Orlando is a city in the U. S. state of Florida and the county seat of Orange County. Located in Central Florida, it is the center of the Orlando metropolitan area, which had a population of 2,509,831, according to U. S. Census Bureau figures released in July 2017; these figures make it the 23rd-largest metropolitan area in the United States, the sixth-largest metropolitan area in the Southern United States, the third-largest metropolitan area in Florida. As of 2015, Orlando had an estimated city-proper population of 280,257, making it the 73rd-largest city in the United States, the fourth-largest city in Florida, the state's largest inland city; the City of Orlando is nicknamed "The City Beautiful," and its symbol is the fountain at Lake Eola. Orlando is known as "The Theme Park Capital of the World" and in 2016 its tourist attractions and events drew more than 72 million visitors; the Orlando International Airport is the thirteenth-busiest airport in the United States and the 29th-busiest in the world.
As one of the world's most visited tourist destinations, Orlando's famous attractions form the backbone of its tourism industry. The two most significant of these attractions are Walt Disney World, opened by the Walt Disney Company in 1971, located 21 miles southwest of Downtown Orlando in Bay Lake. With the exception of Walt Disney World, most major attractions are located along International Drive with one of these attractions being the Orlando Eye; the city is one of the busiest American cities for conferences and conventions. Like other major cities in the Sun Belt, Orlando grew from the 1980s up into the first decade of the 21st century. Orlando is home to the University of Central Florida, the largest university campus in the United States in terms of enrollment as of 2015. In 2010, Orlando was listed as a "Gamma−" level global city in the World Cities Study Group's inventory. Orlando ranks as the fourth-most popular American city based on where people want to live according to a 2009 Pew Research Center study.
Fort Gatlin, as the Orlando area was once known, was established at what is now just south of the city limits by the 4th U. S. Artillery under the command of Ltc. Alexander C. W. Fanning on November 9, 1838, during the construction of a series of fortified encampments across Florida during the Second Seminole War; the fort and surrounding area were named for Dr. John S. Gatlin, an Army physician, killed in Dade's Massacre on December 28, 1835; the site of construction for Fort Gatlin, a defensible position with fresh water between three small lakes, was chosen because the location was on a main trail and is less than 250 yards from a nearby Council Oak tree where Native Americans had traditionally met. King Phillip and Coacoochee frequented this area and the tree was alleged to be the place where the previous 1835 ambush that had killed over 100 soldiers had been planned; when the U. S. military abandoned the fort in 1839, the surrounding community was built up by settlers. Prior to being known by its current name, Orlando was once known as Jernigan.
This name originates from the first permanent settlers and Aaron Jernigan, cattlemen who acquired land two miles northwest of Fort Gatlin along the west end of Lake Holden in July 1843 by the terms of the Armed Occupation Act. Aaron Jernigan became Orange County's first State Representative in 1845 but his pleas for additional military protection went unanswered. Fort Gatlin was reoccupied by the military for a few weeks during October and November 1849 and subsequently a volunteer militia was left to defend the settlement. A historical marker indicates that by 1850 the Jernigan homestead served as the nucleus of a village named Jernigan. According to an account written years by his daughter, at that time, about 80 settlers were forced to shelter for about a year in "a stockade that Aaron Jernigan built on the north side of Lake Conway". One of the county's first records, a grand jury's report, mentions a stockade where it states homesteaders were "driven from their homes and forced to huddle together in hasty defences."
Aaron Jernigan led a local volunteer militia during 1852. A Post Office opened at Jernigan in 1850. Jernigan appears on an 1855 map of Florida and by 1856 the area had become the county seat of Orange County. In 1857, the Post Office was removed from Jernigan, opened under the name of Orlando at a new location in present-day downtown Orlando. During the American Civil War, the Post Office closed, but reopened in 1866; the move is believed to be sparked, in part, by Aaron Jernigan's fall from grace after he was relieved of his militia command by military officials in 1856. His behavior was so notorious that Secretary of War Jefferson Davis wrote, "It is said they are more dreadful than the Indians." In 1859, Jernigan and his sons were accused of committing a murder at the town's post office. They were transported to Ocala, but escaped. There are at least five stories as to; the most common stories are that the name Orlando originated from the tale of a man who died in 1835 during a attack by Native Americans in the area during the Second Seminole War.
