A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface to generate visual feedback on a two- or three-dimensional video display device such as a TV screen, virtual reality headset or computer monitor. Since the 1980s, video games have become an important part of the entertainment industry, whether they are a form of art is a matter of dispute; the electronic systems used to play video games are called platforms. Video games are developed and released for one or several platforms and may not be available on others. Specialized platforms such as arcade games, which present the game in a large coin-operated chassis, were common in the 1980s in video arcades, but declined in popularity as other, more affordable platforms became available; these include dedicated devices such as video game consoles, as well as general-purpose computers like a laptop, desktop or handheld computing devices. The input device used for games, the game controller, varies across platforms. Common controllers include gamepads, mouse devices, the touchscreens of mobile devices, or a person's body, using a Kinect sensor.
Players view the game on a display device such as a television or computer monitor or sometimes on virtual reality head-mounted display goggles. There are game sound effects and voice actor lines which come from loudspeakers or headphones; some games in the 2000s include haptic, vibration-creating effects, force feedback peripherals and virtual reality headsets. In the 2010s, the commercial importance of the video game industry is increasing; the emerging Asian markets and mobile games on smartphones in particular are driving the growth of the industry. As of 2015, video games generated sales of US$74 billion annually worldwide, were the third-largest segment in the U. S. entertainment market, behind broadcast and cable TV. Early games used interactive electronic devices with various display formats; the earliest example is from 1947—a "Cathode ray tube Amusement Device" was filed for a patent on 25 January 1947, by Thomas T. Goldsmith Jr. and Estle Ray Mann, issued on 14 December 1948, as U. S.
Patent 2455992. Inspired by radar display technology, it consisted of an analog device that allowed a user to control a vector-drawn dot on the screen to simulate a missile being fired at targets, which were drawings fixed to the screen. Other early examples include: The Nimrod computer at the 1951 Festival of Britain; each game used different means of display: NIMROD used a panel of lights to play the game of Nim, OXO used a graphical display to play tic-tac-toe Tennis for Two used an oscilloscope to display a side view of a tennis court, Spacewar! used the DEC PDP-1's vector display to have two spaceships battle each other. In 1971, Computer Space, created by Nolan Bushnell and Ted Dabney, was the first commercially sold, coin-operated video game, it used a black-and-white television for its display, the computer system was made of 74 series TTL chips. The game was featured in the 1973 science fiction film Soylent Green. Computer Space was followed in 1972 by the first home console. Modeled after a late 1960s prototype console developed by Ralph H. Baer called the "Brown Box", it used a standard television.
These were followed by two versions of Atari's Pong. The commercial success of Pong led numerous other companies to develop Pong clones and their own systems, spawning the video game industry. A flood of Pong clones led to the video game crash of 1977, which came to an end with the mainstream success of Taito's 1978 shooter game Space Invaders, marking the beginning of the golden age of arcade video games and inspiring dozens of manufacturers to enter the market; the game inspired arcade machines to become prevalent in mainstream locations such as shopping malls, traditional storefronts and convenience stores. The game became the subject of numerous articles and stories on television and in newspapers and magazines, establishing video gaming as a growing mainstream hobby. Space Invaders was soon licensed for the Atari VCS, becoming the first "killer app" and quadrupling the console's sales; this helped Atari recover from their earlier losses, in turn the Atari VCS revived the home video game market during the second generation of consoles, up until the North American video game crash of 1983.
The home video game industry was revitalized shortly afterwards by the widespread success of the Nintendo Entertainment System, which marked a shift in the dominance of the video game industry from the United States to Japan during the third generation of consoles. A number of video game developers emerged in Britain in the early 1980s; the term "platform" refers to the specific combination of electronic components or computer hardware which, in conjunction with software, allows a video game to operate. The term "system" is commonly used; the distinctions below are not always clear and there may be games that bridge one or more platforms. In addition to laptop/desktop computers and mobile devices, there are other devices which have the ability to play games but are not video game machines, such as PDAs and graphing calculators. In common use a "PC game" refers to a form of media that involves a player interacting with a personal computer conne
A film called a movie, motion picture, moving picture, or photoplay, is a series of still images that, when shown on a screen, create the illusion of moving images. This optical illusion causes the audience to perceive continuous motion between separate objects viewed in rapid succession; the process of filmmaking is both an industry. A film is created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, other visual effects; the word "cinema", short for cinematography, is used to refer to filmmaking and the film industry, to the art of filmmaking itself. The contemporary definition of cinema is the art of simulating experiences to communicate ideas, perceptions, beauty or atmosphere by the means of recorded or programmed moving images along with other sensory stimulations. Films were recorded onto plastic film through a photochemical process and shown through a movie projector onto a large screen.
