Pittsburgh is a city in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania in the United States, is the county seat of Allegheny County. As of 2018, a population of 308,144 lives within the city limits, making it the 63rd-largest city in the U. S; the metropolitan population of 2,362,453, is the largest in both the Ohio Valley and Appalachia, the second-largest in Pennsylvania, the 26th-largest in the U. S. Pittsburgh is located in the south west of the state, at the confluence of the Allegheny and Ohio rivers. Pittsburgh is known both as "the Steel City" for its more than 300 steel-related businesses and as the "City of Bridges" for its 446 bridges; the city features 30 skyscrapers, two inclined railways, a pre-revolutionary fortification and the Point State Park at the confluence of the rivers. The city developed as a vital link of the Atlantic coast and Midwest, as the mineral-rich Allegheny Mountains made the area coveted by the French and British empires, Whiskey Rebels, Civil War raiders. Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in manufacturing of aluminum, shipbuilding, foods, transportation, computing and electronics.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment. S. stockholders per capita. America's 1980s deindustrialization laid off area blue-collar workers and thousands of downtown white-collar workers when the longtime Pittsburgh-based world headquarters moved out; this heritage left the area with renowned museums, medical centers, research centers, a diverse cultural district. Today, Apple Inc. Bosch, Uber, Autodesk, Microsoft and IBM are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense, software engineering, energy research and the nuclear navy; the area is home to 68 colleges and universities, including research and development leaders Carnegie Mellon University and the University of Pittsburgh. The nation's eighth-largest bank, eight Fortune 500 companies, six of the top 300 U. S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND, BNY Mellon, FedEx, Bayer and NIOSH have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.
S. job growth. In 2015, Pittsburgh was listed among the "eleven most livable cities in the world"; the region is a hub for Environmental Design and energy extraction. In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed “Food City of the Year” by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co. Many restaurants were mentioned favorable, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville, Spork in Bloomfield, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield and Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield. Pittsburgh was named in 1758 by General John Forbes, in honor of British statesman William Pitt, 1st Earl of Chatham; as Forbes was a Scot, he pronounced the name PITS-bər-ə. Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough on April 22, 1794, with the following Act: "Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate and Pennsylvania House of Representatives of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations. After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h was reversed; the area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee and several other settled groups of Native Americans. The first known European to enter the region was the French explorer/trader Robert de La Salle from Quebec during his 1669 expedition down the Ohio River. European pioneers Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, that year European fur traders established area posts and settlements. In 1749, French soldiers from Quebec launched an expedition to the forks to unite Canada with French Louisiana via the rivers. During 1753–54, the British hastily built Fort Prince George before a larger French force drove them off; the French built Fort Duquesne based on LaSalle's 1669 claims.
The French and Indian War, the North American front of the Seven Years' War, began with the future Pittsburgh as its center. British General Edward Braddock was dispatched with Major George Washington as his aide to take Fort Duquesne; the British and colonial force were defeated at Braddock's Field. General John Forbes took the forks in 1758. Forbes began construction on Fort Pitt, named after William Pitt the Elder while the settlement was named "Pittsborough". During Pontiac's Rebellion, native tribes conducted a siege of Fort Pitt for two months until Colonel Henry Bouquet relieved it after the Battle of Bushy Run. Fort Pitt is notable as the site of an early use of smallpox for biological warfare. Lord Jeffery Amherst ordered blankets contaminated from smallpox victims to be distributed in 1763 to the tribes surrounding the fort; the disease spread into other areas, infected other tribes, killed hundreds of thousands. During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes.
By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of
1898 and 1899 United States Senate elections
The United States Senate elections of 1898 and 1899 were landslide elections which had the Republican Party gain six seats in the United States Senate. As these elections were prior to ratification of the seventeenth amendment, Senators were chosen by State legislatures. Senate Party Division, 56th Congress Majority Party: Republican Minority Party: Democratic Other Parties: Populist. In these elections, the winners were seated during 1898 or in 1899 before March 4. In these general elections, the winners were elected for the term beginning March 4, 1899. All of the elections involved the Class 1 seats. In these elections, the winners were elected in 1899 after March 4, seated in the 56th Congress. In this election, the winner was seated in the 57th Congress, starting March 4, 1901; the election in New York was held January 17, 1899. Democrat Edward Murphy Jr. had been elected to this seat in 1893, his term would expire on March 3, 1899. At the State election in November 1898, 27 Republicans and 23 Democrats were elected for a two-year term in the State Senate.
