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John Dustin Archbold

John Dustin Archbold was an American businessman and one of the United States' earliest oil refiners. His small oil company was bought out by John D Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company. Archbold rose at Standard Oil, handling many of the complex secret negotiations over the years. By 1882, he was Rockefeller's closest associate, acted as the company's primary spokesman. Rockefeller, after 1896, left business matters to Archbold. Inspired by Rockefeller's policies, Archbold's main goals were stabilization and minimizing waste in refining and distributing petroleum products; the company was broken up by the Supreme Court in 1911 into 34 smaller operations, Archbold became president of the largest one, Standard Oil of New Jersey. Archbold was born to Methodist minister Reverend Israel Archbold and Frances Foster Dana in Leesburg, Ohio. After being educated in public schools, he moved to Pennsylvania by 1864. On February 20, 1870, Archbold married Annie Eliza Mills, "daughter of Samuel Myers Mills of Titusville and Lavinia Jenkins."

The couple had four children: Mary Lavina Archbold Anne Mills Archbold, mother of John Dana Archbold Frances Dana Archbold John Foster Archbold, father of zoologist Richard ArchboldIn 1885, Archbold purchased a large mansion in Tarrytown, New York. The estate, called Cedar Cliff, was located at 279 S. Broadway just across from the Carmelite Transfiguration Church. In 1864, Archbold went to the north-west Pennsylvania oil fields and spent 11 years in the oil industry there; when John D. Rockefeller's Standard Oil Company began buying up refiners in this oil-rich region, many independent refiners felt squeezed out, Archbold was among Standard's harshest and loudest critics. In 1885, after becoming skeptical of reports of oil discoveries in Oklahoma, he sold-out at a loss, saying "I'll drink every gallon produced west of the Mississippi!"Archbold was subsequently recruited by Rockefeller to Standard Oil, where he became a director and served as its vice-president and president until its dissolution in 1911.

Between 1911 and 1916, Archbold was president of the Standard Oil Company of New Jersey. A. Barton Hepburn was directed by the New York State Legislature in 1879 to investigate the railroads' practice of giving rebates within the state. Merchants without ties to the oil industry had pressed for the hearings. Prior to the committee's investigation, few knew of the size of Standard Oil's control and influence on unaffiliated oil refineries and pipelines - Hawke cites that only a dozen or so within Standard Oil knew the extent of company operations; the committee counsel, Simon Sterne, questioned representatives from the Erie Railroad and the New York Central Railroad and discovered that at least half of their long-haul traffic granted rebates, that much of this traffic came from Standard Oil. The committee shifted focus to Standard Oil's operations. John Dustin Archbold, as president of Acme Oil Company, denied that Acme was associated with Standard Oil, he admitted to being a director of Standard Oil.

The committee's final report scolded the railroads for their rebate policies and cited Standard Oil as an example. This scolding was moot to Standard Oil's interests since long-distance oil pipelines were now their preferred method of transportation. In 1886, Archbold became a member of the board of trustees of Syracuse University, was the board's president from 1893 until his death in 1916. From 1893 to 1914, he contributed nearly $6,000,000 for eight buildings, including the full cost of Archbold Stadium, Sims Hall, Archbold Gymnasium, the oval athletic field. Archbold was involved in a scandalous affair involving monetary gifts to the Republican Party. In 1912, he was called to testify before a committee, investigating political contributions made by the Standard Oil Company to the campaign funds of political parties, he claimed that President Theodore Roosevelt was aware of the $125,000 contribution made by Standard Oil Company to the 1904 campaign fund of the Republican Party, but President Roosevelt produced letters written by him which directed his campaign managers to return such monetary contributions if they were offered.

In 1915, an attempt was made by anarchists and Industrial Workers of the World radicals to assassinate Archbold at Cedar Cliff by planting a large dynamite bomb at the entrance to the estate. The bomb, which failed to go off, was discovered by Archbold's gardener. Police suspected that the attempted bombing was precipitated by the execution by firing squad of'Joe Hill', alias Joseph Hillstrom in Salt Lake City, Utah the day before. Joe Hill was an IWW member and labor organizer, convicted of murder. Archbold died of complications from appendicitis in Tarrytown, New York on December 6, 1916, he is buried in Sleepy Hollow Cemetery in New York. In 1914, the "John Dustin Archbold College of Liberal Arts" at Syracuse University was renamed in his honor; the entrance to the university's Hall of Languages remains inscribed with this name. The John D. Archbold Memorial Hospital, now the Archbold Medical Center, in Thomasville, was established in 1925, through a donation by his son, John Foster Archbold.

