Toronto is the provincial capital of Ontario and the most populous city in Canada, with a population of 2,731,571 in 2016. Current to 2016, the Toronto census metropolitan area, of which the majority is within the Greater Toronto Area, held a population of 5,928,040, making it Canada's most populous CMA. Toronto is the anchor of an urban agglomeration, known as the Golden Horseshoe in Southern Ontario, located on the northwestern shore of Lake Ontario. A global city, Toronto is a centre of business, finance and culture, is recognized as one of the most multicultural and cosmopolitan cities in the world. People have travelled through and inhabited the Toronto area, situated on a broad sloping plateau interspersed with rivers, deep ravines, urban forest, for more than 10,000 years. After the broadly disputed Toronto Purchase, when the Mississauga surrendered the area to the British Crown, the British established the town of York in 1793 and designated it as the capital of Upper Canada. During the War of 1812, the town was the site of the Battle of York and suffered heavy damage by United States troops.
York was incorporated in 1834 as the city of Toronto. It was designated as the capital of the province of Ontario in 1867 during Canadian Confederation; the city proper has since expanded past its original borders through both annexation and amalgamation to its current area of 630.2 km2. The diverse population of Toronto reflects its current and historical role as an important destination for immigrants to Canada. More than 50 percent of residents belong to a visible minority population group, over 200 distinct ethnic origins are represented among its inhabitants. While the majority of Torontonians speak English as their primary language, over 160 languages are spoken in the city. Toronto is a prominent centre for music, motion picture production, television production, is home to the headquarters of Canada's major national broadcast networks and media outlets, its varied cultural institutions, which include numerous museums and galleries and public events, entertainment districts, national historic sites, sports activities, attract over 25 million tourists each year.
Toronto is known for its many skyscrapers and high-rise buildings, in particular the tallest free-standing structure in the Western Hemisphere, the CN Tower. The city is home to the Toronto Stock Exchange, the headquarters of Canada's five largest banks, the headquarters of many large Canadian and multinational corporations, its economy is diversified with strengths in technology, financial services, life sciences, arts, business services, environmental innovation, food services, tourism. When Europeans first arrived at the site of present-day Toronto, the vicinity was inhabited by the Iroquois, who had displaced the Wyandot people, occupants of the region for centuries before c. 1500. The name Toronto is derived from the Iroquoian word tkaronto, meaning "place where trees stand in the water"; this refers to the northern end of what is now Lake Simcoe, where the Huron had planted tree saplings to corral fish. However, the word "Toronto", meaning "plenty" appears in a 1632 French lexicon of the Huron language, an Iroquoian language.
It appears on French maps referring to various locations, including Georgian Bay, Lake Simcoe, several rivers. A portage route from Lake Ontario to Lake Huron running through this point, known as the Toronto Carrying-Place Trail, led to widespread use of the name. In the 1660s, the Iroquois established two villages within what is today Toronto, Ganatsekwyagon on the banks of the Rouge River and Teiaiagon on the banks of the Humber River. By 1701, the Mississauga had displaced the Iroquois, who abandoned the Toronto area at the end of the Beaver Wars, with most returning to their base in present-day New York. French traders abandoned it in 1759 during the Seven Years' War; the British defeated the French and their indigenous allies in the war, the area became part of the British colony of Quebec in 1763. During the American Revolutionary War, an influx of British settlers came here as United Empire Loyalists fled for the British-controlled lands north of Lake Ontario; the Crown granted them land to compensate for their losses in the Thirteen Colonies.
The new province of Upper Canada was being needed a capital. In 1787, the British Lord Dorchester arranged for the Toronto Purchase with the Mississauga of the New Credit First Nation, thereby securing more than a quarter of a million acres of land in the Toronto area. Dorchester intended the location to be named Toronto. In 1793, Governor John Graves Simcoe established the town of York on the Toronto Purchase lands, naming it after Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany. Simcoe decided to move the Upper Canada capital from Newark to York, believing that the new site would be less vulnerable to attack by the United States; the York garrison was constructed at the entrance of the town's natural harbour, sheltered by a long sand-bar peninsula. The town's settlement formed at the eastern end of the harbour behind the peninsula, near the present-day intersection of Parliament Street and Front Street. In 1813, as part of the War of 1812, the Battle of York ended in the town's capture and plunder by United States forces.
