Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, that designs and sells consumer electronics, computer software, online services. It is considered one of the Big Four of technology along with Amazon and Facebook; the company's hardware products include the iPhone smartphone, the iPad tablet computer, the Mac personal computer, the iPod portable media player, the Apple Watch smartwatch, the Apple TV digital media player, the HomePod smart speaker. Apple's software includes the macOS and iOS operating systems, the iTunes media player, the Safari web browser, the iLife and iWork creativity and productivity suites, as well as professional applications like Final Cut Pro, Logic Pro, Xcode, its online services include the iTunes Store, the iOS App Store, Mac App Store, Apple Music, Apple TV+, iMessage, iCloud. Other services include Apple Store, Genius Bar, AppleCare, Apple Pay, Apple Pay Cash, Apple Card. Apple was founded by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne in April 1976 to develop and sell Wozniak's Apple I personal computer, though Wayne sold his share back within 12 days.
It was incorporated as Apple Computer, Inc. in January 1977, sales of its computers, including the Apple II, grew quickly. Within a few years and Wozniak had hired a staff of computer designers and had a production line. Apple went public in 1980 to instant financial success. Over the next few years, Apple shipped new computers featuring innovative graphical user interfaces, such as the original Macintosh in 1984, Apple's marketing advertisements for its products received widespread critical acclaim. However, the high price of its products and limited application library caused problems, as did power struggles between executives. In 1985, Wozniak departed Apple amicably and remained an honorary employee, while Jobs and others resigned to found NeXT; as the market for personal computers expanded and evolved through the 1990s, Apple lost market share to the lower-priced duopoly of Microsoft Windows on Intel PC clones. The board recruited CEO Gil Amelio to what would be a 500-day charge for him to rehabilitate the financially troubled company—reshaping it with layoffs, executive restructuring, product focus.
In 1997, he led Apple to buy NeXT, solving the failed operating system strategy and bringing Jobs back. Jobs pensively regained leadership status, becoming CEO in 2000. Apple swiftly returned to profitability under the revitalizing Think different campaign, as he rebuilt Apple's status by launching the iMac in 1998, opening the retail chain of Apple Stores in 2001, acquiring numerous companies to broaden the software portfolio. In January 2007, Jobs renamed the company Apple Inc. reflecting its shifted focus toward consumer electronics, launched the iPhone to great critical acclaim and financial success. In August 2011, Jobs resigned as CEO due to health complications, Tim Cook became the new CEO. Two months Jobs died, marking the end of an era for the company. Apple is well known for its size and revenues, its worldwide annual revenue totaled $265 billion for the 2018 fiscal year. Apple is the world's largest information technology company by revenue and the world's third-largest mobile phone manufacturer after Samsung and Huawei.
In August 2018, Apple became the first public U. S. company to be valued at over $1 trillion. The company employs 123,000 full-time employees and maintains 504 retail stores in 24 countries as of 2018, it operates the iTunes Store, the world's largest music retailer. As of January 2018, more than 1.3 billion Apple products are in use worldwide. The company has a high level of brand loyalty and is ranked as the world's most valuable brand. However, Apple receives significant criticism regarding the labor practices of its contractors, its environmental practices and unethical business practices, including anti-competitive behavior, as well as the origins of source materials. Apple Computer Company was founded on April 1, 1976, by Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak, Ronald Wayne; the company's first product is the Apple I, a computer designed and hand-built by Wozniak, first shown to the public at the Homebrew Computer Club. Apple I was sold as a motherboard —a base kit concept which would now not be marketed as a complete personal computer.