His grandson, John Dana Archbold, was a member of the Board of Trustees of Syracuse University from 1976 to 1993. The John Dana Archbold Theatre at Syracuse Stage

Troy Public Library

The Troy Public library is the main public library building in the city of Troy, New York, is located across the street from Russell Sage College in downtown Troy. The library has one other location, the Lansingburgh branch, temporarily closed in 2009 due to budget concerns; the Sycaway branch was temporarily closed in January 2009 but has been closed permanently since 2011. The first library began in 1799; the current building was completed in 1897 and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places, both in its own right and as a contributing property to the Central Troy Historic District. Funds to construct the downtown library, the Hart Memorial Building, were donated by Mary E. Hart to honor her late husband, William Howard Hart. Designed by the New York City architectural firm of Barney and Chapman, the library is an example of the American Renaissance style, which had evolved with the success of the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition in Chicago. Other examples of the style include the Villard Houses, The Low Library at Columbia University and the Boston Public Library.

The exterior west and south walls of the Troy Public Library are constructed of white Vermont marble. The walls are rusticated on the first story, are contrasted with dressed stones, Ashler Masonry, on the upper story; the facades are articulated carved stone courses, water table, cornice. The ornament surrounding the three windows on the Second Street side are detailed; the Ferry Street side of the building is a five bay loggia at the second story level. This building is topped with a balustrade over the entrance; the building was described in the 1972, as "one of the finest examples of Italian Renaissance style in this country". The building boasts a tiffany glass window depicting the Venetian scholar and printer Aldus Manutius. History of the Troy Public Library

Sune Sik

Sune Sik, was a Swedish prince. According to Olaus Petri, he would have been a younger son of King Sverker I of Sweden and father of Ingrid Ylva. In surviving contemporary documents one Sune Sik can be found; that Sune Sik made a donation to Vreta Abbey as late as in 1297. He might have ordered a restoration of a chapel in which he was interred, Cistercian tradition may have turned him into a prince; this has caused some historians to view Olaus Petri's account of him as unreliable. Sune Sik, as a son of King Sverker, is counted by other Swedish historians as a person of history and the man buried at Vreta. According to 18th-century Swedish Master of Philosophy Magnus Boræn, Sune was Duke of Östergötland

Olympia FC Warriors

Olympia Football Club Warriors, known as Olympia FC Warriors, is a professional association football club based in Hobart, Australia. The club competes in the NPL Tasmania; the club fields teams in all junior divisions, as well as women's teams. Olympia play their home games in Warrane, Tasmania. Olympia was formed in 1960 as "The Grecians", for the most part of their history have been predominantly represented by players of ethnic Greek background; the club headquarters are located at the Hobart Hellenic Club. In 1958 they changed their name to "Olympia" a name which they kept unchanged until 1997, when ethnic affiliations were removed from Australian football. Unwilling to depart from their Greek association, the club changed'Olympia' to'Olympic'. In October 2009 after a revamped new Board, newly elected President George Mamacas started making immediate changes to the ailing club, they reverted to their former ethnically-affiliated name'Olympia', added the epithet'Warriors', as well as adopting a new logo featuring a Spartan warrior's helmet replacing the 50-year-old shield with a map of the island State of Tasmania to further celebrate the Greek Australian heritage.

This decision was made ahead of the club's fiftieth anniversary celebrations, taken with the full blessing of Football Federation Tasmania. Olympia have been one of the more successful Tasmanian club, winning the State Championship on seven occasions, although they have struggled to emulate the glory of the 1960s. During the 1960s they won 5 consecutive state championship, 5 Southern titles, 2 Ampol Cup wins, 3 Falkinder Cup wins and 2 Association Cup wins. Olympia built strong teams throughout the 1980s and 1990s who were competitive; the Club has tasted success in Cup competitions in more recent times winning the Statewide Cup in 2013 and Pre-season Cups in 2013, 2014 and 2015. It won the Tasmanian Victory League in 2015. State Championship: 1964,1965,1966,1967,1968,1987,1996, 2015 State Championship Runners-up: 1963 Southern Premierships: 1963,1965,1966,1967,1968,1987,1988 Southern Premier Runners-up: 1964,1969 Milan Lakoseljac Cup Winners: 1964,1968,1972,1988,1995, 2013, 2017 Milan Lakoseljac Cup Runners-up: 1963,1965,1967, 1975, 2011 Summer Cup Winners: (1975,1998,1999,2005, 2013, 2014, 2015 Summer Cup Runners-up: 1983,1987 Cadbury Charity Cup Runners-up: 1987 Cadbury Trophy Winners: 1986 Cadbury Trophy Runners-up: 1987,1988,1990,1991 DJ Trophy Runners-up: 1977 Falkinder and Association Cup Winners: 1963,1966,1967 Falkinder and Association Cup Runners-up: 1965 Association Cup: (1961,1965,1966,1967 Lloyd Triestino Cup Winners: 1975 Lloyd Triestino Cup Runners-up: 1973,1974 Bohemian Cup Runners-up: 1986 Official Website