Several of the stories relay an oral history of the marker for a person named Orlando, the double entendre, "Here lies Orlando." One variant includes a man named Orlando, passing by on his way to Tampa with a herd of oxen and was buried in a marked grave. At a meeting in 1857, debate had grown concerning the name of the town. Pioneer William B. Hull recalled
John Abbot (entomologist)
John Abbot was an American naturalist and artist. He was the first artist in the New World to create an extensive series of insect drawings and to show insects in all stages of development. In addition to more than 3000 insect illustrations, he produced drawings of birds and plants. To facilitate his work he collected a great number of insects and reared thousands more, he was considered one of the best insect illustrators of his era and his art and insect collections were sold to an eager market in London. By his own recollection, Abbot was born on June 1, 1751 but parish records indicate his birthday on May 31, he was the eldest son of James Abbot, a successful attorney, Ann Abbot. He grew up in a fashionable London neighborhood and spent part of his time at his family's country house, he showed an early interest in collecting and drawing. Abbot studied art with Jacob Bonneau and his first known entomological paintings were created in 1766. Abbot's technique improved and in a few years he was producing some of the best entomological illustrations of the eighteenth-century.
The Russian naturalist Andrey Avinoff, an accomplished artist himself, described Abbot's work as "among the masterpieces of entomological portraiture". Sometime after 1767, Bonneau used his connections to introduce his talented student to Dru Drury, a wealthy naturalist and owner of one of the best insect collections in England. Drury gave Abbot access to his collection and introduced him to other prominent entomologists and naturalists in London. Drury and other members of the Royal Society recognized his talent as an illustrator and encouraged him to go to America to collect insects. Abbot settled on Virginia as his destination, he made arrangements with Thomas Martyn and John Francillon, both naturalists and dealers in natural history collections, to purchase whatever specimens he might ship back to London. Abbot set sail for Jamestown in July 1773. On the voyage he befriended the Goodall family from Virginia and agreed to stay with them at their plantation in Hanover County, he started collecting insects on arrival but his first few years were difficult.
The diversity and number of insects in Virginia did not meet his expectations and two of his first three shipments back to London were lost at sea. In addition, politics in Virginia were becoming divisive as revolution approached. Abbot considered returning to London and Drury encouraged him to travel to Surinam. Instead he decided to join members of the Goodall family and head down to Georgia where he hoped to avoid the upcoming war and find better opportunities for collecting specimens. Abbot left Virginia in December 1775; when he arrived in Georgia, he again stayed with the Goodall family in a log cabin constructed about 100 miles south of Augusta. Although he had hoped to escape the war, hostilities broke out as soon as he had settled in Georgia. Abbot served with the Continental Army as a private in the 3rd Georgia Regiment; as a veteran after the war he was granted 575 acres of land. At some point, Abbot married Penelope Warren and they had one son, John Abbot Jr. in 1779. Abbot became a successful planter and lived with his family in a large and comfortable house in Burke County.
He continued his work as a naturalist, exploring the Ogeechee and Savannah River basins as well as the coastal area near the port of Savannah. His insect collections and watercolor illustrations were in great demand. In 1797, The Natural History of the Rarer Lepidopterous Insects of Georgia... Collected from the Observations of Mr. John Abbot was edited by James Edward Smith and published in two volumes, it was the first major work on North American insects and contained 104 etchings of watercolors of species that Abbot had collected. Abbot had a change of fortune around 1795; the details are unknown but by 1806 he was living with his son in Savannah and teaching school to supplement his income. However, he continued his work as a naturalist with a new focus on birds. In the early 1790s he became interested in ornithology and completed more than 1,300 bird illustrations in his lifetime, he collaborated with ornithologist Alexander Wilson and the two of them exchanged a good deal of data on birds.