The Apple I went on sale in July 1976 and was market-priced at $666.66. Apple Computer, Inc. was incorporated on January 3, 1977, without Wayne, who had left and sold his share of the company back to Jobs and Wozniak for $800 only twelve days after having co-founded Apple. Multimillionaire Mike Markkula provided essential business expertise and funding of $250,000 during the incorporation of Apple. During the first five years of operations revenues grew exponentially, doubling about every four months. Between September 1977 and September 1980, yearly sales grew from $775,000 to $118 million, an average annual growth rate of 533%; the Apple II invented by Wozniak, was introduced on April 16, 1977, at the first West Coast Computer Faire. It differs from its major rivals, the TRS-80 and Commodore PET, because of its character cell-based color graphics and open architecture. While early Apple II models use ordinary cassette tapes as storage devices, they were superseded by the introduction of a 5 1⁄4-inch floppy disk drive and interface called the Disk II.
The Apple II was chosen to be the desktop platform for the first "killer app" of the business world: VisiCalc, a spreadsheet program. VisiCalc created a business market for the Apple II and gave home users an additional reason to buy an Apple II: compatibility with the office. Before VisiCalc, Apple had been a distant third place c
New York (state)
New York is a state in the Northeastern United States. New York was one of the original thirteen colonies. With an estimated 19.54 million residents in 2018, it is the fourth most populous state. To distinguish the state from the city with the same name, it is sometimes called New York State; the state's most populous city, New York City, makes up over 40% of the state's population. Two-thirds of the state's population lives in the New York metropolitan area, nearly 40% lives on Long Island; the state and city were both named for the 17th century Duke of York, the future King James II of England. With an estimated population of 8.62 million in 2017, New York City is the most populous city in the United States and the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States. The New York metropolitan area is one of the most populous in the world. New York City is a global city, home to the United Nations Headquarters and has been described as the cultural and media capital of the world, as well as the world's most economically powerful city.
The next four most populous cities in the state are Buffalo, Rochester and Syracuse, while the state capital is Albany. The 27th largest U. S. state in land area, New York has a diverse geography. The state is bordered by New Jersey and Pennsylvania to the south and Connecticut and Vermont to the east; the state has a maritime border with Rhode Island, east of Long Island, as well as an international border with the Canadian provinces of Quebec to the north and Ontario to the northwest. The southern part of the state is in the Atlantic coastal plain and includes Long Island and several smaller associated islands, as well as New York City and the lower Hudson River Valley; the large Upstate New York region comprises several ranges of the wider Appalachian Mountains, the Adirondack Mountains in the Northeastern lobe of the state. Two major river valleys – the north-south Hudson River Valley and the east-west Mohawk River Valley – bisect these more mountainous regions. Western New York is considered part of the Great Lakes region and borders Lake Ontario, Lake Erie, Niagara Falls.
The central part of the state is dominated by the Finger Lakes, a popular vacation and tourist destination. New York had been inhabited by tribes of Algonquian and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans for several hundred years by the time the earliest Europeans came to New York. French colonists and Jesuit missionaries arrived southward from Montreal for trade and proselytizing. In 1609, the region was visited by Henry Hudson sailing for the Dutch East India Company; the Dutch built Fort Nassau in 1614 at the confluence of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers, where the present-day capital of Albany developed. The Dutch soon settled New Amsterdam and parts of the Hudson Valley, establishing the multicultural colony of New Netherland, a center of trade and immigration. England seized the colony from the Dutch in 1664. During the American Revolutionary War, a group of colonists of the Province of New York attempted to take control of the British colony and succeeded in establishing independence. In the 19th century, New York's development of access to the interior beginning with the Erie Canal, gave it incomparable advantages over other regions of the U.
S. built its political and cultural ascendancy. Many landmarks in New York are well known, including four of the world's ten most-visited tourist attractions in 2013: Times Square, Central Park, Niagara Falls, Grand Central Terminal. New York is home to the Statue of Liberty, a symbol of the United States and its ideals of freedom and opportunity. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a global node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance, environmental sustainability. New York's higher education network comprises 200 colleges and universities, including Columbia University, Cornell University, New York University, the United States Military Academy, the United States Merchant Marine Academy, University of Rochester, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 40 in the nation and world; the tribes in what is now New York were predominantly Algonquian. Long Island was divided in half between the Wampanoag and Lenape; the Lenape controlled most of the region surrounding New York Harbor.
