Middlebury is the shire town of Addison County, United States. The population was 8,496 at the 2010 census, Middlebury is home to Middlebury College and the Henry Sheldon Museum of Vermont History. One of the New Hampshire Grants, Middlebury was chartered by Colonial Governor Benning Wentworth on November 2,1761, the name Middlebury came from its location between the towns of Salisbury and New Haven. It was awarded to John Evarts and 62 others, the French and Indian Wars ended in 1763, and the first settlers arrived in 1766. John Chipman was the first to clear his land, Lot Seven, during the Revolutionary War, much of the town was burned in Carletons Raid on November 6,1778. After the war concluded in 1783, settlers returned to rebuild homes, clear forests, principal crops were grains and hay. Landowners vied for the honor of having the village center grow on their properties. Industries would include a factory, gristmill, pail factory, paper mill, woolen factory, iron foundry. The Rutland & Burlington Railroad first arrived on September 1,1849, around 1830, Middlebury was the second largest town in Vermont.
Middlebury College, one of the United States elite liberal arts colleges, was founded here in 1800 and it is a member of the NESCAC. In the summer, the town plays host to the annual Middlebury College Language Schools, as well as the colleges Bread Loaf Writers Conference, the oldest surviving conference of its kind in the nation. On October 22,2007, central Middlebury was evacuated for a time because of a train derailment. Today, as the largest town by population in Addison County, Middlebury serves as the commercial, downtown hosts a three-screen movie theater, the post office, and two historic inns, as well as many shops and restaurants. There is considerable development along U. S. Route 7 heading south of town, including Shaws and Hannaford supermarkets, of note is Middleburys A&W, Vermonts only remaining car-hop restaurant and a popular spot with both locals and Middlebury College students. Along with A&W, fast food restaurants in Middlebury include a McDonalds, a Dunkin Donuts, Middlebury is located near the center of Addison County in western Vermont.
The town is drained by Otter Creek, which flows south to north along the western edge of the town. The Middlebury River flows west to Otter Creek out of the mountains, Chipman Hill, a hill of glacial till, rises 450 feet above the village just to the northeast. Foothills of the Green Mountains border the town to the east, with the Champlain Valley to the west
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
Illinois is a state in the midwestern region of the United States, achieving statehood in 1818. It is the 6th most populous state and 25th largest state in terms of land area, the word Illinois comes from a French rendering of a native Algonquin word. For decades, OHare International Airport has been ranked as one of the worlds busiest airports, Illinois has long had a reputation as a bellwether both in social and cultural terms and politics. With the War of 1812 Illinois growth slowed as both Native Americans and Canadian forces often raided the American Frontier, mineral finds and timber stands had spurred immigration—by the 1810s, the Eastern U. S. Railroads arose and matured in the 1840s, and soon carried immigrants to new homes in Illinois, as well as being a resource to ship their commodity crops out to markets. Railroads freed most of the land of Illinois and other states from the tyranny of water transport. By 1900, the growth of jobs in the northern cities and coal mining in the central and southern areas attracted a new group of immigrants.
Illinois was an important manufacturing center during both world wars, the Great Migration from the South established a large community of African Americans in Chicago, who created the citys famous jazz and blues cultures. Three U. S. presidents have been elected while living in Illinois, Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant, Ronald Reagan, whose political career was based in California, was the only U. S. president born and raised in Illinois. Today, Illinois honors Lincoln with its official slogan, Land of Lincoln. The Abraham Lincoln Presidential Library and Museum is located in the capital of Springfield. Illinois is the spelling for the early French Catholic missionaries and explorers name for the Illinois Native Americans. American scholars previously thought the name Illinois meant man or men in the Miami-Illinois language and this etymology is not supported by the Illinois language, as the word for man is ireniwa and plural men is ireniwaki. The name Illiniwek has said to mean tribe of superior men.
The name Illinois derives from the Miami-Illinois verb irenwe·wa he speaks the regular way and this was taken into the Ojibwe language, perhaps in the Ottawa dialect, and modified into ilinwe·. The French borrowed these forms, changing the ending to spell it as -ois. The current spelling form, began to appear in the early 1670s, the Illinois name for themselves, as attested in all three of the French missionary-period dictionaries of Illinois, was Inoka, of unknown meaning and unrelated to the other terms. American Indians of successive cultures lived along the waterways of the Illinois area for thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans, the Koster Site has been excavated and demonstrates 7,000 years of continuous habitation
Riverside Cemetery (Moline, Illinois)
Riverside Cemetery is located in Moline, United States. It can trace its beginnings to Moline Cemetery, which was established to 1851, the original 5 acres of the cemetery was purchased from Samuel and Mary Bell on November 1 of that year. It is located between Fourth and Fifth Avenues at about 33rd Street, and was known as the Fourth Avenue Cemetery. Joseph Pershing served as the first Sexton, and the cemetery was placed under the direction of a Board of Trustees, numerous changes occurred when John Deere served as the mayor of Moline. In 1873 the city took control of the cemetery, and a Board of Directors was appointed by the mayor. Now known as Riverside Cemetery it began to expand to the south on property purchased from various landowners, the main entrance for the cemetery was located on 6th Avenue by the Sexton’s house. At this time William Le Baron Jenney, a prominent Chicago urban planner and architect, what is now Riverside Park was cemetery property at one time. There was controversy about how land was being used.