Contemporary films are now fully digital through the entire process of production and exhibition, while films recorded in a photochemical form traditionally included an analogous optical soundtrack. Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, they reflect those cultures. Film is considered to be an important art form, a source of popular entertainment, a powerful medium for educating—or indoctrinating—citizens; the visual basis of film gives it a universal power of communication. Some films have become popular worldwide attractions through the use of dubbing or subtitles to translate the dialog into other languages; the individual images that make up a film are called frames. In the projection of traditional celluloid films, a rotating shutter causes intervals of darkness as each frame, in turn, is moved into position to be projected, but the viewer does not notice the interruptions because of an effect known as persistence of vision, whereby the eye retains a visual image for a fraction of a second after its source disappears.
The perception of motion is due to a psychological effect called the phi phenomenon. The name "film" originates from the fact that photographic film has been the medium for recording and displaying motion pictures. Many other terms exist for an individual motion-picture, including picture, picture show, moving picture and flick; the most common term in the United States is movie. Common terms for the field in general include the big screen, the silver screen, the movies, cinema. In early years, the word sheet was sometimes used instead of screen. Preceding film in origin by thousands of years, early plays and dances had elements common to film: scripts, costumes, direction, audiences and scores. Much terminology used in film theory and criticism apply, such as mise en scène. Owing to the lack of any technology for doing so, the moving images and sounds could not be recorded for replaying as with film; the magic lantern created by Christiaan Huygens in the 1650s, could be used to project animation, achieved by various types of mechanical slides.
Two glass slides, one with the stationary part of the picture and the other with the part, to move, would be placed one on top of the other and projected together the moving slide would be hand-operated, either directly or by means of a lever or other mechanism. Chromotrope slides, which produced eye-dazzling displays of continuously cycling abstract geometrical patterns and colors, were operated by means of a small crank and pulley wheel that rotated a glass disc. In the mid-19th century, inventions such as Joseph Plateau's phenakistoscope and the zoetrope demonstrated that a designed sequence of drawings, showing phases of the changing appearance of objects in motion, would appear to show the objects moving if they were displayed one after the other at a sufficiently rapid rate; these devices relied on the phenomenon of persistence of vision to make the display appear continuous though the observer's view was blocked as each drawing rotated into the location where its predecessor had just been glimpsed.
Each sequence was limited to a small number of drawings twelve, so it could only show endlessly repeating cyclical motions. By the late 1880s, the last major device of this type, the praxinoscope, had been elaborated into a form that employed a long coiled band containing hundreds of images painted on glass and used the elements of a magic lantern to project them onto a screen; the use of sequences of photographs in such devices was limited to a few experiments with subjects photographed in a series of poses because the available emulsions were not sensitive enough to allow the short exposures needed to photograph subjects that were moving. The sensitivity was improved and in the late 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge created the first animated image sequences photographed in real-time. A row of cameras was used, each, in turn, capturing one image on a photographic glass plate, so the total number of images in each sequence was limited by the number of cameras, about two dozen at most. Muybridge used his system to analyze the movements of a wi
Tiny Toon Adventures
Tiny Toon Adventures is an American animated comedy television series, broadcast from September 14, 1990 through December 6, 1992 as the first collaborative effort of Warner Bros. Animation and Steven Spielberg's Amblin Entertainment after being conceived in the late 1980s by Tom Ruegger; the show follows the adventures of a group of young cartoon characters who attend Acme Looniversity to become the next generation of characters from the Looney Tunes series. The pilot episode, "The Looney Beginning", aired as a prime-time special on CBS on September 14, 1990, while the series itself was featured in first-run syndication for the first two seasons; the final season was aired on Fox Kids. The series ended production in 1992 in favor of Animaniacs. Tiny Toon Adventures is a cartoon set in the fictional town of Acme Acres, where most of the Tiny Toons and Looney Tunes characters live; the characters attend Acme Looniversity, a school whose faculty consists of the mainstays of the classic Warner Bros. cartoons, such as Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig, Sylvester the Cat, Wile E. Coyote and Elmer Fudd.