North of the Lenape was the Mohicans. Starting north of them, from east to west, were three Iroquoian nations: the Mohawk, the original Iroquois and the Petun. South of them, divided along Appalachia, were the Susquehannock and the Erie. Many of the Wampanoag and Mohican peoples were caught up in King Philip's War, a joint effort of many New England tribes to push Europeans off their land. After the death of their leader, Chief Philip Metacomet, most of those peoples fled inland, splitting into the Abenaki and the Schaghticoke. Many of the Mohicans remained in the region until the 1800s, however, a small group known as the Ouabano migrated southwest into West Virginia at an earlier time, they may have merged with the Shawnee. The Mohawk and Susquehannock were the most militaristic. Trying to corner trade with the Europeans, they targeted other tribes; the Mohawk were known for refusing white settlement on their land and banishing any of their people who converted to Christianity. They posed a major threat to the Abenaki and Mohicans, while the Susquehannock conquered the Lenape in the 1600s.
The most devastating event of the century, was the Beaver Wars. From 1640–1680, Iroquoian peoples waged campaigns which extended from modern-day Michigan to Virginia against Algonquian and Siouan tribes, as well as each other; the ai
The Spectacular Spider-Man (TV series)
The Spectacular Spider-Man is an American animated television series based on the superhero character published by Marvel Comics and developed for television by Greg Weisman and Victor Cook. In terms of overall tone and style, the series is based principally on the Stan Lee/Steve Ditko and Stan Lee/John Romita Sr. runs on The Amazing Spider-Man, with a similar balance of action and comedy as well as a high school setting. However, it tends to use material from all eras of the comic's run and other sources such as Sam Raimi's Spider-Man trilogy and the Ultimate Spider-Man comics; the Spectacular Spider-Man premiered on March 8, 2008, during the Kids' WB programming block of The CW. The series aired its second season on Marvel's sister network Disney XD in the United States and ended its run on November 18, 2009; the entire series was broadcast in Canada on Teletoon. Although a third season was planned, the series was cancelled before production could begin due to legal problems between Disney and Sony Pictures Television.
The two seasons of the series are each set during a semester of Peter's high school years, with season one running from September to November and season two from December to March. Producer Greg Weisman has stated that the show's theme is "The Education of Peter Parker." In keeping with this theme, each of the series arcs is named after courses of study: season one's arcs are Biology 101, Economics 101, Chemistry 101 and Psychology 101, season two's arcs are Engineering 101, Human Development 101, Criminology 101 and Drama 101. The first season features a shy bookworm named Peter Parker beginning his junior year at Midtown Manhattan Magnet High School, having only been bitten by the genetically-modified spider and acquired his powers and alias as Spider-Man in recent months. While harassed at school by football star Flash Thompson, he is close friends with classmates Gwen Stacy and Harry Osborn. In order to help support his Aunt May after the death of his Uncle Ben, Peter is able to get a job as a freelance photographer at the Daily Bugle, owned by the loudmouth, irascible and gruff publisher named J. Jonah Jameson, by obtaining pictures of his alter-ego in action so he could carry out a smear campaign against Spider-Man that has, at least temporarily, turned much of the gullible city against the hero.
Peter and Gwen are given junior lab assistant positions under Dr. Curt Connors at Empire State University, where they join their friend and mentor Eddie Brock; as Spider-Man uses his powers to fight against petty crime, he gains the attention of the Big Man who orchestrates crime in New York City, with attention drawn to his fights with the Enforcers, Vulture and the Lizard. With the help of Norman Osborn, his chief scientist Dr. Otto Octavius and criminal Hammerhead, the Big Man oversees the development of a project to create "supervillains" designed to distract Spider-Man from other crimes and stop damaging his profits; these new enemies include Sandman and Rhino, both petty criminals who fell victim to Spider-Man. However, the Big Man's plans become complicated when the mysterious Green Goblin enters the picture. Throughout the first season, the other opponents are introduced are Black Cat who has a crush on him and Chameleon. Quentin Beck and Phineas Mason appear as Chameleon's associates.