In 1818 Abbot moved to Bulloch County where he continued to work for the rest of his life. As he grew older both his vision and hearing were impaired, his last known shipment of insects occurred in 1836. He died sometime in 1840 or early 1841, he produced thousands of insect illustrations, as well as several sets of bird illustrations. The majority are preserved in the Natural History Museum, the British Museum and Houghton Library at Harvard University. Other repositories of his drawings include Johns Hopkins University, University of South Carolina, Emory University, the Alexander Turnbull Library; some have been dispersed following various auctions. The bird and insect specimens that he collected were sent to Britain and Europe, but a certain number were lost at sea, which discouraged him, he nonetheless continued to collect and paint specimens until at least 1835. The only publication to bear his name was The Natural History of the Rarer Lepidopterous Insects of Georgia, whose primary author was James Edward Smith.
It included 104 plates that were reproduced from original drawings by John Abbot, which are now preserved at Johns Hopkins University. Abbot provided most of the observations published in the book. First appearing in 1797, new copies of the book were issued for thirty years. From 1829 to 1837, renowned French entomologist Jean Baptiste Boisduval and
Florida is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States. The state is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by the Straits of Florida. Florida is the 22nd-most extensive, the 3rd-most populous, the 8th-most densely populated of the U. S. states. Jacksonville is the most populous municipality in the state and the largest city by area in the contiguous United States; the Miami metropolitan area is Florida's most populous urban area. Tallahassee is the state's capital. Florida's $1.0 trillion economy is the fourth largest in the United States. If it were a country, Florida would be the 16th largest economy in the world, the 58th most populous as of 2018. In 2017, Florida's per capita personal income was ranking 26th in the nation; the unemployment rate in September 2018 was 3.5% and ranked as the 18th in the United States. Florida exports nearly $55 billion in goods made in the 8th highest among all states.
The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. This is more than twice the number of the next metro area, the Tampa Bay Area, which has a GDP of $145.3 billion. Florida is home to 51 of the world's billionaires with most of them residing in South Florida; the first European contact was made in 1513 by Spanish explorer Juan Ponce de León, who called it la Florida upon landing there in the Easter season, known in Spanish as Pascua Florida. Florida was a challenge for the European colonial powers before it gained statehood in the United States in 1845, it was a principal location of the Seminole Wars against the Native Americans, racial segregation after the American Civil War. Today, Florida is distinctive for its large Cuban expatriate community and high population growth, as well as for its increasing environmental issues; the state's economy relies on tourism and transportation, which developed in the late 19th century.
Florida is renowned for amusement parks, orange crops, winter vegetables, the Kennedy Space Center, as a popular destination for retirees. Florida is the flattest state in the United States. Lake Okeechobee is the largest freshwater lake in the U. S. state of Florida. Florida's close proximity to the ocean influences many aspects of daily life. Florida is a reflection of multiple inheritance. Florida has attracted many writers such as Marjorie Kinnan Rawlings, Ernest Hemingway and Tennessee Williams, continues to attract celebrities and athletes, it is internationally known for golf, auto racing, water sports. Several beaches in Florida have emerald-colored coastal waters. About two-thirds of Florida occupies a peninsula between the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Florida has the longest coastline in the contiguous United States 1,350 miles, not including the contribution of the many barrier islands. Florida has a total of 4,510 islands; this is the second-highest number of islands of any state of the United States.
It is the only state that borders both the Gulf of the Atlantic Ocean. Much of the state is characterized by sedimentary soil. Florida has the lowest high point of any U. S. state. The climate varies from subtropical in the north to tropical in the south; the American alligator, American crocodile, American flamingo, Roseate spoonbill, Florida panther, bottlenose dolphin, manatee can be found in Everglades National Park in the southern part of the state. Along with Hawaii, Florida is one of only two states that has a tropical climate, is the only continental state with either a tropical climate or a coral reef; the Florida Reef is the only living coral barrier reef in the continental United States, the third-largest coral barrier reef system in the world. By the 16th century, the earliest time for which there is a historical record, major Native American groups included the Apalachee of the Florida Panhandle, the Timucua of northern and central Florida, the Ais of the central Atlantic coast, the Tocobaga of the Tampa Bay area, the Calusa of southwest Florida and the Tequesta of the southeastern coast.