The property between the Fourth Avenue Cemetery and the sections of the cemetery were being used for recreational purposes. Around 1909 the cemetery’s board started selling property to the Park Committee, the Chapel Mausoleum was completed in 1916. The Greek Revival style structure is built of #1 Peerless Buff stone and it contains 800 single crypts,48 companion niches and features stained glass windows. The last house used by the sexton was moved to the property in 1958. It served as the office until 1983 when the office was moved Moline Memorial Park. It ceased as the home in 1998. It is now used by the Director of Moline Parks & Recreation, both Riverside Cemetery and Moline Memorial Park have been administered by the Moline Park and Recreation Department since 1978. An historical cemetery walk is sponsored each September called, Echoes From Riverside Cemetery, costumed actors play the role of one of the people buried in the cemetery. A book was published in 2010 based on the walk, dwight Deere Wiman, actor and Broadway producer Kathleen Seusy, Diann Moore, Curtis C.
Echoes From Riverside Cemetery Moline Illinois 2010, ISBN 0-9841429-0-8
Deere & Company is an American corporation that manufactures agricultural and forestry machinery, diesel engines, drivetrains used in heavy equipment, and lawn care equipment. In 2016, it was listed as 97th in the Fortune 500 Americas ranking and was ranked 364th in the Fortune Global 500 ranking in 2016, John Deere provides financial services and other related activities. Deere is listed on the New York Stock Exchange under the symbols DE, the companys slogan is Nothing Runs Like a Deere, and its logo is a leaping deer, with the words JOHN DEERE under it. The logo of the deer has been used by this company for over 155 years. Over the years, the logo has had changes and pieces removed. Some of the older style logos have the deer leaping over a log, the company uses different logo colors for agricultural vs. construction products. The companys agricultural products are identifiable by a shade of green paint. While the construction products are identifiable by a shade of black with the deer being yellow, and the inside border being yellow.
Deere & Company began when John Deere, born in Rutland, Vermont, USA on February 7,1804, moved to Grand Detour, Illinois in 1836 in order to escape bankruptcy in Vermont. Small tools was just a start, the item that set him apart, was the steel plow. Prior to Deeres steel plow, most farmers used iron or wooden plows that the rich Midwestern soil stuck to and had to be cleaned frequently. The smooth sided steel plow solved this problem, and greatly aided migration into the American Great Plains in the 19th, the traditional way of doing business was to make the product as and when it was ordered. Word of his products began to spread quickly, in 1842, Deere entered a business partnership with Leonard Andrus and purchased land for the construction of a new two-story factory along the Rock River in Illinois. This factory, named the L. Andrus Plough Manufacturer, produced about 100 plows in 1842, Deeres partnership with Andrus ended in 1848, and Deere relocated to Moline, Illinois in order to have access to the railroad and the Mississippi River.
There, Deere formed a partnership with Robert Tate and John Gould, Production rose quickly, and by 1849, the Deere, Tate & Gould Company was producing over 200 plows a month. A two story addition to the plant was built, allowing further production, Deere bought out Tate and Goulds interests in the company in 1853, and was joined in the business by his son Charles Deere. At that time, the company was manufacturing a variety of farm equipment products in addition to plows, including wagons, in 1857, the companys production totals reached almost 1,120 implements per month. In 1858, a financial recession took a toll on the company
John Deere House
The John Deere House is a historic building located in Moline, United States. The house, which is associated with industrialist John Deere, sits on the edge of a bluff overlooking the Mississippi River Valley. It was declared a Moline Historic Landmark in 2002, and it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2003, the house was built in the Italianate style for Moline grocer William B. The property consisted of three lots, and included the house, a barn, outbuildings, a carriageway, fruit trees, dawson, defaulted on the property and John Deere purchased the house and the three lots in 1875. For the next five years Deere renovated and expanded the house before occupying it in 1880, the additions more than doubled the size of the house. Deere made two innovations to the house in the process. Ceramic tile was buried and placed from the basement to the lowest part of the property, the tile allowed cool air to pass from the lower hillside, into the basement and into the lower floors of the house.