The surrender of the town was negotiated by John Strachan. American soldiers destroyed much of the garrison and set fire to the parliament buildings during their five-day occupation; because of the sacking of York, British troops retaliated in the war with the Burning of Wa
Eaton's Building (Saskatoon)
The Eaton's Building is a landmark building located in downtown Saskatoon, Canada. Serving as an Eaton's department store, the building is occupied by the Saskatoon Board of Education. In 1927, Eaton's announced that it would construct an eight-storey store at the northeast corner of 3rd Avenue and 21st Street in Saskatoon's Central Business District. Designed by the Montreal architecture firm of Ross and Macdonald, along with local architect Frank Martin, the store was to have been the tallest building in the city, but was built to only three storeys. Constructed in the Neo-Renaissance style, with a tyndall stone and black marble façade and fifteen tripled-arched Palladian windows, the store opened for business on December 5, 1928. In a manner reminiscent of the Eaton's Montreal store, or of the plans for its soon-to-be-built new Toronto store, the building boasted a luxurious interior, with elaborate bronze fixtures and terrazzo flooring; the store featured an art gallery, a children's toyland with a mechanical lion, a meat department with an 80-foot marble counter and a Mediterranean-style dining room.
In 1970, Eaton's relocated its store to the nearby Midtown Plaza. Serving as athlete housing for the 1971 Canada Winter Games, the building was subsequently occupied from 1973 to 2000 by an outlet of the Army & Navy discount department store. Among the notable features of the Army & Navy store was a nautical-themed cafeteria. In the mid-1980s, the building was linked to a small shopping centre, office block and parkade, constructed next door. After Army and Navy vacated the building, it was purchased by the Saskatoon Board of Education; the Board undertook a revitalization of the building, which included the restoration of the façade, the terrazzo flooring, the brass fixtures on the street-level display windows, the original wooden handrails and brass fittings on the stairways to their original condition
Eaton Hall (King City)
Eaton Hall is a large house in King City, Canada, built in the Norman style for Lady Eaton in 1938-39 on a 700-acre parcel of land. Lady Eaton and her husband, Sir John Craig Eaton acquired the land in 1920 and 1922 on recommendation from their friend Sir Henry Pellatt, who owned the nearby Mary Lake property. Lady Eaton moved into Eaton Hall three years after selling Ardwold; the house is adjacent to a body of water named Lake Jonda, nestled within the temperate forests of King Township. Upon completion, it contained 72 rooms, it became a beloved gathering place for the Eaton Family, owners of the Eaton's department stores based in Toronto. Site plans and surveys for the property dating from 1921 to the 1930s all refer to its location being in Eversley. Design was started in 1932 by architects Peter L. Allward and George Roper Gouinlock, son of architect George Wallace Gouinlock. Construction was completed in 1939 and was supervised by John W. Bowser of the Aurora Building Company, its construction incorporated stones sourced from the nearby Humber River.
A history of the estate, Eaton Hall: Pride of King Township, was published by The History Press, an imprint of Dundurn Press in June 2015. Flora Eaton was a member of the Toronto Hunt Club. In 1929, it split into the Toronto and North York Hunt Club. Hunters of the latter held regular outings, meeting for breakfast at Eaton Hall, riding in the adjacent Pellatt Estate ending the day with an afternoon tea at Eaton Hall. During WWII, the property was used as a convalescent hospital and rehabilitation centre for the Royal Canadian Navy from 1944 to 1946. After Lady Eaton's death in 1970, the land was sold to Seneca College, a provincially funded college of applied arts and technology, it established its King Campus operations on that land in 1971, using Eaton Hall as its administrative facility. In 1977, a new facility was built for the expanding college, Eaton Hall became a Management Development Centre until 1991, at which time it was converted to a public hotel and conference centre. Many movies and television programs have been filmed at Eaton Hall, including Death Weekend, Mrs. Winterbourne, the final scene of the award-winning film A History of Violence.