Florida was the first region of the continental United States to be visited and settled by Europeans. The earliest known European explorers came with the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce de León spotted and landed on the peninsula on April 2, 1513, he named the region Florida. The story that he was searching for the Fountain of Youth is mythical and only appeared long after his death. In May 1539, Conquistador Hernando de Soto skirted the coast of Florida, searching for a deep harbor to land, he described seeing a thick wall of red mangroves spread mile after mile, some reaching as high as 70 feet, with intertwined and elevated roots making landing difficult. The Spanish introduced Christianity, horses, the Castilian language, more to Florida. Spain established several settlements with varying degrees of success. In 1559, Don Tristán de Luna y Arellano established a settlement at present-day Pensacola, making it the first attempted settlement in Florida, but it was abandoned by 1561.
In 1565, the settlement of St. Augustine was established under the leadership of admiral and
Mammals are vertebrate animals constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands which in females produce milk for feeding their young, a neocortex, fur or hair, three middle ear bones. These characteristics distinguish them from reptiles and birds, from which they diverged in the late Triassic, 201–227 million years ago. There are around 5,450 species of mammals; the largest orders are the rodents and Soricomorpha. The next three are the Primates, the Cetartiodactyla, the Carnivora. In cladistics, which reflect evolution, mammals are classified as endothermic amniotes, they are the only living Synapsida. The early synapsid mammalian ancestors were sphenacodont pelycosaurs, a group that produced the non-mammalian Dimetrodon. At the end of the Carboniferous period around 300 million years ago, this group diverged from the sauropsid line that led to today's reptiles and birds; the line following the stem group Sphenacodontia split off several diverse groups of non-mammalian synapsids—sometimes referred to as mammal-like reptiles—before giving rise to the proto-mammals in the early Mesozoic era.
The modern mammalian orders arose in the Paleogene and Neogene periods of the Cenozoic era, after the extinction of non-avian dinosaurs, have been among the dominant terrestrial animal groups from 66 million years ago to the present. The basic body type is quadruped, most mammals use their four extremities for terrestrial locomotion. Mammals range in size from the 30–40 mm bumblebee bat to the 30-meter blue whale—the largest animal on the planet. Maximum lifespan varies from two years for the shrew to 211 years for the bowhead whale. All modern mammals give birth to live young, except the five species of monotremes, which are egg-laying mammals; the most species-rich group of mammals, the cohort called placentals, have a placenta, which enables the feeding of the fetus during gestation. Most mammals are intelligent, with some possessing large brains, self-awareness, tool use. Mammals can communicate and vocalize in several different ways, including the production of ultrasound, scent-marking, alarm signals and echolocation.
Mammals can organize themselves into fission-fusion societies and hierarchies—but can be solitary and territorial. Most mammals are polygynous. Domestication of many types of mammals by humans played a major role in the Neolithic revolution, resulted in farming replacing hunting and gathering as the primary source of food for humans; this led to a major restructuring of human societies from nomadic to sedentary, with more co-operation among larger and larger groups, the development of the first civilizations. Domesticated mammals provided, continue to provide, power for transport and agriculture, as well as food and leather. Mammals are hunted and raced for sport, are used as model organisms in science. Mammals have been depicted in art since Palaeolithic times, appear in literature, film and religion. Decline in numbers and extinction of many mammals is driven by human poaching and habitat destruction deforestation. Mammal classification has been through several iterations since Carl Linnaeus defined the class.
No classification system is universally accepted. George Gaylord Simpson's "Principles of Classification and a Classification of Mammals" provides systematics of mammal origins and relationships that were universally taught until the end of the 20th century. Since Simpson's classification, the paleontological record has been recalibrated, the intervening years have seen much debate and progress concerning the theoretical underpinnings of systematization itself through the new concept of cladistics. Though field work made Simpson's classification outdated, it remains the closest thing to an official classification of mammals. Most mammals, including the six most species-rich orders, belong to the placental group; the three largest orders in numbers of species are Rodentia: mice, porcupines, beavers and other gnawing mammals. The next three biggest orders, depending on the biological classification scheme used, are the Primates including the apes and lemurs. According to Mammal Species of the World, 5,416 species were identified in 2006.