The process provided a form of air conditioning. The second innovation was due to the location on the crest of a bluff. Long iron bars were bolted onto the corners of the house so as to hold the structure on the foundation in strong winds, the family bedrooms were on the second floor, and the ballroom and servants quarters were on the third floor. Deere named the 8,000 square feet home Red Cliff, Deere lived in the house for six years until his death in 1886. His body lay in repose in the front parlor where thousands of mourners paid their respects and his widow, lived in the house two more years before her death in 1888. The house remained in the Deere family until 1933, when it was sold to a banker, in 1936, the house was sold to an interior decorator who divided it into 11 apartments. For the next 50 years the property had several different owners, in 1988, the Resolution Trust Corporation took possession of the house due to a loan default. By now, the home had been divided into 16 efficiency apartments that were in disrepair, barbara Sandberg, a historic preservationist, convinced the city of Moline to purchase the house from the federal agency in the hope of finding a buyer to restore the home.
The city used $40,000 in Community Block Grant money to buy the house in 1993, the property was shown 70 times over three years to prospective buyers and received five serious bids. The city sold the property in 1996 to an owner for $100. The new owners were to complete the renovations on the house by the year 2000, plans were to turn the home into a bed and breakfast and public events space
Vergennes /vərˈdʒɛnz/ is a city located in the northwest quadrant of Addison County, Vermont. The municipality is bordered by the towns of Ferrisburgh, Panton, as of the 2010 census the city population was 2,588. It is the smallest of Vermonts nine cities in terms of population and it was the first city chartered in the state of Vermont. Vergennes, first settled in 1766 by Donald MacIntosh, was established in 1788, portions of the pre-existing Towns of New Haven and Ferrisburg, where they intersected at the Otter Creek Falls, were split off to form Vergennes. It is the smallest city in Vermont, the city is named for Frenchman Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes, who greatly aided the rebel colonial effort in the American Revolutionary War. He worked with Beaumarchais to secretly procure arms and volunteers and get them to the Americans, as directed by Louis XVI, Gravier established a dummy company through which the Americans received nearly 80% of their military supplies from France. At the close of the war, Gravier negotiated the 1783 Treaty of Paris, Thomas Macdonough built and armed the fleet that would defeat the British on Lake Champlain during the War of 1812.
The Monkton Iron Company manufactured the fittings for Macdonoughs fleet, as well as most of the shot used by the United States Army in the north. The ore used was mined in nearby Monkton, organizers settled on a city form of municipal government in the ambition to develop the area as an industrial center. The Otter Creek Falls provided power for mills and factories, industry boomed in the late nineteenth century, in particular, shipping connected to the Champlain Canal and wood-finishing related to lumber imported from Canada. As railways supplanted and bypassed the system, manufacturing declined in the city. A railroad spur from Ferrisburgh to the base of the proved a failure. Commercial decline continued in the century, narrowing down to a few surviving companies. In the early years of the 21st century, a group of civic boosters and merchants improved the area along Main Street. The resultant boutique Vergennes, catering to tourists and transients, is hampered by centralization of land ownership and escalation of commercial rents.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 2.5 square miles. The citys borders form a rectangle, nearly a square, Otter Creek flows north through the town. In the middle of town is a 37-foot waterfall, with a basin which occasionally floods
John Deere 9630
The John Deere 9630 is an agricultural tractor model manufactured by John Deere. It is one of the largest production tractors in the world, the 9630 has a 530-horsepower six cylinder diesel engine that displaces 826.7 cubic inches, and was tested at 427 hp on the drawbar. The 9630 is a tractor, coming stock with eight equally sized tires, duals in the front. Its ballasted weight is over 25 short tons, the 9630 is available with tracks instead of tires and is the 9630T. The 9630T is significantly different from the 9630 in that it is not articulated and it has only two tracks instead of being articulated and having four like an Case IH QuadTrac. This results in it having a different design. Media related to John Deere 9630 at Wikimedia Commons Media related to John Deere 9630T at Wikimedia Commons
John Deere 5220
The John Deere 5220 Tractor is a utility/agricultural tractor produced by John Deere, designed for residential and farming use. Manufactured from 2000–2004, it has a 3 cylinder,53 horsepower engine which produces 140 ft·lbf of torque at 2400 rpm and it was available in 2wd or Mechanical Front Wheel Drive and has a rear hitch capacity of 3,400 lb. Its operating platforms where IOOS, and Straddle Mount, John Deere List of John Deere tractors John Deere 5220
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Manufacturing is the value added to production of merchandise for use or sale using labour and machines, tools and biological processing, or formulation. Manufacturing engineering or manufacturing process are the steps through which raw materials are transformed into a final product, the manufacturing process begins with the product design, and materials specification from which the product is made. These materials are modified through manufacturing processes to become the required part. Manufacturing takes turns under all types of economic systems, in a free market economy, manufacturing is usually directed toward the mass production of products for sale to consumers at a profit. In a collectivist economy, manufacturing is more directed by the state to supply a centrally planned economy. In mixed market economies, manufacturing occurs under some degree of government regulation, modern manufacturing includes all intermediate processes required the production and integration of a products components.