Eaton Hall website
Eatonia is a small town in the Province of Saskatchewan, Canada with a population of 449 people. The town's economy is based exclusively on agriculture. Eatonia is in southwest Saskatchewan at the crossroads of Highways 21 and 44 44 kilometers southwest of Kindersley and 72 kilometres from the provincial boundary with Alberta; the town is served by Eatonia Municipal Airport. Eatonia was founded in 1919 as a station on the Canadian National Railway and was named after Timothy Eaton, founder of the Eaton's department store chain and catalogue, to honour his son and heir, John Craig Eaton; the station was simply called "Eaton", but there was confusion with nearby Eston, so the name was changed to Eatonia in 1921. Eatonia was incorporated as a town in 1954. In 1955, the year of Saskatchewan's Golden Jubilee, Eatonia's train station was featured on the cover of the Eaton's catalogue, thus resulting in a classic local image finding its way into homes across the country; the former CN train station is now home to the Wheatland Regional Library.
The former station, along with a train caboose and a wood-frame house ordered from the Eaton's catalogue in 1917, comprise the Eatonia Heritage Park, a 0.6-hectare Municipal Heritage Property located at the south end of Main Street. The population of Eatonia dropped 5.3 % between the 2006 censuses. Eatonia is home to a kindergarten to Grade 12 public school, Eaton School, home to many successful volleyball and football teams throughout its history, it is located within the Sun West School Division. Official website Saskbiz community profile
Timothy Eaton was an Irish businessman who founded the Eaton's department store, one of the most important retail businesses in Canada's history. He was born in County Antrim, Ireland, his parents were John Eaton and Margaret Craig. As a 20-year-old Irish apprentice shopkeeper, Timothy Eaton sailed from Ireland to settle with other family members in southern Ontario, Canada. On 28 May 1862, Eaton married Margaret Wilson Beattie, they had three daughters. Among the sons were John Craig Eaton and Edward Young Eaton. One of the daughters, Josephine Smyth Eaton, survived the sinking of the RMS Lusitania off the Irish coast in 1915, his granddaughter, Iris Burnside, was lost in that sinking. In 1854, he worked for a short time in a haberdashery store in Ontario, his sister married William Reid. In 1865, with the help of his brothers and James, Timothy Eaton set up a bakery business in the town of Kirkton, which went under after only a few months. Undaunted, he opened a dry goods store in Ontario. In 1869, Eaton purchased an existing dry-goods and haberdashery business at 178 Yonge Street in Toronto.
In promoting his new business, Eaton embraced two retail practices that were ground-breaking at the time: first, all goods had one price with no credit given, second, all purchases came with a money-back guarantee. Starting in 1884, Eaton introduced Canada to the wonders of the mail-order catalogue, reaching thousands of small towns and rural communities with an array of products unattainable. In these tiny communities, the arrival of Eaton's catalogue was a major event. More than clothing, furniture, or the latest in kitchen gadgetry, the catalogue offered such practical items as milking machines, in addition to just about every other contraption or new invention desirable. And, when rendered obsolete by the new season's catalogue, it served another important use in the outdoor privy of most every rural home. Eaton spawned a colossal retail empire that his offspring would expand coast to coast, reaching its high point during World War II, when the T. Eaton Co. Limited employed more than 70,000 people.
Although Eaton did not invent the department store, nor was he the first retailer in the world to implement a money-back guarantee, the chain he founded popularized both concepts and revolutionized retailing in Canada. Eaton died of pneumonia on 31 January 1907, is buried in Mount Pleasant Cemetery in Toronto, he was succeeded by John Craig Eaton. In 1919, two life-sized statues of Timothy Eaton were donated by the Eaton's employees to the Toronto and Winnipeg stores in celebration of the 50th anniversary of the company. For years, it was tradition for customers in both Toronto and Winnipeg to rub the toe of the statue for good luck; the Toronto statue is now housed by the Royal Ontario Museum, the Winnipeg statue sits in the city's new arena, Bell MTS Place, in exactly the same spot where it stood in the now demolished Eaton's store. Museum-goers in Toronto and hockey fans in Winnipeg continue to rub Timothy Eaton's toe for luck, his grandson was flying ace Henry John Burden. In 1985, his great-great granddaughter, Nancy Eaton, was murdered by a childhood friend, found not guilty by reason of insanity.