These were grouped into 153 families and 29 orders. In 2008, the International Union for Conservation of Nature completed a five-year Global Mammal Assessment for its IUCN Red List, which counted 5,488 species. According to a research published in the Journal of Mammalogy in 2018, the number of recognized mammal species is 6,495 species included 96 extinct; the word "mammal" is modern, from the scientific name Mammalia coined by Carl Linnaeus in 1758, derived from the Latin mamma. In an influential 1988 paper, Timothy Rowe defined Mammalia phylogenetically as the crown group of mammals, the clade consisting of the most recent common ancestor of living monotremes and therian m
Topography is the study of the shape and features of land surfaces. The topography of an area could refer to the surface shapes and features themselves, or a description. Topography is a field of geoscience and planetary science and is concerned with local detail in general, including not only relief but natural and artificial features, local history and culture; this meaning is less common in the United States, where topographic maps with elevation contours have made "topography" synonymous with relief. Topography in a narrow sense involves the recording of relief or terrain, the three-dimensional quality of the surface, the identification of specific landforms; this is known as geomorphometry. In modern usage, this involves generation of elevation data in digital form, it is considered to include the graphic representation of the landform on a map by a variety of techniques, including contour lines, hypsometric tints, relief shading. The term topography originated in ancient Greece and continued in ancient Rome, as the detailed description of a place.
The word comes from the Greek τόπος and -γραφία. In classical literature this refers to writing about a place or places, what is now called'local history'. In Britain and in Europe in general, the word topography is still sometimes used in its original sense. Detailed military surveys in Britain were called Ordnance Surveys, this term was used into the 20th century as generic for topographic surveys and maps; the earliest scientific surveys in France were called the Cassini maps after the family who produced them over four generations. The term "topographic surveys" appears to be American in origin; the earliest detailed surveys in the United States were made by the “Topographical Bureau of the Army,” formed during the War of 1812, which became the Corps of Topographical Engineers in 1838. After the work of national mapping was assumed by the U. S. Geological Survey in 1878, the term topographical remained as a general term for detailed surveys and mapping programs, has been adopted by most other nations as standard.
In the 20th century, the term topography started to be used to describe surface description in other fields where mapping in a broader sense is used in medical fields such as neurology. An objective of topography is to determine the position of any feature or more any point in terms of both a horizontal coordinate system such as latitude and altitude. Identifying features, recognizing typical landform patterns are part of the field. A topographic study may be made for a variety of reasons: military planning and geological exploration have been primary motivators to start survey programs, but detailed information about terrain and surface features is essential for the planning and construction of any major civil engineering, public works, or reclamation projects. There are a variety of approaches to studying topography. Which method to use depend on the scale and size of the area under study, its accessibility, the quality of existing surveys. Surveying helps determine the terrestrial or three-dimensional space position of points and the distances and angles between them using leveling instruments such as theodolites, dumpy levels and clinometers.
Work on one of the first topographic maps was begun in France by Giovanni Domenico Cassini, the great Italian astronomer. Though remote sensing has sped up the process of gathering information, has allowed greater accuracy control over long distances, the direct survey still provides the basic control points and framework for all topographic work, whether manual or GIS-based. In areas where there has been an extensive direct survey and mapping program, the compiled data forms the basis of basic digital elevation datasets such as USGS DEM data; this data must be "cleaned" to eliminate discrepancies between surveys, but it still forms a valuable set of information for large-scale analysis. The original American topographic surveys involved not only recording of relief, but identification of landmark features and vegetative land cover. Remote sensing is a general term for geodata collection at a distance from the subject area. Besides their role in photogrammetry and satellite imagery can be used to identify and delineate terrain features and more general land-cover features.
They have become more and more a part of geovisualization, whether maps or GIS systems. False-color and non-visible spectra imaging can help determine the lie of the land by delineating vegetation and other land-use information more clearly. Images can be in other spectrum. Photogrammetry is a measurement technique for which the co-ordinates of the points in 3D of an object are determined by the measurements made in two photographic images taken starting from different positions from different passes of an aerial photography flight. In this technique, the common points are identified on each image. A line of sight can be built from the camera location to the point on the object, it is the intersection of its rays which determines the relative three-dimensional position of the point. Known control points can be used to give these relative positions absolute values. More sophisticated algorithms can exploit other information on the scene known a priori. Satellite RADAR mapping is one of the major techniques of generating Digital E
John Bartram was an early American botanist and explorer. Carl Linnaeus said he was the "greatest natural botanist in the world." Bartram was born into a Quaker farm family in colonial Pennsylvania. He considered himself a plain farmer, with no formal education beyond the local school, he had a lifelong interest in medicine and medicinal plants, read widely. His botanical career started with a small area of his farm devoted to growing plants he found interesting, he came to travel extensively in the eastern American colonies collecting plants. In 1743 he visited the shores of Lake Ontario in the north, wrote Observations on the Inhabitants, Soil, Productions and other Matters Worthy of Notice, made by Mr. John Bartram in his Travels from Pennsylvania to Onondaga and the Lake Ontario, in Canada. During the winter of 1765/66 he visited East Florida in the south, an account of this trip was published with his journal, he visited the Ohio River in the west. Many of his acquisitions were transported to collectors in Europe.