The 122nd New York State Legislature met from January 4 to April 1899, at Albany, New York. The Republican caucus met on January 12. State Senator Hobart Krum presided, they nominated Chauncey M. Depew unanimously. Depew had been Secretary of State of New York from 1864 to 1865, was the frontrunning candidate to succeed Thomas C. Platt at the U. S. Senate special election in 1881 when he withdrew after the 41st ballot. Parallel to his political career, he moved up the ladder in the Vanderbilt Railroad System, being President of the New York Central and Hudson River Railroad from 1885 to 1898, holding positions in dozens of other railroad companies; the Democratic caucus met on January 12. State Senator George W. Plunkitt presided, they re-nominated the incumbent U. S. Senator Edward Murphy, Jr. unanimously. Chauncey M. Depew was the choice of both the Assembly and the State Senate, was declared elected. Note: The votes were cast on January 17, but both Houses met in a joint session on January 18 to compare nominations, declare the result.
In mid-August 1898, Alfred W. McCune decided to seek office as a Democrat for the United States Senate. State legislators had indicated they would not support the incumbent, Frank J. Cannon for reelection. Cannon, a Republican, had voted against the Dingley Act, which would have raised tariffs on sugar and helped the Utah sugar industry; the Dingley bill was supported by the LDS Church hierarchy, who now opposed his reelection. Other factors were his support for Free Silver. C.. The McCunes were close friends with Heber J. Grant, seventh LDS Church president and an ordained LDS apostle. Although the LDS church had made a decision to stay out of state politics, McCune asked Grant for the church's assistance in winning office. Grant consulted with Joseph F. Smith and John Henry Smith, both of whom supported McCune's senatorial bid, but McCune was not alone in seeking the office. Former Representative William H. King was running, as was James Moyle and George Q. Cannon. At the time, members of the Senate were still elected by their respective state legislatures.
The Utah state legislature convened in January 1899. There were 50 Democrats in the state legislature. From the beginning, McCune was considered the leading candidate, but the legislature deadlocked over the election. One-hundred and twenty-one ballots were cast, no winner emerged. McCune was one or two votes shy of winning on several ballots. on February 18, before the 122nd ballot, state representative Albert A. Law claimed. McCune strenuously denied the charge, a seven-member legislative established to investigate the allegation; the committee voted 7-to-2 to absolve McCune of the charge, this outcome was announced to the legislature on March 6. Balloting resumed, on March 8, on the 149th ballot, McCune still lacked enough votes to win office; the legislature adjourned without having chosen a senator, McCune traveled in Europe for several weeks to regain his health. Utah's U. S. Senate seat remained vacant until January 1901. United States elections, 1898 United States House of Representatives elections, 1898 55th United States Congress 56th United States Congress Party Division in the Senate, 1789–Present, via Senate.gov Proceedings before the Committee on Privileges and Elections of the United States Senate in the Matter of the Protests Against the Right on Hon. Reed Smoot, a Senator from the State of Utah, to Hold his Seat.
1. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office. 1906. Alexander, Thomas G.. Mormonism in Transition. Urbana, Illinois: University of Illinois Press. Byrd, Robert C.. Wolff, Wendy, ed. "The Senate, 1789–1989: Historical Statistics, 1789–1992". United States Senate Historical Office. Washington, D. C.: U. S. Government Printing Office. Maisel, Louis S.. Jews in American Politics. Lanham
University of Pittsburgh
The University of Pittsburgh is a state-related research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. It was founded as the Pittsburgh Academy in 1787 on the edge of the American frontier, it developed and was renamed as Western University of Pennsylvania by a change to its charter in 1819. After surviving two devastating fires and various relocations within the area, the school moved to its current location in the Oakland neighborhood of the city. Pitt was a private institution until 1966 when it became part of the Commonwealth System of Higher Education; the university is composed of 17 undergraduate and graduate schools and colleges at its urban Pittsburgh campus, home to the university's central administration and 28,766 undergraduate and professional students. The university includes four undergraduate schools located at campuses within Western Pennsylvania: Bradford, Greensburg and Titusville; the 132-acre Pittsburgh campus has multiple contributing historic buildings of the Schenley Farms Historic District, most notably its 42-story Gothic revival centerpiece, the Cathedral of Learning.