Timothy Eaton Memorial Church, in Toronto, was erected in 1914. The town of Eatonia, Saskatchewan was named after Timothy Eaton; the ground of Ballymena RFC the sports grounds of the Mid-Antrim Sports Association, is called Eaton Park. A school in Scarborough, Timothy Eaton Business and Technical Institute, was named after him, it opened in 1971 for classes and closed its doors permanently in 2009. Robert Simpson John Wanamaker Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Media related to Timothy Eaton at Wikimedia Commons
Ivor Rhys Lewis was a Canadian artist and business director. Lewis emigrated to Canada as a small boy, he trained as an artist at the Ontario School of Art, was hired in the art department of the Eaton's department store chain in Toronto. In 1919, he was commissioned by his fellow Eaton's employees to create the noted life-size statue of Timothy Eaton, presented to the Eaton family in honour of the store's 50th anniversary. Lewis was an accomplished painter, he was known for creating the medallions on the Dr. William D. Young Memorial in Toronto's Kew Gardens. Along with C. W. Jefferys and other artists, Lewis co-founded the Graphic Arts Club, which by the 1940s became the primary artists' group in Canada, he was a noted actor and singer, participated in Toronto's theatre scene. Ivor Lewis was a prominent member of the Eaton's management team, serving as both Supervisor of Publicity and Public Relations and Staff Superintendent, he held the latter position until 1950. He was made a director of the T.
Eaton Co. Limited in 1942. Ivor Lewis died in 1958
Eatonville is a neighbourhood in Toronto, Canada. It is located west of the central core in the former suburb of Etobicoke. Eatonville is bisected by Highway 427, with the community located north of Dundas Street West and south of Rathburn Road. Eatonville consists of low density residential homes; the main arterial roads in the community, such as The West Mall, The East Mall and Burnhamthorpe Road, contain a mix of rental and condominium high-rise apartments and townhouses. Cloverdale Mall is in the neighbourhood, there are community retail areas along Bloor Street West and Dundas Street West. Eatonville began as a 400-acre farm owned by Peter Shaver at the end of the 19th century; the farm was one of two purchased by the Eaton's department store in the 1890s to provide a reliable supply of milk for the store's lunchroom and drug store lunch counter. Eaton's donated a parcel of the farm land to the local elementary school, named "Eatonville School" in honour of its benefactor; the name of the school led to the area becoming known by the Eatonville name.
The Eaton Farm supplied milk and vegetables to Eaton's until the 1950s, when it was sold and subdivided for residential development. Today, Eatonville is the home of the Etobicoke Civic Centre, which used to be the city hall of the former City of Etobicoke; the community is home to the Eatonville branch of the Toronto Public Library, reconstructed in 2003. The Shaver homestead has been preserved, was relocated to The West Mall; the area used to have a second mall, just a short walk from Cloverdale. Honeydale Mall is now being redeveloped. Broadacres Junior School - A public elementary school located at 45 Crendon Drive, located north of Burnhamthorpe Road and west of The West Mall, it was opened on October 1959 in Broadacres Park, the site of the local Shaver family's historic'Applewood' farm house and across the street from Etobicoke's former City Hall. Bloorlea Middle School - A public middle school located at 4050 Bloor Street West, at the corner of Bloor Street and The East Mall, it opened its doors in 1957.
Burnhamthorpe Collegiate Institute - A public secondary school located at 500 The East Mall. Eatonville Junior School - A public elementary school located south of Burnhamthorpe Road and west of The West Mall. Eatonville has been situated on its present site since 1827 and was first known as the "Swamp School"; the Eaton family donated the land for the original school site. The current school was built in 1955. In 1998, students of the school created a time capsule to be opened on the 200th anniversary of the school. West Glen Junior School Wedgewood Junior School- A public elementary school located at 5 Swan Avenue, south of Burnhamthorpe Road. St. Elizabeth Catholic School Olivet School - A private elementary school located at 279 Burnhamthorpe Road, north of Burnhamthorpe Road and east of The East Mall, it is still running today. St James United Church Bloordale United Church Renforth Baptist Church & Cemetery Toronto Neighbourhoods: Eatonville Etobicoke Historical Society - Eatonville Architecture & Urban Design Awards 2003: Eatonville Library Profile of Eatonville School Applewood / Shaver House