In the series, the university is founded to teach cartoon characters how to become funny. The school is not featured in every episode, as not all of its storylines revolve around the school. Like the Looney Tunes, the series makes use of cartoon violence and slapstick; the series parodies and references the current events of the early 1990s and Hollywood culture. Episodes delve into veiled ethical and morality stories of ecology, self-esteem, crime; the series centers on a group of young cartoon characters who attend a school called Acme Looniversity to be the next generation of Looney Tunes characters. Most of the Tiny Toons characters were designed to resemble younger versions of Warner Bros.' Most popular Looney Tunes animal characters by exhibiting similar traits and looks. The two main characters are both rabbits: Buster Bunny, a blue male rabbit, Babs Bunny, a pink female rabbit not related to Buster, Plucky Duck, a green male duck, Hamton J. Pig, a pink male pig. Other major characters in the cast are nonhuman as well.
These include Fifi La Fume, a purple-and-white female skunk. Two human characters, Montana Max and Elmyra Duff, are regarded as the main villains of the series and are students of Acme Looniversity; as villains, Elmyra is seen as an extreme pet lover while Montana Max is a spoiled rich brat who either owns lots of toys or polluting factories. Supporting characters included Li'l Sneezer, a gray mouse with powerful sneezes. Feeding off the characters are the more traditional Looney Tunes such as Bugs Bunny, Daffy Duck, Porky Pig among others. Most of the adults teach classes at Acme Looniversity and serve as mentors to the Tiny Toons while others fill secondary positions as needed; the series and the show's characters were developed by series producer, head writer and cartoonist Tom Ruegger, division leader Jean MacCurdy, associate producer and artist Alfred Gimeno and story editor/writer Wayne Kaatz. Among the first writers on the series were Jim Reardon, Tom Minton, Eddie Fitzgerald; the character and scenery designers included Alfred Gimeno, Ken Boyer, Dan Haskett, Karen Haskett, many other artists and directors.
The series was planned to be a feature film. Once Steven Spielberg was attached, numerous things changed, including the idea of turning the movie into a television series. "Buster and Babs Go To Hawaii" was co-written by three then-teenage girls who were fans of the show. Voice director Andrea Romano auditioned over 1,200 voices for the series and chose more than a dozen main voice actors; the role of Buster Bunny was given to Charlie Adler, who gave the role, as producer Tom Ruegger said, "a great deal of energy". The role of Babs Bunny was given to Tress MacNeille. Writer Paul Dini said that MacNeille was good for the role because she could do both Babs' voice and the voices of her impressions. Voice actors Joe Alaskey and Don Messick were given the roles of Plucky Duck and Hamton J. Pig, respectively. Danny Cooksey played Montana Max and, according to Paul Dini, was good for the role because he could do a "tremendous mean voice." Cooksey was the only voice actor in the cast, not an adult. Cree Summer played the roles of Elmyra Duff and Mary Melody.
Other actors for the series included Maurice LaMarche as the voice of Dizzy Devil. The legendary voice behind the Looney Tunes, Mel Blanc, was set to reprise his roles as the classic characters, but died in July 1989, his characters were recast by the likes of Jeff Bergman, Joe Alaskey, Greg Burson, Mel's son, Noel Blanc. During production of the series' third season, Charlie Adler left the show due to a conflict with the producers. Adler was upset that he had not landed a role in Animaniacs while
I Know What You Did Last Summer
I Know What You Did Last Summer is a 1997 American slasher film directed by Jim Gillespie, written by Kevin Williamson, starring Jennifer Love Hewitt, Sarah Michelle Gellar, Ryan Phillippe, Freddie Prinze Jr. with Anne Heche, Bridgette Wilson, Johnny Galecki appearing in supporting roles. Loosely based on the 1973 novel of the same name by Lois Duncan, the film centers on four young friends who are stalked by a hook-wielding killer one year after covering up a car accident in which they were involved; the film draws inspiration from the urban legend known as the Hook. After having written Scream, Williamson was approached to adapt Duncan's source novel by producer Erik Feig. Where Williamson's screenplay for Scream contained prominent elements of satire and self-referentiality, his adaptation of I Know What You Did Last Summer reworked the novel's central plot to resemble a straightforward 1980s-era slasher film. Shot on location in both California and North Carolina in the spring of 1997, I Know What You Did Last Summer was released theatrically in the North America on October 17, 1997.