The campus is situated adjacent to the flagship medical facilities of its affiliated University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, as well as the Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh, Schenley Park, Carnegie Mellon University. The university has an annual operating budget of $2 billion; this includes nearly $940 million in research and development expenditures as of 2017, the 16th-highest in the nation. A member of the Association of American Universities, Pitt is the third-largest recipient of federally sponsored health research funding among U. S. universities in 2018 and it is a major recipient of research funding from the National Institutes of Health. It is the second-largest non-government employer in the Pittsburgh region behind UPMC. Pitt is ranked among the top research universities in the United States in both domestic and international rankings and it has been listed as a "best value" in higher education by several publications. Pitt students have access to arts programs throughout the campus and city and can participate in over 400 student clubs and organizations.
Pitt's varsity athletic teams, collectively known as the Pittsburgh Panthers, compete in Division I of the NCAA as members of the Atlantic Coast Conference. Founded by Hugh Henry Brackenridge as Pittsburgh Academy in 1787, the University of Pittsburgh is one of the few universities and colleges established in the 18th century in the United States, it is the oldest continuously chartered institution of learning in the U. S. west of the Allegheny Mountains. The school began as a preparatory school in a log cabin as early as 1770 in Western Pennsylvania a frontier. Brackenridge obtained a charter for the school from the state legislature of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania on February 28, 1787, just ten weeks before the opening of the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. A brick building was erected in 1790 on the south side of Third Street and Cherry Alley for the Pittsburgh Academy; the small two-story brick building, with a gable facing the alley, contained three rooms: one below and two above.
Within a short period, more advanced education in the area was needed, so in 1819 the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania amended the school's 1787 charter to confer university status. The school was named the Western University of Pennsylvania, or WUP, was intended to be the western sister institution to the University of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia. By 1830, WUP had moved into a new three-story, freestone-fronted building, with Ionic columns and a cupola, near its original buildings fronting the south side of Third Street, between Smithfield Street and Cherry Alley in downtown Pittsburgh. By the 1830s, the university faced severe financial pressure to abandon its traditional liberal education in favor of the state legislature's desire for it to provide more vocational training; the decision to remain committed to liberal education nearly killed the university, but it persevered despite its abandonment by the city and state. It was during this era that the founder of Mellon Bank, Thomas Mellon and taught at WUP.
The university's buildings, along with most of its records and files, were destroyed in the Great Fire of 1845 that wiped out 20 square blocks of Pittsburgh. Classes were temporarily held in Trinity Church until a new building was constructed on Duquesne Way. Only four years in 1849, this building was destroyed by fire. Due to the catastrophic nature of these fires, operations were suspended for a few years to allow the university time to regroup and rebuild. By 1854, WUP had erected a new building on the corner of Ross and Diamond streets and classes resumed in 1855, it is during this era, in 1867, that Samuel Pierpont Langley, inventor, aviation pioneer and future Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, was chosen as director of the Allegheny Observatory, donated to WUP in 1865. Langley was professor of astronomy and physics and remained at WUP until 1891, when he was succeeded by another prominent astronomer, James Keeler. Growing during this period, WUP outgrew its downtown facilities and the university moved its campus to Allegheny City.