After the Green Goblin is vanquished, Spider-Man's symbiote black suit makes an appearance leading to Eddie Brock's transformation into Venom. Peter Parker's life becomes more complicated as he finds himself torn between Gwen Stacy and Liz Allan, both of whom have confessed their feelings for him. Norman Osborn takes on the role of Peter's mentor, pulling strings to re-establish his job as Dr. Connors' lab assistant, as well as overseeing the installment of the conniving Dr. Miles Warren into the ESU Labs. Meanwhile, as Spider-Man, Peter encounters new villains Mysterio and Kraven the Hunter, leading him to investigate the activities of a mysterious new crime lord known as the "Master Planner"; when the Master Planner's first scheme fails, Spider-Man is faced with a three-way gang war between the Planner's super-villain forces, the Big Man's established order, the old guard of Silvio "Silvermane" Manfredi's family. Peter's search for Eddie Brock leads to the return of Venom, who attempts to expose Spider-Man's secret identity and remove his powers.
When the three major crime lords are arrested, Spider-Man once again goes up against the Green Goblin, once again bent on eliminating the wall-crawler once and for all. The series ends with a cliffhanger due the show ending. Other new characters introduced in the second season include Calypso, Sha Shan Nguyen, Silver Sable, Roderick Kingsley and Molten Man. Quentin Beck and Phineas Mason return as the Tinkerer respectively; the timeline of the original Spider-Man story-arcs has been condensed and reconfigured in order to include classic and important characters who appeared much later. Characters such as Mary Jane Watson, Gwen Stacy and Harry Osborn are depicted not as direct equivalents to their older counterparts from the comics, but rather as characters who evolve into their established roles from the comics; the series sports a wide supporting cast. Every named character who appears in the series very minor characters, is based on a character who appeared in the original comics, Ultimate Spider-Man series, or film series.
The series incorporates a number of villains from different eras of the Spider-Man universe all o
Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey referred to as Rutgers University, Rutgers, or RU, is a public research university in New Jersey. It is the largest institution of higher education in New Jersey. Rutgers was chartered as Queen's College on November 10, 1766, it is the eighth-oldest college in the United States and one of the nine colonial colleges chartered before the American Revolution. The college was renamed Rutgers College in 1825 in honor of Colonel Henry Rutgers. For most of its existence, Rutgers was a private liberal arts college but it evolved into a coeducational public research university after being designated "The State University of New Jersey" by the New Jersey Legislature in laws enacted in 1945 and 1956. Rutgers has three campuses located throughout New Jersey: New Brunswick campus in New Brunswick and adjacent Piscataway, the Newark campus, the Camden campus; the university has additional facilities elsewhere in the state. Instruction is offered by 9,000 faculty members in 175 academic departments to over 45,000 undergraduate students and more than 20,000 graduate and professional students.
The university is accredited by the Middle States Association of Colleges and Schools and is a member of the Big Ten Academic Alliance, the Association of American Universities and the Universities Research Association. The New Brunswick campus was categorized by Howard and Matthew Green in their book titled The Public Ivies: America's Flagship Public Universities as a Public Ivy. Two decades after the College of New Jersey was established in 1746 by the New Light Presbyterians, ministers of the Dutch Reformed Church, seeking autonomy in ecclesiastical affairs in the American colonies, sought to establish a college to train those who wanted to become ministers within the church. Through several years of effort by the Rev. Theodorus Jacobus Frelinghuysen and Rev. Jacob Rutsen Hardenbergh the college's first president, Queen's College received its charter on November 10, 1766 from New Jersey's last Royal Governor, William Franklin, the illegitimate son of Founding Father Benjamin Franklin; the original charter established the college under the corporate name the trustees of Queen's College, in New-Jersey, named in honor of King George III's Queen consort, Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, created both the college and the Queen's College Grammar School, intended to be a preparatory school affiliated and governed by the college.