It received varied reviews from critics but was commercially successful, grossing $72 million domestically, remaining at number 1 on the U. S. box office for three consecutive weeks. It would go on to gross an additional $53 million in other markets, making for a total of over $125 million in international box office returns, it was nominated for and won multiple awards. The film was followed by two sequels, I Still Know What You Did Last Summer and the straight-to-DVD release I'll Always Know What You Did Last Summer. Though the former film has a continuation of the plotline established in its predecessor, the latter film establishes a new plotline and does not star any cast members from the previous two installments. I Know What You Did Last Summer has been parodied and referenced in popular culture, credited alongside Scream with revitalizing the contemporary slasher film in the late-1990s. On the Fourth of July 1996 in Southport, North Carolina, Julie James and her friends Ray Bronson, Helen Shivers, Barry Cox drive to the beach after attending a party.
While driving along a coastal byway, they accidentally hit a pedestrian. Julie's friend Max passes by them on the road. Julie reassures Max that everything is all right, he leaves. After some arguing, the group decides dumping it in the water, they agree to never again discuss. A year Julie returns home from her college in Boston for the summer. Since the incident, the friends have gone their separate ways. Julie receives a letter with no return address, stating, "I know what you did last summer!" Disturbed, Julie tracks down Helen, who has returned to Southport to work at her family's department store after a failed attempt at an acting career in New York City. The girls take the note to Barry, who suspects Max, they confront Max on the docks, Barry threatens him with a hook. Julie meets Ray, now working as a fisherman. Max is killed by a figure in a rain slicker wielding a hook. Barry discovers a note in his gym locker saying, "I know." He is ambushed by the same assailant driving Barry's car. Meanwhile, Julie researches newspaper articles which lead her to believe the man they ran over was a local named David Egan.
Helen and Julie go to visit with David's sister Missy at her home. Missy explains to them; that night, the killer sneaks into Helen's house, cuts off her hair while she sleeps, writes "Soon" in lipstick on her vanity mirror. The following morning, Julie finds Max's corpse wearing Barry's stolen jacket in the trunk of her car; when she calls the others, the body is missing. Julie and Barry confront Ray about the recent events. Ray claims to have received a threatening letter as well. Julie goes back to visit Missy, while Barry and Helen go to participate in the Fourth of July parade. Missy reveals David committed suicide out of guilt for the death of his girlfriend Susie in a car accident and shows David's suicide note to Julie; as the writing matches that of the note she received, Julie realizes it was not a suicide note, but a death threat. At the Croaker Beauty Pageant, Helen witnesses Barry being murdered on the balcony, she finds no sign of the killer or Barry. A police officer escorts Helen home.
Helen flees to her nearby family store. The killer enters murders Elsa. Helen is chased to the third floor of the building and escapes through a window, falling to a long alleyway, she manages to run toward the street, but the killer stops her and slashes her to death, her screams being drowned out by the sound of the oncoming parade. Julie finds an article mentioning Susie's father, Ben Willis, realizes that Ben was the man they ran over, moments after he had killed David to avenge his daughter, she goes to the docks to tell Ray, but he refuses to believe her. Julie notices Ray's boat runs away. Ben appears, knocking Ray unconscious, invites Julie to hide on his boat. On the boat, she finds photos and articles about her friends and her, pictures of Susie. Ben's boat leaves the docks, he begins tormenting Julie, chasing her below deck. Ray steals a motorboat to rescue Julie, he uses the rigging to sever Ben's hand and send him overboard. When Julie a
Jerrald King Goldsmith was an American composer and conductor most known for his work in film and television scoring. He composed scores for such films as Star Trek: The Motion Picture and four other films within the Star Trek franchise, The Sand Pebbles, Logan's Run, Planet of the Apes, Papillon, The Wind and the Lion, The Omen, The Boys from Brazil, Capricorn One, Outland, The Secret of NIMH, Hoosiers, Total Recall, Basic Instinct, Air Force One, L. A. Confidential, The Mummy, three Rambo films, Explorers, he collaborated with some of film history's most accomplished directors, including Robert Wise, Howard Hawks, Otto Preminger, Joe Dante, Richard Donner, Roman Polanski, Ridley Scott, Michael Winner, Steven Spielberg, Paul Verhoeven, Franklin J. Schaffner, his work for Donner and Scott involved a rejected score for Timeline and a controversially edited score for Alien, where music by Howard Hanson replaced Goldsmith's end titles and Goldsmith's own work on Freud: The Secret Passion was used without his approval in several scenes.