The university found itself on a 10-acre site on the North Side's Observatory Hill at the location of its Allegheny Observatory. There, it constructed two new buildings, Science Hall and Main Hall, that were occupied by 1889 and 1890 respectively. During this era, the first
Robert H. Foerderer
Robert Hermann Foerderer was a Republican member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. Robert H. Foerderer was born in Frankenhausen, in the German principality of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, while his parents were sojourning in Europe, he attended private schools in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He was engaged in various other business enterprises, he was elected in 1900 as a Republican to the 57th United States Congress as an at-large representative of Pennsylvania. He was served until his death in Torresdale, Pennsylvania, he was interred in Philadelphia's Laurel Hill Cemetery. List of United States Congress members who died in office United States Congress. "Robert H. Foerderer". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. Robert H. Foerderer, late a representative-elect from Pennsylvania, Memorial addresses delivered in the House of Representatives and Senate frontispiece 1905 Works by or about Robert H. Foerderer at Internet Archive Robert H. Foerderer at Find a Grave
Scroll and Key
The Scroll and Key Society is a secret society, founded in 1842 at Yale University, in New Haven, Connecticut. It is one of the oldest Yale secret societies and reputedly the most wealthy; the society is one of the reputed "Big Three" societies at Yale, along with Skull and Bones and Wolf's Head Society. Each spring the society admits fifteen rising seniors to participate in its activities and carry on its traditions. Scroll and Key was established by John Addison Porter, with aid from several members of the Class of 1842, including Leonard Case Jr. and Theodore Runyon, a member of the Class of 1843, William L. Kingsley, after disputes over elections to Skull and Bones Society. Kingsley is the namesake of the alumni organization, the Kingsley Trust Association, incorporated years after the founding. Lyman Hotchkiss Bagg wrote that "up until as recent a date as 1860, Keys had great difficulty in making up its crowd being able to secure the full fifteen upon the night of giving out its elections."
However, the society was on the upswing: "the old order of things, has come to an end, Keys is now in possession of a hall far superior...not only to Bones hall, but to any college-society hall in America." In addition to financing its own activities, "Keys" has made significant donations to Yale over the years. The John Addison Porter Prize, awarded annually since 1872, in 1917 the endowment for the founding of the Yale University Press, which has funded the publication of The Yale Shakespeare and sponsored the Yale Younger Poets Series, are gifts from Keys. At the close of Thursday and Sunday sessions, members are known to sing the "Troubadour" song on the front steps of the Society's hall, a remnant of the tradition of public singing at Yale; the song was recorded by Tennessee Ernie Ford on his 1956 album, "This Lusty Land", as "Gaily the Troubador". In keeping with the practice of adopting secret letters or symbols such as Skull and Bones' "322," Manuscript's "344," and the Pundits' "T.
B. I. Y. T. B," Scroll and Key is known to use the letters "C. S. P. and C. C. J.". Members of the society sign letters to each other "YiT", as opposed to Skull and Bones' "yours in 322". Outside of its tap-related activities, the society has been known to hold two major annual events called "Z Session". Scroll and Key taps annually a delegation of fifteen, composed of men and women of the junior class, to serve the following year. Membership is offered to a diverse group of accomplished juniors those who have “achieved in any field, extra-curricular, or personal.” Delegations include editors of the Yale Daily News and other publications and musicians, social and political activists, athletes of distinction and high achieving scholars. Keys has long been the society of choice of Mayflower descendants among the undergraduate student body. Mark Twain is an honorary member, under the auspices Joseph Twichell, Yale College Class of 1859; the society's "building" was designed in the Moorish Revival style by Richard Morris Hunt and constructed in 1869.
A expansion was completed in 1901. Architectural historian Patrick Pinnell includes an in-depth discussion of Keys' building in his 1999 history of Yale's campus, relating the then-notable cost overruns associated with the Keys structure and its aesthetic significance within the campus landscape. Pinnell's history shares the fact that the land was purchased from another Yale secret society, Berzelius. In 2002, the society underwent a major construction project rumored to involve an aquarium beneath the society. Regarding its distinctive appearance, Pinnell noted that "19th century artists' studios had exotic orientalia lying about to suggest that the painter was sophisticated, well traveled, in touch with mysterious powers. Undergraduates described the building as a "striped zebra Billiard Hall" in a supplement to a Yale Yearbook. More it has described by an undergraduate publication as being "the nicest building in all of New Haven.". Collegiate secret societies in North America
Henry H. Bingham
Henry Harrison Bingham was a Union Army officer in the American Civil War, who received the United States Military's highest award for valor, the Medal of Honor, for his actions at the Battle of the Wilderness. After graduating from college Bingham accepted a commission as a first lieutenant for service in the American Civil War. While participating in the war he served as Judge advocate. After the Civil War ended he was postmaster of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from 1867 to 1872, a court clerk from 1872 to 1879, a Republican member of the U. S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania from 1879 to 1912. Henry H. Bingham was born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania on December 4, 1841, he graduated from Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, in 1862, where he became a member of the Phi Kappa Psi Fraternity. He graduated from the law department of Washington and Jefferson College in Washington, Pennsylvania. Bingham enlisted in the Union Army and received a commission as a first lieutenant in the 140th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry on August 22, 1862.