Some industries, such as semiconductor and steel manufacturers use the term fabrication instead, the manufacturing sector is closely connected with engineering and industrial design. Examples of major manufacturers in North America include General Motors Corporation, General Electric, Procter & Gamble, General Dynamics, Pfizer, examples in Europe include Volkswagen Group and Michelin. Examples in Asia include Sony, Lenovo, Samsung, in its earliest form, manufacturing was usually carried out by a single skilled artisan with assistants. In much of the world, the guild system protected the privileges. Before the Industrial Revolution, most manufacturing occurred in rural areas, entrepreneurs organized a number of manufacturing households into a single enterprise through the putting-out system. Toll manufacturing is an arrangement whereby a first firm with specialized equipment processes raw materials or semi-finished goods for a second firm, manufacturing provides important material support for national infrastructure and for national defense.
On the other hand, most manufacturing may involve significant social and environmental costs, the clean-up costs of hazardous waste, for example, may outweigh the benefits of a product that creates it. Hazardous materials may expose workers to health risks and these costs are now well known and there is effort to address them by improving efficiency, reducing waste, using industrial symbiosis, and eliminating harmful chemicals. The negative costs of manufacturing can be addressed legally, developed countries regulate manufacturing activity with labor laws and environmental laws. Across the globe, manufacturers can be subject to regulations and pollution taxes to offset the costs of manufacturing activities. Labor unions and craft guilds have played a role in the negotiation of worker rights. Environment laws and labor protections that are available in developed nations may not be available in the third world, tort law and product liability impose additional costs on manufacturing
Middlebury College is a private liberal arts college located in Middlebury, Vermont. The college was founded in 1800 by Congregationalists making it the first operating college or university in Vermont, the college currently enrolls 2,526 undergraduates from all 50 states and 74 countries. Middlebury offers 44 majors in the arts, literature, foreign languages, social sciences, the college is the first American institution of higher education to have granted a bachelors degree to an African-American, graduating Alexander Twilight in the class of 1823. Middlebury was one of the first formerly all-male liberal arts colleges in New England to become a coeducational institution, in 1886, May Belle Chellis was the first woman to graduate and she was the valedictorian. Middlebury was listed as tied for the fourth-best liberal arts college in the U. S. in the 2016 U. S. News & World Report rankings, Middleburys 31 varsity teams are known as the Middlebury Panthers and compete in the NCAA Division IIIs NESCAC conference.
The school is known for its programs that focus on language, political science. Middlebury received its charter on November 1,1800, as an outgrowth of the Addison County Grammar School. The Colleges first president—Jeremiah Atwater—began classes a few later, making Middlebury the first operating college or university in Vermont. One student named Aaron Petty graduated at the first commencement held in August 1802, the Colleges founding religious affiliation was loosely Congregationalist. Yet the idea for a college was that of town rather than clergymen. Chief among its founders were Seth Storrs and Gamaliel Painter, the credited with the idea for a college. In addition to receiving a diploma upon graduation, Middlebury graduates receive a replica of Gamaliel Painters cane, Painter bequeathed his original cane to the College and it is carried by the College President at official occasions including first-year convocation and graduation. At its second commencement in 1804, Middlebury granted Lemuel Haynes an honorary masters degree, the first female graduate—May Belle Chellis—received her degree in 1886.
As valedictorian of the class of 1899, Mary Annette Anderson became the first African American woman elected to Phi Beta Kappa, the College’s centennial in 1900 began a century of physical expansion beyond the three buildings of Old Stone Row. York and Sawyer designed the Egbert Starr Library, a Beaux-Arts edifice expanded and renamed the Axinn Center, growth in enrollment and the endowment led to continued expansion westward. The national fraternity Kappa Delta Rho was founded in Painter Hall on May 17,1905, Middlebury College abolished fraternities in the early 1990s, but the organization continued on campus in the less ritualized form of a social house. Due to a policy at the school against single-sex organizations, the house was forced to coeducate during the period as well. The German Language School, founded in 1915 under the supervision of then-President John Martin Thomas, Middlebury President Paul Dwight Moody began the American tradition of a National Christmas Tree in 1923 when the College donated a 48-foot balsam fir for use at the White House