Goldsmith was nominated for six Grammy Awards, five Primetime Emmy Awards, nine Golden Globe Awards, four British Academy Film Awards, eighteen Academy Awards. Goldsmith, was born February 1929, in Los Angeles, California, his family was Romanian Jewish. His parents were Tessa, a school teacher, Morris Goldsmith, a structural engineer, he started playing piano at age six, but only "got serious" by the time. At age thirteen, he studied piano with concert pianist and educator Jakob Gimpel and by the age of sixteen he was studying both theory and counterpoint under Italian composer Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco, who tutored such noteworthy composers and musicians as Henry Mancini, Nelson Riddle, Herman Stein, André Previn, Marty Paich, John Williams. At age sixteen, Goldsmith saw the 1945 film Spellbound in theaters and was inspired by veteran composer Miklós Rózsa's soundtrack to pursue a career in music. Goldsmith enrolled and attended the University of Southern California where he was able to attend courses by Rózsa, but dropped out in favor of a more "practical music program" at the Los Angeles City College.
There he was able to coach singers, work as an assistant choral director, play piano accompaniment, work as an assistant conductor. In 1950, Goldsmith found work at CBS as a clerk typist in the network's music department under director Lud Gluskin. There he began writing scores for such radio shows as CBS Radio Workshop, Frontier Gentleman, Romance. In an interview with Andy Velez from BarnesandNoble.com, Goldsmith stated, "It was about 1950. CBS had a workshop, once a week the employees, whatever their talents, whether they were ushers or typists, would produce a radio show, but you had to be an employee. They needed someone to do music, I knew someone there who said I'd be great for this. I'd just gotten married and needed a job, so they faked a typing test for me. I could do these shows. About six months the music department heard what I did, liked it, gave me a job." He progressed into scoring such live CBS television shows as Climax! and Playhouse 90. He scored multiple episodes of the television series The Twilight Zone.
He remained at CBS until 1960, after which he moved on to Revue Studios and to MGM Studios for producer Norman Felton, whom he had worked for during live television and would compose music for such television shows as Dr. Kildare and The Man from U. N. C. L. E.. His feature film debut occurred, he continued with scores to such films as the 1957 western Face of a Fugitive and the 1959 science fiction film City of Fear. Jerry Goldsmith began the decade composing for such television shows as Dr. Kildare and Thriller as well as the 1960 drama film The Spiral Road. However, he only began receiving widespread name recognition after his intimate score to the 1962 classic western Lonely Are the Brave, his involvement in the picture was the result of a recommendation by veteran composer Alfred Newman, impressed with Goldsmith's score on the television show Thriller and took it upon himself to recommend Goldsmith to the head of Universal Pictures' music department, despite having never met him. That same year, Goldsmith composed the atonal and dissonant score to the 1962 pseudo-biopic Freud that focused on a five-year period of the life of psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud.
Goldsmith's score went on to garner him his first Academy Award nomination for Best Original Score, though he lost to fellow first-time nominee Maurice Jarre for his music to Lawrence of Arabia. In 1963, Goldsmith composed a score to The Stripper, his first collaboration with director Franklin J. Schaffner for whom Goldsmith would score the films Planet of the Apes, Patton and The Boys from Brazil. Following his success with Lonely Are the Brave and Freud, Goldsmith went on to achieve more critical recognition with the theme music to The Man from U. N. C. L. E. and scores to such films as the 1964 western Rio Conchos, the 1964 political thriller Seven Days in May, the 1965 romantic drama A Patch of Blue, the 1965 epic war film In Harm's Way, the 1966 World War I air combat film The Blue Max, the 1966 period naval war epic The Sand Pebbles, the 1967 thriller Warning Shot, the 1967 western Hour of the Gun, the 1968 controversial mystery The Detective. His score for The Blue Max is regarded by many Goldsmith aficionados as one
The Walt Disney Company
The Walt Disney Company known as Walt Disney or Disney, is an American diversified multinational mass media and entertainment conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios in Burbank, California. It is the world's largest media conglomerate in terms of revenue, ahead of NBCUniversal and WarnerMedia. Disney was founded on October 16, 1923 by brothers Walt and Roy O. Disney as the Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio; the company established itself as a leader in the American animation industry before diversifying into live-action film production and theme parks. Since the 1980s, Disney has created and acquired corporate divisions in order to market more mature content than is associated with its flagship family-oriented brands; the company is known for its film studio division, Walt Disney Studios, which includes Walt Disney Pictures, Walt Disney Animation Studios, Marvel Studios, Lucasfilm, 20th Century Fox, Fox Searchlight Pictures, Blue Sky Studios. Disney's other main divisions are Disney Parks and Products, Disney Media Networks, Walt Disney Direct-to-Consumer and International.