In return, they supplied him with books and apparatus. Bartram, sometimes called the "father of American Botany", was one of the first practicing Linnaean botanists in North America, his plant specimens were forwarded to Linnaeus and Gronovius, he assisted Linnaeus' student Pehr Kalm during his extended collecting trip to North America in 1748–1750. Bartram was aided in his collecting efforts by colonists. In Bartram's Diary of a Journey through the Carolinas and Florida, a trip taken from July 1, 1765, to April 10, 1766, Bartram wrote of specimens he had collected. In the colony of British East Florida he was helped by secretary of the colony, his 8-acre botanic garden, Bartram's Garden in Kingsessing on the west bank of the Schuylkill, about 3 miles from the center of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is cited as the first true botanic collection in North America. He was one of the co-founders, with Benjamin Franklin, of the American Philosophical Society in 1743. Bartram was instrumental in sending seeds from the New World to European gardeners: many North American trees and flowers were first introduced into cultivation in Europe by this route.
Beginning ca. 1733, Bartram's work was assisted by his association with the English merchant Peter Collinson. Collinson, himself a lover of plants, was a fellow Quaker and a member of the Royal Society, with a familiar relationship with its president, Sir Hans Sloane. Collinson shared Bartram's new plants with fellow gardeners. Early Bartram collections went to Lord Petre, Philip Miller at the Chelsea Physic Garden, Mark Catesby, the Duke of Richmond, the Duke of Norfolk. In the 1730s, Robert James Petre, 8th Baron Petre of Thorndon Hall, was the foremost collector of North American trees and shrubs in Europe. Earl Petre's untimely death in 1743 led to his American tree collection being auctioned off to Woburn and other large English country estates. Bartram's Boxes, as they became known, were sent to Peter Collinson every fall for distribution in England to a wide list of clients, including the Duke of Argyll, James Gordon, James Lee and John Busch, progenitor of the exotic Loddiges nursery in London.
The boxes contained 100 or more varieties of seeds, sometimes included dried plant specimens and natural history curiosities as well. Live plants were more difficult and expensive to send and were reserved for Collinson and a few special correspondents. In 1765 after lobbying by Collinson and Benjamin Franklin in London, George III rewarded Bartram a pension of £50 per year as King's Botanist for North America, a post he held until his death. With this position, Bartram's seeds and plants went to the royal collection at Kew Gardens. Bartram contributed seeds to the Oxford and Edinburgh botanic gardens, he was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in Stockholm in 1769. Most of Bartram's many plant discoveries were named by botanists in Europe, he is best known today for the discovery and introduction of a wide range of North American flowering trees and shrubs, including kalmia and magnolia species. Bartram's name is remembered in the genera of mosses, in plants such the North American serviceberry, Amelanchier bartramiana, the subtropical tree Commersonia bartramia growing from the Bellinger River in coastal eastern Australia to Cape York and Malaysia.
