National Diet Library
The National Diet Library is the only national library in Japan. It was established in 1948 for the purpose of assisting members of the National Diet of Japan in researching matters of public policy, the library is similar in purpose and scope to the United States Library of Congress. The National Diet Library consists of two facilities in Tokyo and Kyoto, and several other branch libraries throughout Japan. The Diets power in prewar Japan was limited, and its need for information was correspondingly small, the original Diet libraries never developed either the collections or the services which might have made them vital adjuncts of genuinely responsible legislative activity. Until Japans defeat, the executive had controlled all political documents, depriving the people and the Diet of access to vital information. The U. S. occupation forces under General Douglas MacArthur deemed reform of the Diet library system to be an important part of the democratization of Japan after its defeat in World War II.
In 1946, each house of the Diet formed its own National Diet Library Standing Committee, hani Gorō, a Marxist historian who had been imprisoned during the war for thought crimes and had been elected to the House of Councillors after the war, spearheaded the reform efforts. Hani envisioned the new body as both a citadel of popular sovereignty, and the means of realizing a peaceful revolution, the National Diet Library opened in June 1948 in the present-day State Guest-House with an initial collection of 100,000 volumes. The first Librarian of the Diet Library was the politician Tokujirō Kanamori, the philosopher Masakazu Nakai served as the first Vice Librarian. In 1949, the NDL merged with the National Library and became the national library in Japan. At this time the collection gained a million volumes previously housed in the former National Library in Ueno. In 1961, the NDL opened at its present location in Nagatachō, in 1986, the NDLs Annex was completed to accommodate a combined total of 12 million books and periodicals.
The Kansai-kan, which opened in October 2002 in the Kansai Science City, has a collection of 6 million items, in May 2002, the NDL opened a new branch, the International Library of Childrens Literature, in the former building of the Imperial Library in Ueno. This branch contains some 400,000 items of literature from around the world. Though the NDLs original mandate was to be a library for the National Diet. In the fiscal year ending March 2004, for example, the library reported more than 250,000 reference inquiries, in contrast, as Japans national library, the NDL collects copies of all publications published in Japan. The NDL has an extensive collection of some 30 million pages of documents relating to the Occupation of Japan after World War II. This collection include the documents prepared by General Headquarters and the Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, the Far Eastern Commission, the NDL maintains a collection of some 530,000 books and booklets and 2 million microform titles relating to the sciences
Dividing music into bars provides regular reference points to pinpoint locations within a piece of music. It makes written music easier to follow, since each bar of staff symbols can be read and played as a batch. Typically, a piece consists of bars of the same length. In simple time, the top figure indicates the number of beats per bar, the word bar is more common in British English, and the word measure is more common in American English, although musicians generally understand both usages. In international usage, it is correct to speak of bar numbers and measure numbers. Along the same lines, it is wise to reserve the abbreviated form ‘bb, 3–4’ etc. for beats only, bars should be referred to by name in full. The first metrically complete measure within a piece of music is called ‘bar 1’ or ‘m. 1’, when the piece begins with an anacrusis, ‘bar 1’ or ‘m. 1’ is the following measure. Originally, the bar came from the vertical lines drawn through the staff to mark off metrical units. In British English, these lines are called bar, too.
Note that double bar refers not to a type of bar, another term for the bar line denoting the end of a piece of music is music end. A repeat sign looks like the end, but it has two dots, one above the other, indicating that the section of music that is before is to be repeated. The beginning of the passage can be marked by a begin-repeat sign. This begin-repeat sign, if appearing at the beginning of a staff, does not act as a bar line because no bar is before it, in music with a regular meter, bars function to indicate a periodic accent in the music, regardless of its duration. Igor Stravinsky said of bar lines, The bar line is much, much more than a mere accent and bar lines indicate grouping, rhythmically of beats within and between bars and between phrases, and on higher levels such as meter. The earliest barlines, used in keyboard and vihuela music in the 15th and 16th centuries, didnt reflect a regular meter at all but were only section divisions, or in some cases marked off every beat.
Barlines began to be introduced into music in the late 16th century. Not until the mid-17th century were used in the modern style with every measure being the same length. Modern editions of music that was originally notated without barlines sometimes use a mensurstrich as a compromise
Norwich is a city on the River Wensum in East Anglia and lies about 100 miles north-east of London. It is the administrative centre for East Anglia and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London and it remained the capital of the most populous English county until the Industrial Revolution. The urban area of Norwich had a population of 213,166 according to the 2011 Census, the parliamentary seats cross over into adjacent local-government districts. A total of 132,512 people live in the City of Norwich, Norwich is the fourth most densely populated local-government district in the East of England, with 3,480 people per square kilometre. In May 2012, Norwich was designated Englands first UNESCO City of Literature, the capital of the Iceni tribe was a settlement located near to the village of Caistor St. Edmund on the River Tas approximately 8 kilometres to the south of modern-day Norwich. Following an uprising led by Boudica around AD60 the Caistor area became the Roman capital of East Anglia named Venta Icenorum, literally the market place of the Iceni.