Disney owns and operates the ABC broadcast network. The company has been a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average since 1991. Cartoon character Mickey Mouse, created in 1928 by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, is one of the world's most recognizable characters, serves as the company's official mascot. In early 1923, Kansas City, animator Walt Disney created a short film entitled Alice's Wonderland, which featured child actress Virginia Davis interacting with animated characters. After the bankruptcy in 1923 of his previous firm, Laugh-O-Gram Studio, Disney moved to Hollywood to join his brother, Roy O. Disney. Film distributor Margaret J. Winkler of M. J. Winkler Productions contacted Disney with plans to distribute a whole series of Alice Comedies purchased for $1,500 per reel with Disney as a production partner. Walt and Roy Disney formed Disney Brothers Cartoon Studio that same year. More animated films followed after Alice. In January 1926, with the completion of the Disney studio on Hyperion Street, the Disney Brothers Studio's name was changed to the Walt Disney Studio.
After the demise of the Alice comedies, Disney developed an all-cartoon series starring his first original character, Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, distributed by Winkler Pictures through Universal Pictures. The distributor owned Oswald, so Disney only made a few hundred dollars. Disney completed 26 Oswald shorts before losing the contract in February 1928, due to a legal loophole, when Winkler's husband Charles Mintz took over their distribution company. After failing to take over the Disney Studio, Mintz hired away four of Disney's primary animators to start his own animation studio, Snappy Comedies. In 1928, to recover from the loss of Oswald the Lucky Rabbit, Disney came up with the idea of a mouse character named Mortimer while on a train headed to California, drawing up a few simple drawings; the mouse was renamed Mickey Mouse and starred in several Disney produced films. Ub Iwerks refined Disney's initial design of Mickey Mouse. Disney's first sound film Steamboat Willie, a cartoon starring Mickey, was released on November 18, 1928 through Pat Powers' distribution company.
It was the first Mickey Mouse sound cartoon released, but the third to be created, behind Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho. Steamboat Willie was an immediate smash hit, its initial success was attributed not just to Mickey's appeal as a character, but to the fact that it was the first cartoon to feature synchronized sound. Disney used Pat Powers' Cinephone system, created by Powers using Lee de Forest's Phonofilm system. Steamboat Willie premiered at B. S. Moss's Colony Theater in New York City, now The Broadway Theatre. Disney's Plane Crazy and The Gallopin' Gaucho were retrofitted with synchronized sound tracks and re-released in 1929. Disney continued to produce cartoons with Mickey Mouse and other characters, began the Silly Symphony series with Columbia Pictures signing on as Symphonies distributor in August 1929. In September 1929, theater manager Harry Woodin requested permission to start a Mickey Mouse Club which Walt approved. In November, test comics strips were sent to King Features, who requested additional samples to show to the publisher, William Randolph Hearst.