During the Battle of Gettysburg on July 1–3, 1863, he was serving as Captain and Judge-Advocate on the staff of Major General Winfield Scott Hancock's II Corps. During the battle he witnessed Pickett's Charge, was near the "Angle" where the Confederates reached the "High Water Mark", he received the personal effects from the mortally wounded Confederate Brigadier General Lewis A. Armistead and carried the news to General Hancock, Armistead's friend from before the war. Bingham was a Mason, the story of how he provided assistance to the dying fellow Mason, General Armistead, was used in Masonic literature, commemorated with the Friend to Friend Masonic Memorial at Gettysburg National Cemetery. On the other hand, recent scholarship in 2010 by Michael Halleran shows that while Armistead and Bingham were both Masons, Bingham's encounter with Armistead occurred while the mortally wounded Armistead was being carried from the field by several men and happened purely by chance not because of any appeal of Masonic significance.
Bingham never claimed otherwise. Bingham did take Armistead's personal effects and forwarded them to Major General Winfield S. Hancock as Armistead had requested because Hancock was a pre-war friend. Bingham was wounded on July 3, 1863 at the Battle of Gettysburg. In 1864, Bingham became aide-de-camp to Major General Gouverneur K. Warren. During the Battle of the Wilderness during the Virginia Overland Campaign, on May 6, 1864, as captain of Company G, 140th Pennsylvania Infantry, he "rallied and led into action a portion of the troops who had given way under fierce assaults of the enemy." He was awarded a Medal of Honor on August 1893, for these actions. Bingham was wounded again at the Battle of Spotsylvania, May 12, 1864. Bingham was captured at Dabney's Mill, Virginia on October 27, 1864 during the Battle of Fair Oaks & Darbytown Road but escaped the same day. Bingham was returned home to Philadelphia. On December 3, 1867, President Andrew Johnson nominated Bingham for appointment to the brevet grade of brigadier general of volunteers, to rank from April 9, 1865, the U.
S. Senate confirmed the appointment on February 14, 1868. Henry Bingham was appointed postmaster of Philadelphia by President Andrew Johnson in March 1867 and served until December 1872, when he resigned to accept the clerkship of the courts of oyer and terminer and quarter sessions of the peace in Philadelphia, he was a delegate to the Republican National Conventions of 1872 though 1900. He was elected to Congress as a Republican in 1878, served until his death. In Congress, he served as Chairman of the Committee on the Post Office and Post Roads, on the Committee on Expenditures in the Post Office Department, he died in Pennsylvania March 22, 1912 and is buried in Laurel Hill Cemetery Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. His grave can be found in section Y, lot 107. Rank and organization: Captain, Company G, 140th Pennsylvania Infantry. Place and date: At Wilderness, Va. May 6, 1864. Entered service at: Cannonsburg, Pa. Born: December 4, 1841, Philadelphia, Pa. Date of issue: August 31, 1893. Citation: Rallied and led into action a portion of the troops who had given way under the fierce assaults of the enemy.
Bingham County, Idaho was named in his honor. List of Medal of Honor recipients List of American Civil War Medal of Honor recipients: A–F List of American Civil War brevet generals List of United States Congress members who died in office Eicher, John H. and David J. Eicher, Civil War High Commands. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-8047-3641-3. Halleran, Michael A; the Better Angels of Our Nature: Freemasonry in the American Civil War. Tuscaloosa: The University of Alabama Press, 2010. ISBN 978-0-8173-1695-2. Works by or about Henry H. Bingham at Internet Archive Henry H. Bingham, late a representative from Pennsylvania, Memorial addresses delivered in the House of Representatives and Senate frontispiece 1913
Matthew Stanley "Matt" Quay was a Pennsylvania political boss once dubbed a "kingmaker" by President Benjamin Harrison. Quay was born in Dillsburg, graduated from the institution now known as Washington and Jefferson College, he studied law, was admitted to the bar, began to practice in 1854. During the American Civil War, he served in the Union Army as a member of the 134th Pennsylvania Infantry Regiment, which he commanded as a colonel. Quay received the Medal of Honor for heroism at the battle of Fredericksburg, he served as the Pennsylvania Militia's assistant commissary general, as a personal assistant to Governor Andrew Curtin. Quay's attention soon focused on politics, he served in the Pennsylvania House of Representatives from 1865 to 1867, he served as Secretary of the Commonwealth, Philadelphia County Recorder, Pennsylvania Treasurer. Quay served in the United States Senate twice, the first time from 1887 to 1899, the second from 1901 until his death in 1904. From 1888 to 1891, Quay was Chairman of the Republican National Committee.