According to a rhyme, the demise of Venta Icenorum led to the development of Norwich, Caistor was a city when Norwich was none. There are two suggested models of development for Norwich, the ancient city was a thriving centre for trade and commerce in East Anglia in 1004 AD when it was raided and burnt by Swein Forkbeard the Viking king of Denmark. Mercian coins and shards of pottery from the Rhineland dating from the 8th century suggest that trade was happening long before this. Between 924 and 939, Norwich became fully established as a town, the word Norvic appears on coins across Europe minted during this period, in the reign of King Athelstan. The Vikings were a cultural influence in Norwich for 40–50 years at the end of the 9th century. At the time of the Norman Conquest the city was one of the largest in England, the Domesday Book states that it had approximately 25 churches and a population of between 5, 000–10,000. It records the site of an Anglo-Saxon church in Tombland, the site of the Saxon market place and the Norman cathedral.
Norwich continued to be a centre for trade, the River Wensum being a convenient export route to the River Yare and Great Yarmouth. Quern stones and other artefacts from Scandinavia and the Rhineland have been found during excavations in Norwich city centre and these date from the 11th century onwards. Norwich Castle was founded soon after the Norman Conquest, the Domesday Book records that 98 Saxon homes were demolished to make way for the castle. In 1096, Herbert de Losinga, Bishop of Thetford, began construction of Norwich Cathedral, the chief building material for the Cathedral was limestone, imported from Caen in Normandy
Congregational or Congregationalist churches are Protestant churches practicing congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs. Congregationalism is often considered to be a part of the wider Reformed tradition, ideas of nonconforming Protestants during the Puritan Reformation of the Church of England laid foundation for these churches. Congregationalists differed with the Reformed churches using episcopalian church governance, within the United States, the model of Congregational churches was carried by migrating settlers from New England into New York, into the Old North West, and further. With their insistence on independent local bodies, they became important in social reform movements, including abolitionism, temperance. Congregationalist tradition has a presence in the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand and it has been introduced either by immigrant dissenter Protestants or by missionary organization such as the London Missionary Society.
Congregationalists believe their model of church governance fulfils the description of the early church, Congregationalism is more easily identified as a movement than a single denomination, given its distinguishing commitment to the complete autonomy of the local congregation. The early Congregationalists shared with Anabaptist theology the ideal of a pure church and they believed the adult conversion experience was necessary for an individual to become a full member in the church, unlike other Reformed churches. As such, the Congregationalists were an influence on the Baptists. They differed in counting the children of believers in some members of the church. On the other hand, the Baptists required each member to experience conversion, in England, the Anglican system of church government was taken over by King Henry VIII. It declared the sovereign of England to be the only supreme head on earth of the Church in England. In the reign of Elizabeth I, this title was changed to Supreme Governor of the Church of England, an act still in effect.
Robert Browne, Henry Barrow, John Greenwood, John Penry, William Brewster, Thomas Jollie, the underground churches in England and exiles from Holland provided about 35 out of the 102 passengers on the Mayflower, which sailed from London in July 1620. They became known in history as the Pilgrim Fathers, the early Congregationalists sought to separate themselves from the Anglican church in every possible way and even eschewed having church buildings. They met in homes for many years, in 1639 William Wroth, Rector of the parish church at Llanvaches in Monmouthshire, established the first Independent Church in Wales according to the New England pattern, i. e. Congregational. The Tabernacle United Reformed Church at Llanvaches survives to this day, during the English Civil War, those who supported the Parliamentary cause were invited by Parliament to discuss religious matters. This government would last until 1660 when the monarch was restored, in 1658 the Congregationalists created their own version of the Westminster Confession, called the Savoy Declaration, which remains the principal subordinate standard of Congregationalism.
The work in South America began in 1921 when four Argentine churches urgently requested that denominational recognition be given to George Geier, the Illinois Conference licensed Geier, who worked among Germans from Russia who were very similar to their kin in the United States and in Canada
The triad formed on the tonic note, the tonic chord, is thus the most significant chord in these styles of music. More generally, the tonic is the pitch upon which all other pitches of a piece are hierarchically referenced, scales are named after their tonics, thus the tonic of the scale of C is the note C. Simple folk music and traditional songs may begin and end on the tonic note, in very much conventionally tonal music, harmonic analysis will reveal a broad prevalence of the primary harmonies, tonic and subdominant, and especially the first two of these. The tonic is often confused with the root, which is the note of a chord. The root of a chord is different from the tonic, because different types of chords have root notes. It is represented with the Roman numeral I, two parallel keys have the same tonic. For example, in both C major and C minor, the tonic is C, relative keys have different tonics. For example, C major and A minor share a key signature that feature no sharps or flats, thus a pitch center may function referentially or contextually in an atonal context, often acting as axis or line of symmetry in an interval cycle.