On December 16, the Walt Disney Studios partnership was reorganized as a corporation with the name of Walt Disney Productions, Limited with a merchandising division, Walt Disney Enterprises, two subsidiaries, Disney Film Recording Company and Liled Realty and Investment Company for real estate holdings. Walt and his wife held Roy owned 40 % of WD Productions. On December 30, King Features signed its first newspaper, New York Mirror, to publish the Mickey Mouse comic strip with Walt's permission. In 1932, Disney signed an exclusive contract with Technicolor to produce cartoons in color, beginning with Flowers and Trees. Disney released cartoons through Powers' Celebrity Pictures, Columbia Pictures, United Artists; the popularity of the Mickey Mouse series allowed Disney to plan for his first feature-length animation. The feature film Walt
SeaQuest DSV is an American science fiction television series created by Rockne S. O'Bannon, it aired on NBC between 1993 and 1996. In its final season, it was renamed seaQuest 2032. Set in "the near future"—originally the year 2018 in the first season—seaQuest DSV mixed high drama with realistic scientific fiction, it starred film star Roy Scheider as Captain Nathan Bridger and commander of the eponymous naval submarine seaQuest DSV 4600. Jonathan Brandis starred as Lucas Wolenczak, a teenaged computer genius placed aboard seaQuest by his father and Stephanie Beacham as Kristin Westphalen, the chief medical officer and head of the seaQuest science department. In the third season, Michael Ironside replaced Scheider as lead of the series and starred as Captain Oliver Hudson. Present was a dolphin character called Darwin who, due to technological advances, was able to communicate with the crew. Steven Spielberg expressed interest in the project and served as one of the show's executive producers during the first two seasons.
Production of the first season was marked by disputes between the producers, NBC and cast members, changes in the production staff, an earthquake. The second season contained changes in the cast as well as continued disputes between cast members and producers, while the third season introduced a new lead actor and title. While popular, the series began to decline in ratings throughout its run and was abruptly canceled in the middle of its third season; the series follows the adventures of the high-tech submarine seaQuest DSV 4600, a deep submergence vehicle operated by the United Earth Oceans Organization, a global coalition of up-world countries and undersea confederations, similar to the United Nations. The UEO was created following a major showdown of nations and confederations at the Livingston Trench in the North Atlantic Ocean that occurred circa 2018 as depicted in the pilot episode, "To Be Or Not to Be", it remained a recurring element for the duration of the series; the seaQuest was designed by retired naval captain Nathan Bridger and built by NORPAC and given as a loan to the UEO after its creation.
The storyline begins in the year 2018, after mankind has exhausted all natural resources, except for the ones on the ocean floor. Many new colonies have been established there and it's the mission of the seaQuest and its crew to protect them from hostile nonaligned nations and to aid in mediating disputes as well as engage in undersea research, much of, still in the preliminary stages when the show began production in 1993. Bridger, though reluctant due to a promise he made with his wife after their son, was killed in a naval military action before her death, is convinced to return to the navy, under the auspices of the UEO, assume command of the seaQuest; the first season's storylines dealt with plausible oceanographic research, environmental issues, political machinations of the world and the interpersonal relationships of the crew. In the first-season finale, Bridger sacrifices the seaQuest to prevent an ecological disaster and for a short time it was not known if the show would be renewed for another season.
The series had suffered in the ratings, as it was pitted against Murder, She Wrote on CBS and Lois and Clark: The New Adventures of Superman on ABC. When it was decided the show would return, NBC and Universal used this opportunity to change the show's format, beginning by relocating the show's production from Los Angeles to Orlando. Several cast changes were made as both Royce D. Applegate and John D'Aquino were released by NBC as the network wanted a younger cast for the second season. Stacy Haiduk informed producers that she did not wish to relocate to Orlando for the second season, having just returned to Los Angeles after spending four years in Florida during the production of The Adventures of Superboy. Stephanie Beacham, who as Dr. Westphalen was one of the first season's strongest characters, was hesitant to relocate to Florida. Beacham blamed continued disputes between the network and the show's producers as a major reason why she did not return. Joining the series for season two were Edward Kerr as Lieutenant James Brody, seaQuest's weapons officer.
As the seaQuest itself was rebuilt in the storyline, it allowed for the sets to be redesigned for the new Florida location and a shortened version of the Emmy award winning main title theme was instituted as the series returned to the airwaves on September 18, 1994 with the two-hour television movie season premiere, "Daggers". NBC and the show's producers decided they wanted more traditionally science-fiction oriented episodes this season, a direction, explored toward the end of the first season when seaQuest discovered a million-year-old alien ship entombed in the ocean floor in the episode "Such Great Patience." The second season explored heavy science-fiction concepts such as genetic engineering, parapsychology, time travel and various "monsters of the week" Roy Scheider was vocal in his anger at the show's new direction. In an intervi