support from skilled workers. Its 30,000 members won an advance in working conditions. First was the development within the British trade union movement in the late 1880s; the new unions differed from the older craft unions in several respects. They were less exclusive than craft unions and attempted to recruit a wide range of workers. To encourage more workers to join, the new unions kept their entrance fees and contributions at a low level; some new unions, such as the Dockers' Union and the gasworkers developed in the direction of general unionism. They recruited unskilled and semi-skilled workers, such as dockers, seamen and general labourers At the outset, the new unions were associated with militancy and willingness to take industrial action, unlike the more conciliatory craft unions.
Notable strikes associated with the new unions were the London matchgirls strike of 1888 and the London Dock Strike of 1889. Many of the new unions had leaders; such leaders included Ben Tillett, Will Thorne and John Burns. In recent decades the traditional view of the new unions as militant, fighting unions informed by a socialist politics has been modified. Although the new unions sponsored many large strikes in their early years, most, in fact, favoured conciliation and accommodation with the employers. Although new union leaders espoused socialism, it was of a moderate kind; the most prominent new unions were: Dockers' Union National Union of Dock Labourers Gasworkers Union National Sailors' and Firemen's Union The second time the term new unionism was used covers a period from the late 1980s until the present day. In 1988, US labour relations academic Charles Heckscher published "The New Unionism: Employee Involvement in the Changing Corporation" and this became one of a series of influential papers which encouraged the union movement to reconsider questions of industrial democracy.
The UK Trades Union Congress ran an ambitious new unionism project from 1997 to 2003, seeking to apply a dual strategy of organizing and partnership in an attempt to reinvigorate the union movement. This period saw an end to the decline in union membership, but the net effect is still subject to debate within the movement. More unions such as the Service Employees International Union in North America and the Public Services Association in New Zealand have combined innovative organizing and partnership combinations with notable success, leading to large and sustained membership gains and increased influence and activism at workplace level. An international new unionism network was launched in 2007 to bring unionists and labour supporters together around developing and applying these principles; the network provides fora and other resources for those interested in implementing the agenda. New Unionism Network Duffy, A. E. P. "New Unionism in Britain, 1889–1890: A Reappraisal," Economic History Review 14#2 pp 306-319 McAteer, Shane.
"The'New Unionism' in Derry, 1889–1892: A Demonstration of its Inclusive Nature." Saothar 16: 11-22. In JSTOR Matthews, Derek. "1889 and All That: New Views on the New Unionism." International Review of Social History 36#1: 24-58. Schneer, Jonathan. Ben Tillett: portrait of a labour leader