The Grammar School, today the private Rutgers Preparatory School, was a part of the college community until 1959. New Brunswick was chosen as the location over Hackensack because the New Brunswick Dutch had the support of the Anglican population, making the royal charter easier to obtain; the original purpose of Queen's College was to "educate the youth in language, the divinity, useful arts and sciences" and for the training of future ministers for the Dutch Reformed Church The college admitted its first students in 1771—a single sophomore and a handful of first-year students taught by a lone instructor—and granted its first degree in 1774, to Matthew Leydt. Despite the religious nature of the early college, the first classes were held at a tavern called the Sign of the Red Lion; when the Revolutionary War broke out and taverns were suspected by the British as being hotbeds of rebel activity, the college abandoned the tavern and held classes in private homes. According to research from Scarlet and Black, "Rutgers depended on slaves to build its campuses and serve its students and faculty.
In its early years, due to a lack of funds, Queen's College was closed for two extended periods. Early trustees considered merging the college with the College of New Jersey, in Princeton and considered relocating to New York City. In 1808, after raising $12,000, the college was temporarily reopened and broke ground on a building of its own, called "Old Queens", designed by architect John McComb, Jr; the college's third president, the Rev. Ira Condict, laid the cornerstone on April 27, 1809. Shortly after, the New Brunswick Theological Seminary, founded in 1784, relocated from Brooklyn, New York, to New Brunswick, shared facilities with Queen's College. During those formative years, all three institutions fit into Old Queens. In 1830, the Queen's College Grammar School moved across the street, in 1856, the Seminary relocated to a seven-acre tract less than one-half miles away. After several years of closure resulting from an economic depression after the War of 1812, Queen's College reopened in 1825 and was renamed "Rutgers College" in honor of American Revolutionary War hero Colonel Henry Rutgers.
According to the Board of Trustees, Colonel Rutgers was honored because he epitomized Christian values. A year after the school was renamed, it received two donations from its namesake: a $200 bell still hanging from the cupola of Old Queen's and a $5,000 bond which placed the college on sound financial footing. Rutgers College became the land-grant college of New Jersey in 1864 under the Morrill Act of 1862, resulting in the establishment of the Rutgers Scientific School, featuring departments of agriculture and chemistry; the Rutgers Scientific School would expand over the years to grow into the New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station and divide into the College of Engineering and the College of Agriculture. Rutgers created the New Jersey College for Women in 1918, the School of Education in 1
Sandman (Marvel Comics)
Sandman is a fictional character appearing in American comic books published by Marvel Comics. A shapeshifter endowed through an accident with the ability to turn himself into sand, he began as a villain and became an ally of Spider-Man; the character has been adapted into various other media incarnations of Spider-Man, including animated cartoons and the 2007 film Spider-Man 3, in which he is portrayed by Thomas Haden Church. In 2009, Sandman was ranked as IGN's 72nd Greatest Comic Book Villain of All Time; the Sandman first appeared in The Amazing Spider-Man #4, created by writer Stan Lee and artist Steve Ditko as an adversary of Spider-Man. The character returned in The Amazing Spider-Man #18 and #19, was soon depicted in other comics, such as The Incredible Hulk and The Fantastic Four; the Sandman served as the villain of the first issue of the Spider-Man spin-off series Marvel Team-Up, which gave him a more morally ambiguous depiction. Writer Roy Thomas commented, "I've been pleased to see Sandman's gradual redemption, whose seeds I helped plant in that story.