Bartram was married twice, first in 1723 to Mary Maris, who bore him two sons and Isaac. After her death, he married Ann Mendenhall in 1729, who gave birth to four girls, his third son, William Bartram was to become a famous botanist, natural history artist and ornithologist in his own right, was the author of Travels Through North & South Carolina, East & West Florida,…. Philadelphia, James & Johnson, 1791; the family business in North American plants was continued by Bartram's sons John Bartram, Jr. and William Bartram after the American Revolution, the botanic garden grew through three generations of the Bartram family. Bartram's Garden remained the major botanic garden in Philadelphia until the last Bartram heirs sold out in 1850
Linnean Society of London
The Linnean Society of London is a society dedicated to the study of, the dissemination of information concerning, natural history and taxonomy. It possesses several important biological specimen and literature collections and publishes academic journals and books on plant and animal biology; the society awards a number of prestigious medals and prizes for achievement. A product of the 18th-century enlightenment, the society is important as the venue for the first public presentation of the Theory of Evolution; the patron of the society is Queen Elizabeth II. Honorary members include the present monarchs of Japan, Emperor Akihito, Sweden, King Carl XVI Gustaf, both of whom have active interests in natural history, the eminent broadcaster, Sir David Attenborough; the Linnean Society was founded in 1788 by botanist Sir James Edward Smith. The society derives its name from the Swedish naturalist Carolus Linnaeus, the'father of taxonomy', who systematised biological classification through his binomial nomenclature.
He was known as Carl von Linné after his ennoblement, hence the spelling'Linnean', rather than'Linnaean'. The society had a number of minor name variations before it gained its Royal Charter on 26 March 1802, when the name became fixed as "The Linnean Society of London". In 1802, as a newly incorporated society, it comprised 228 fellows, it is the oldest extant natural history society in the world. Throughout its history the society has been a non-political and non-sectarian institution, existing for the furtherance of natural history; the inception of the society was the direct result of the purchase by Sir James Smith of the specimen and correspondence collections of Linnaeus. When the collection was offered for sale by the heirs of Linnaeus, Smith was urged to acquire it by Sir Joseph Banks, the eminent botanist and president of the Royal Society. Five years after this purchase Banks gave Smith his full support in founding the Linnean Society, he became one of the first Honorary Members of the new society.
The society has numbered many prominent scientists amongst its fellows. One such was the botanist Robert Brown, president. In 1854 Charles Darwin was elected a fellow. Another famous fellow was biologist Thomas Huxley, who gained the nickname "Darwin's bulldog" for his outspoken defence of evolution. Men notable in other walks of life have been fellows of the society, including the physician Edward Jenner, pioneer of vaccination, the Arctic explorers Sir John Franklin and Sir James Clark Ross, colonial administrator and founder of Singapore, Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles and Prime Minister of Britain, Lord Aberdeen. Since 1857 the Society has been based at Burlington House, London; the first public exposition of the'Theory of Evolution by Natural Selection', arguably the greatest single leap of progress made in biology, was presented to a meeting of the Linnean Society on 1 July 1858. At this meeting a joint presentation of papers by Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace was made, sponsored by Joseph Hooker and Charles Lyell as neither author could be present.
In 1904 the society experienced the novelty of electing women fellows. Whilst the society's council was reluctant to admit women, the fellows were much less so, with only 17% voting against the proposal. Among the first to benefit from this were: ornithologist and photographer Emma Louisa Turner, Lilian J. Veley, a microbiologist and Annie Lorrain Smith, a lichenologist and mycologist, all formally admitted on 19 January 1905. Amongst the first women to be elected in 1904 was the paleobotanist, pioneer of family planning, Marie Stopes; the society's connection with evolution remained strong into the 20th century. Sir Edward Poulton, president 1912-1916, was a great defender of natural selection and was the first biologist to recognise the importance of frequency-dependent selection; the first female president of the society was Irene Manton, who pioneered the biological use of electron microscopy. Her work revealed the structure of the flagellum and cilia, which are central to many systems of cellular motility.
Recent years have seen an increased interest within the society in issues of biodiversity conservation. This was highlighted by the inception in 2015 of an annual award, the John Spedan Lewis Medal honouring persons making significant and innovative contributions to conservation. Fellowship requires nomination by at least one fellow, election by a minimum of two thirds of those electors voting. Fellows may employ the post-nominal letters'FLS'. Fellowship is open to both professional scientists and to amateur naturalists who have shown active interest in natural history and allied disciplines. Having authored relevant publications is an advantage, but not a necessity, for election. Following election, new fellows must be formally admitted, in person at a meeting of the society, before they are able to vote in society elections. Admission takes the form of signing the membership book, thereby agreeing to an obligation to abide by the statutes of the society. Following this the new fellow is taken by the hand by the president, who recites a formula of admission to the fellowship.
Other forms of membership exist:'Associate', for supporters of the society who do not wish to submit to the formal election process for