As a party "boss" at the state and national levels, Quay had the ability to influence the selection of Republican nominees and the general election support they received. Quay died in Beaver in 1904, was buried at Beaver Cemetery and Mausoleum in Beaver; the Matthew S. Quay House in Beaver has been designated as a National Historic Landmark. In addition, another of his residences, the Roberts-Quay House in Philadelphia was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1976. Quay was born in Pennsylvania. After attending Beaver and Indiana academies, he graduated at Jefferson College in 1850. Quay was admitted to the bar in 1854. Prior to the start of the Civil War, Quay won election to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, representing Beaver County. At the start of the American Civil War, Quay was a colonel with 134th Pennsylvania volunteers, he served in various capacities in the Civil War, including as Assistant Commissary General of Pennsylvania. Congress awarded him the Medal of Honor for gallantry at the battle of Fredericksburg.
Quay's conduct during the war earned him the attention of Pennsylvania Governor Andrew Curtin, who made Quay his personal aide tasked with answering the letters of soldiers. In 1864, Quay was elected to the Pennsylvania legislature, serving from 1865–1867, he was a companion of the Pennsylvania Commandery of the Military Order of the Loyal Legion of the United States. After the war, Quay became an ally of party boss Simon Cameron, who founded a state machine that included his son, future Senator Donald Cameron. Quay became the editor of a newspaper called the'Radical,' where Quay defended the spoils system and called for greater protection of African-American civil rights in the South, he was appointed by the governor as Secretary of the Commonwealth from 1873–1878, again from 1879–1882. He was appointed as the County Recorder of Philadelphia from 1878–1879, state treasurer from 1886–1887, he was elected by the legislature in 1887 to the United States Senate, serving from March 4, 1887 until March 3, 1899, with repeated re-elections.
Shortly after his election to the Senate, Quay outmaneuvered fellow Senator Donald Cameron to become the boss of the state Republican Party. Quay was elected as chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1888. Quay served as Benjamin Harrison's campaign manager in the 1888 presidential election. Quay's strategy focused on the state of New York, the pivotal state in the previous election. Quay objected to the voting process in New York City, controlled by the Democratic Tammany Hall political machine. In order to ensure that voter fraud did not occur in New York City, Quay discreetly compiled a city directory which would contain the names of all of the city's eligible voters. Although Cleveland got more votes in New York City, Harrison won New York and the presidency despite losing the national popular vote. Harrison credited "Providence" with his victory, a remark which prompted Quay to state that "Providence hadn't a damn thing to do with it." In the 1896 presidential election, Quay finished third on the Republican National Convention's presidential ballot.
Quay aided New York party boss Thomas C. Platt in making Theodore Roosevelt the party's vice presidential nominee in 1900. Quay was the preeminent state party boss of the late 19th century, other party bosses in states like New York and Illinois followed Quay's example. With his control of state patronage, Quay built an organization with a budget comparable to mid-sized railroads of the era. Quay spoke in public, but instead conducted most of his business in one-on-one meetings, locking down support before making a public move, he was meticulous in tracking the activities of individual legislators and kept track of favors granted to people and details of their lives in card files known as "Quay's coffins". Despite his power, Quay clashed with reformers in Pennsylvania with Philadelphia's Committee of One Hundred. Quay was succeeded as party boss by fellow Senator Boies Penrose; the fictional "Senator Mark Simpson" in Theodore Dreiser's The Financier was based on Quay. In 1898, Quay was brought to trial on a charge of misappropriating state funds.
Although he was acquitted the following year, the feeling among the reform element in his own party was so opposed to him that the legislature became deadlocked over filling the Senate vacancy. As the legislature was unable to build consensus for anyone to be elected to the seat, Governor William Stone appointed Quay to fill the ensuing vacancy. Quay