He just seemed to me like a character who might have that in him..." Subsequent stories stuck with the character's original depiction, but a decade the more sympathetic portrayal of the Sandman returned, starting with Marvel Two-in-One #86, in which the Sandman is given co-star billing with his nemesis the Thing. The Sandman was an ally of Spider-Man, as well as a reserve member of the Avengers and a member of Silver Sable's "Wild Pack" team of mercenaries. Besides being most notable as a Spider-Man supervillain, he has been depicted as a Fantastic Four antagonist in Stan Lee and Jack Kirby comic books along with being on the heroic side until being introduced as a tragic supervillain in the Spider-Man comics once again. William Baker was born in New York; when he was three years old, his father abandoned his mother. In these early years, she took her son to Coney Island beach, he lost himself in sand sculptures, a craft he would use in secondary school under the encouragement of his teacher, Miss Flint.
In preparatory school, a boy named Vic bullied Baker until he learned to fight using an opponents' motions against themselves, a technique he performed as if he "slipped through their fingers like sand". Vic and his buddies befriended Baker. In high school, William played on his school's football team. While playing football he adopted the nickname "Flint", after his former teacher. After Vic incurs a large gambling debt to a mobster, he begs Flint to fix a football game he bet on to pay off his debt. Flint is kicked off the team after the coach discovers his involvement; the coach taunts Baker. Flint hits his ex-coach, resulting in his expulsion from school and the beginning of his life of crime, his illegal activity increases in scope, turning him into a violent, bitter man. He ends up in prison on Ryker's Island where he meets his father, Floyd Baker, he does not tell him who he is. He tells Floyd his nickname, a false surname, inspired by his former coach's taunts about not "making a mark" on the world.
He uses the alias Flint Marko from that point on. After Floyd is released from prison, Marko escapes. Marko flees to a nuclear testing site on a beach near Savannah, Georgia where he comes into contact with sand, irradiated by an experimental reactor, his body and the radioactive sand bond, changing Marko's molecular structure into sand. Impressed, he calls himself the Sandman after his new powers. Marko clashes with Peter Parker/Spider-Man for the first time in Peter's high school. Spider-Man hands it over to the police; the Sandman escapes by getting through his window after turning himself to sand, but is recaptured by the Human Torch after the Torch lures the Sandman to a building by disguising himself as Spider-Man activating the sprinkler systems. After this Marko resurfaces as a member of the Sinister Six, led by Doctor Octopus, he battles Spider-Man inside an airtight metal box, activated when Spider-Man touches a card saying where the Vulture is, but the Sandman is defeated due to Spider-Man having stronger lungs than he does.
Alongside the Enforcers, he captures the Human Torch but succumbs to Spider-Man and the Human Torch. After Spider-Man defeats Flint numerous times, Flint diverts his attention to other superheroes, he teams with the Wizard, Paste Pot Pete and Medusa to form the Frightful Four to combat the Fantastic Four, which attacks during Reed and Sue's engagement party. The Fantastic Four, with the help of a few other superheroes, defeat the group. In another battle, in which he teams up with Blastaar and loses against the Four, he dons a diamond-patterned green costume designed by Wizard, he and Hulk dueled for the first time. Mandarin joins him in his next conflict against the Hulk. In time Sandman discovers—-starting with his hands—-that his body can transform into glass and back again, he takes over a medical research center, battling the Hulk again. He is cured of his cancer by radiation. Afterward, he allies himself with Hydro-Man to battle Spider-Man. An accident merges the two villains into a monster called Mud-Thing.
Spider-Man and the police are able to dehydrate the monstrosity
North Plainfield, New Jersey
For the former North Plainfield Township, see Green Brook Township, New Jersey. North Plainfield is a borough in New Jersey, United States; as of the 2010 United States Census, the borough's population was 21,936, reflecting an increase of 833 from the 21,103 counted in the 2000 Census, which had in turn increased by 2,283 from the 18,820 counted in the 1990 Census. North Plainfield Township was created from portions of Warren Township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature passed on April 2, 1872; the borough of North Plainfield became an independent municipality on June 9, 1885. The name derives from Plainfield, which derived its name from a local estate or from its scenic location. In 1902, the New Jersey Legislature approved measures that would have allowed the borough to become part of Union County and to allow for a merger of North Plainfield with the City of Plainfield subject to the approval of a referendum by voters in both municipalities. North Plainfield is home to the Washington Park Historic District.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the borough had a total area of 2.807 square miles, including 2.794 square miles of land and 0.013 square miles of water. The borough is bordered by Watchung to the north, Green Brook Township to the southwest, Plainfield to the south in Union County. North Plainfield is in the northern division of the Raritan Valley along with Green Brook; as of the 2010 United States Census, there were 21,936 people, 7,448 households, 5,265.736 families residing in the borough. The population density was 7,850.0 per square mile. There were 7,848 housing units at an average density of 2,808.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 55.01% White, 18.85% Black or African American, 0.29% Native American, 5.81% Asian, 0.05% Pacific Islander, 16.00% from other races, 3.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 44.21% of the population. There were 7,448 households out of which 35.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.3% were married couples living together, 15.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.3% were non-families.