Pitch centricity was coined by Arthur Berger in his Problems of Pitch Organization in Stravinsky
Sarah Ann Glover
Sarah Ann Glover was an English music educator who invented the Norwich sol-fa system. Glover was born in The Close and her father became Curate of St Laurences Church, Norwich in 1811, and she developed her learning system to aid teachers with a cappella singing. Her instructional book Scheme for Rendering Psalmody Congregational met with great success and it was refined and developed by John Curwen and others over the years. The concept became known in popular culture after it was featured in a song from The Sound of Music. Glover lived in Cromer, Reading and she died of a stroke in Great Malvern and was buried there. Glover biography and monument via norwichchurches. co. uk
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
In music, the subdominant is the technical name for the fourth tonal degree of the diatonic scale. It is so called because it is the distance below the tonic as the dominant is above the tonic – in other words. It happens to be the note immediately below the dominant and it is sung as fa in solfege. In the C major scale, the subdominant is the note F, and the subdominant chord uses the notes F, A, and C. In music theory, Roman numerals are used to symbolize the subdominant chord as IV if it is within the mode or iv if it is within the minor mode. In very much conventionally tonal music, harmonic analysis will reveal a broad prevalence of the harmonies, tonic and subdominant. A cadential subdominant chord followed by a tonic chord produces the so-called plagal cadence, Subdominant refers to a relationship of musical keys. For example, relative to the key of C major, the key of F major is the subdominant, music which modulates often modulates into the subdominant when the leading tone is lowered by a half step to the subtonic.
Modulation into the subdominant key often creates a sense of relaxation, as opposed to modulation into dominant. The use of the subdominant in this location serves as a way of keeping the rest of recapitulation in the tonic. As with other chords which may or tend to precede the dominant the subdominant diatonic function acts as a dominant preparation or predominant, in theories after Hugo Riemann it is considered to balance the dominant around the tonic. Media related to Subdominant at Wikimedia Commons
Pierre Galin was a French music educator, and developer of what became the Galin-Paris-Chevé system. Galin studied mathematics and commerce, and became a teacher in Bordeaux, at a school for children with speech. He studied music on his own, but had difficulty understanding his textbooks until he discovered the principles of movable do solfège. He advised separate study of pitch and rhythm, and devised a numbered musical notation similar to that of Rousseau, after success teaching with his ideas in Bordeaux, he moved to Paris where he led a group of enthusiastic students, especially Aimé Paris. Paris ended up plagiarizing his ideas in print, and claimed never to have known him, Galin became sick, though he continued teaching up to his death. He is buried in Père Lachaise Cemetery and he never published an explanation of his teaching system, although Explanation of a New Way of Teaching Music, addressed to the teacher, sets out many of his ideas. In addition to his new notation, he advocated the use of meloplast, for rhythm, he advocated a chronomerist, a table of note values all clearly related to a single unit, which makes clear the accentual patterns.
Explanation of a New Way of Teaching Music Kenneth Simpson
A Sunday school is a Christian educational institution, usually catering to children and other young people. Many Seventh-day Adventists, Seventh Day Baptists, and other sabbatarian communities hold their Sabbath Schools on Saturdays, Sunday schools in England were first set up in the 1780s to provide education to working children. It aimed to teach the reading and cyphering. By 1785,250,000 English children were attending Sunday School, there were 5,000 in Manchester alone. By 1895, the Society for the Establishment and Promotion of Sunday Schools had distributed 91,915 spelling books,24,232 Testaments and 5,360 Bibles. The Sunday School movement was cross-denominational, and through subscription built large buildings that could host public lectures as well as classrooms, in the early days, adults would attend the same classes as the infants, as each were instructed in basic reading. In some towns the Methodists withdrew from the Large Sunday School, the Anglicans set up their own National schools that would act as Sunday Schools and day schools.
These schools were the precursors to a system of education. The role of the Sunday Schools changed with the Education Act 1870, in the 1920s they promoted sports. It was common for teams to compete in a Sunday School League and they were social centres hosting amateur dramatics and concert parties. By the 1960s, the term Sunday School could refer to the building, by the 1970s even the largest Sunday School at Stockport had been demolished. Sunday School became the name for many different types of religious education pursued on Sundays by various denominations. The first Sunday school may have opened in 1751 in St Marys Church. Another early start was made by Hannah Ball, a native of High Wycombe in Buckinghamshire, in 18th-century England education was reserved for a minority and was not compulsory. The wealthy educated their children privately at home, with hired governesses or tutors for younger children, boys of that class were often sent away to boarding school, hence these fee-based educational establishments were known, confusingly, as public schools.
The town-based middle class may have sent their sons to grammar schools, the children of factory workers and farm labourers received no formal education, and typically worked alongside their parents six days a week, sometimes more than 13 hours a day. In 1781, after prompting from his friend William King who was running a Sunday School in Dursley. In the home of a Mrs Meredith he opened a school on Sunday, using the Bible as their textbook, he taught them to read and write