Nolin Map

Nolin Map is an historic map of the Land of Israel and the city of Jerusalem, drawn by the French cartographer and geographer Jean Baptist Nolin in 1700. Today the map is found within the Eran Laor maps collection in the National Library of Israel in Jerusalem; the map is printed on four sheets. The Land of Israel appears at the center of the map, the Mediterranean Sea at its top left side, the Dead Sea at its right, a small map of the old city of Jerusalem at its bottom right - with illustrations of the old city's streets and the Temple Mount. A geographical and historical contextual description of the Land of Israel appears at the top left side, on top of the Mediterranean Sea surface. Both vertical sides of the map contain small images, depicting landscapes of holy cities as Jerusalem and Nazareth, scenes within religious places; the dimension of the map is 97.8 by 125 centimeters. Jerusalem in Maps and Mirrors, from Byzantine Period Until the 19th Century, 1987, Nahar Books and Kinneret Zmora-Bitan Dvir publishers, The National Library of Israel, Jerusalem.

Information on the map, the National Library of Israel Website


Bismarckjugend,'Bismarck Youth', was an anti-Marxist youth movement in Weimar Germany. Bismarckjugend was the youth wing of the monarchist German National People's Party; the organization was founded in Hanover in 1922, through the unification of various local youth groups close to DNVP. DNVP was the last of the established parties in the Reichstag to have a national youth wing of its own; the organization was politically dependent on the DNVP. The youth movement was led by Wilhelm Kube. Bismarckjugend branches were at first centred in the industrial areas of Germany; the movement spread its wings to the rural eastern regions of the country. Soon after the founding of the national youth organization, Hermann Otto Sieveking became its chairman. Under Sieveking's leadership, the organization developed a paramilitary character, it began to organize annual national youth meetings. By mid-1923 Bismarckjugend entered a period of continuous decay. DNVP was associated with the old order and was unpopular amongst the younger generation.

In July 1928 the seventh national youth meeting of Bismarcksjugend has held in Friedrichsruh to commemorate the 30th anniversary of Otto von Bismarck's death. Friedrichsruh is the site of Bismarck's mausoleum; the meeting had particular importance to the mother party, as it was an important event to show strength after the meagre electoral result for DNVP in May the same year. By the end of the 1920s Bismarckjugend had expanded its membership. In the 1933 National Socialist take-over, parties other than the NSDAP either dissolved themselves or were banned. On June 27, 1933 a'Friendly Agreement' was signed between the DNVP and the NSDAP, following which the DNF dissolved itself. In 1935, the wearing of the Bismarckjugend uniform was banned by law. At the time of the founding of the organization, its name was National League of Youth Groups of the German National People's Party. In the autumn of 1922 the name Bismarck Youth of the German National People's Party was adopted, in short Bismarckjugend.

The name referred to Otto von Bismarck, sought to link the organization with Bismarck's historical legacy. Bismarck's grandson Otto gave his permission to the organization to use his grandfather's name. Bismarckjugend organized men and women between the ages of 14 and 25. By 1928, the organization had 800 local organizations around Germany, its total membership had reached 42,000, making it the second largest youth movement in the country at the time. The movement had a stronger appeal in Protestant areas. Strongholds included Berlin, Hesse, Lower Saxony, Pomerania, Württemberg and Hamburg. Most of the members came from noble families; however the single largest affiliate body of the movement, the Bismarck League Berlin, had an overwhelmingly working class membership. As of 1922 the Bismarck League Berlin had around 6,000 affiliates 80% from working-class families; the Berlin affiliate had been founded in 1920. Bismarckjugend published Deutsches Echo