22.8% of all households were made up of individuals, 6.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.94 and the average family size was 3.40. In the borough, the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 8.9% from 18 to 24, 33.0% from 25 to 44, 25.2% from 45 to 64, 8.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35.1 years. For every 100 females there were 100.8 males. For every 100 females ages 18 and older there were 98.5 males. The Census Bureau's 2006-2010 American Community Survey showed that median household income was $67,815 and the median family income was $70,359. Males had a median income of $42,766 versus $43,057 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $27,529. About 5.3% of families and 7.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.8% of those under age 18 and 6.7% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 United States Census there were 21,103 people, 7,202 households, 5,084 families residing in the borough.
The population density was 7,565.0 people per square mile. There were 7,393 housing units at an average density of 2,650.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the borough was 63.06% White, 13.38% African American, 0.28% Native American, 5.04% Asian, 0.08% Pacific Islander, 13.68% from other races, 4.48% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 32.77% of the population. There were 7,202 households out of which 37.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.7% were married couples living together, 11.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 29.4% were non-families. 23.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.0% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.90 and the average family size was 3.40. In the borough the population was spread out with 25.8% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 36.5% from 25 to 44, 19.6% from 45 to 64, 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years.
For every 100 females there were 97.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.8 males. The median income for a household in the borough was $55,322, the median income for a family was $62,875. Males had a median income of $39,662 versus $30,816 for females; the per capita income for the borough was $22,791. About 4.4% of families and 6.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 6.5% of those under age 18 and 10.4% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2000 Census, 5.39% of North Plainfield's residents identified themselves as being of Ecuadorian ancestry, the fourth highest of any municipality in New Jersey and the eighth highest percentage of Ecuadorian people in any place in the United States with 1,000 or more residents identifying their ancestry. The Borough of North Plainfield is governed within the Faulkner Act under the Mayor-Council system of municipal government, implemented based on the recommendations of a Charter Study Commission as of January 1, 1977.
This form provides for a strong-mayor type of government, in which the mayor has executive functions and the legislative branch is the Borough Council. The Councilmembers and Mayor are elected in years to four-year terms of office in partisan elections on an at-large basis for staggered terms, with four council seats up for election and the mayor and
Pirates of Silicon Valley
Pirates of Silicon Valley is an original 1999 American made for television biographical drama film, directed by Martyn Burke and starring Noah Wyle as Steve Jobs and Anthony Michael Hall as Bill Gates. Spanning the years 1971–1997 and based on Paul Freiberger and Michael Swaine's 1984 book Fire in the Valley: The Making of the Personal Computer, it explores the impact of the rivalry between Jobs and Gates on the development of the personal computer. Steve Jobs is speaking with director Ridley Scott, about the creation of the 1984 commercial for Apple Computer, which introduced the first Macintosh. Jobs is trying to convey his idea that "We're creating a new consciousness." Scott is more concerned with the technical aspects of the commercial. Next in 1997 with Jobs, returning to Apple, announcing a new deal with Microsoft at the 1997 Macworld Expo, his partner, Steve Wozniak or "WOZ", is introduced as one of the two central narrators of the story. Wozniak notes to the audience the resemblance between Big Brother and the image of Bill Gates on the screen behind Jobs during this announcement.
Asking how they "got from there to here," the film turns to flashbacks of his youth with Jobs, prior to the forming of Apple. The earliest flashback is in 1971 and takes place on the U. C. Berkeley campus during the period of the student anti-war movements. Teenagers Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak are shown caught on the campus during a riot between students and police, they flee and after finding safety, Jobs states to Wozniak, "Those guys think they're revolutionaries. They're not revolutionaries, we are." Wozniak comments that "Steve was never like you or me. He always saw things differently; when I was in Berkeley, I would see something and just see kilobytes or circuit boards while he'd see karma or the meaning of the universe." Using a similar structure, the film next turns to a young Bill Gates at Harvard University, in the early 1970s, with classmate Steve Ballmer, Gates' high school friend Paul Allen. As with Wozniak in the earlier segment, Ballmer narrates Gates' story the moment when Gates discovers the existence of Ed Roberts's MITS Altair causing him to drop out of Harvard.
Gates' and Allen's early work with MITS is juxtaposed against the involvement of Jobs and Wozniak with the "Homebrew Computer Club". Jobs and Woz develop Apple Computer in the garage of Jobs' family home, with the help of Daniel and Elizabeth. Mike Markkula invests in the company which allows it to expand and move forward. In 1977, Jobs and Markkula demo the Apple II at the West Coast Computer Faire; this event is followed by the development of the IBM-PC with the help of Gates and Microsoft in 1981. The film follows Jobs' relationship with his high school girlfriend and early Apple employee and the difficulties he had acknowledging the birth and existence of their daughter, Lisa. Around the time his daughter was born, Jobs unveiled his next computer, The Lisa; the Lisa was followed in 1984 by the, a computer inspired by the Xerox Alto. The main body of the film concludes with a 30th birthday toast in 1985 to Steve Jobs shortly before he was fired by CEO John Sculley, from Apple Inc; the film ends in 1997, with 42 year old Jobs' return to Apple and with his announcement at the MacWorld Expo of an alliance between Apple and Microsoft.
It indicates that Jobs is now married, has children, has reconciled with Lisa. Noah Wyle as Steve Jobs Anthony Michael Hall as Bill Gates Joey Slotnick as Steve Wozniak John DiMaggio as Steve Ballmer Josh Hopkins as Paul Allen Gailard Sartain as Ed Roberts Jeffrey Nordling as Mike Markkula Allan Royal as John Sculley J. G. Hertzler as Ridley Scott Gema Zamprogna as "Arlene" Brooke Radding as Lisa Brennan-Jobs Marcus Giamatti as Daniel Kottke Melissa McBride as Elizabeth Holmes Burke notes that when he was shown the first draft of the screenplay, based upon Freiberger and Swaine's Fire in the Valley, "It was all about how the'286 computer' became the'386' and so on... I was bored by it." After the studio asked him for suggestions Burke states that "I'm a great believer in Shakespeare, what we had was a modern equivalent of Hamlet, featuring two young princes, Bill Gates and Steve Jobs... the more I read about Steve in particular, the more I saw him in those Shakespearean terms. He was brilliant, obsessive, suspicious vicious in a business sense.
He was about conquest, always conquest. I said,'That's the sort of movie I want to make." Burke rewrote the screenplay. In developing the characters themselves, Burke stated that he chose not to speak with any of the central figures portrayed in the film: I did not want to do an "authorized biography" on either Microsoft or Apple, so we made the decision going in that we would not talk or meet with them. With a team of Harvard researchers, I embarked on a seven-month research project that encompassed everything we could find on the history of both companies, including old technical magazines from the'70s. I intended every scene to be based on actual events, including such fantastic moments as Bill Gates' bulldozer races in the middle of the night and Steve Jobs' bare feet going up on the board room table during an applicant's job interview. I have two or more sources. Burke sought Noah Wyle for the part of Jobs. Wyle turned down the role, bu