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John Fairfax

John Fairfax was an English-born journalist, company director, politician and newspaper owner, he was known for the incorporation of the major newspapers of modern-day Australia. Fairfax was born in Barford, the second son of William Fairfax and his wife, Elizabeth née Jesson; the Fairfax family for many years were lords of the manor of Barford, but estates had been lost and William Fairfax at the time of John's birth was in the building and furnishing trade. In 1817, John Fairfax was apprenticed to William Perry, a bookseller and printer in Warwick, in 1825 went to London where he worked as a compositor in a general printing office and on the Morning Chronicle. Within two years, Fairfax had left and established himself at Leamington Spa as a printer and stationer. There, on 31 July 1827, he married daughter of James and Sarah Reading, he became the printer of the Leamington Spa Courier, in 1835 he purchased an interest in another paper The Leamington Chronicle and Warwickshire Reporter. He had a book binding business in Leamington.

At this time Leamington was one of the leading spa towns in the UK. In 1836, Fairfax published a letter criticizing the conduct of a local solicitor, who soon brought an action against him. Though judgement was given for the defendant, the solicitor appealed. Judgement was again given for Fairfax but the costs of the actions were so heavy that he had to apply to the Insolvency Court. There was sympathy for him and his friends offered assistance but he decided to make a fresh start in a new land, in May 1838, sailed for the colony of New South Wales in the Lady Fitzherbert with his wife and three children, his mother and a brother-in-law. After a voyage of about 130 days, they reached Sydney on 26 September 1838; the salary was only £100 a year but he had free quarters for his family in pleasant surroundings. He found he was able to get some typesetting, he contributed articles to the various Sydney newspapers. What was more important was his contacting through the library the best educated men of Sydney, he became friendly with some of them.

One of these was a member of the staff of the Sydney Herald, Charles Kemp, with whom he joined forces to purchase the Herald for the sum of £10,000. The paper was bought on terms, friends helped the two men to find the deposit, on 8 February 1841, they took control as proprietors; the two men formed a well-run partnership. Fairfax and Kemp worked in harmony for 12 years and established the paper as the leading Australian newspaper of the day, it was given the fuller title of the Sydney Morning Herald in 1842, in spite of a period of depression Fairfax suffered, both partners, by 1853, were in prosperous positions. Kemp decided to retire; the partnership was dissolved in September 1853 and Charles, John's eldest son, became a partner. In the previous year, his father had visited England and seeking out his old creditors repaid every man in full with interest added. Under Fairfax and his sons, the paper continually increased in public favour and the great increase of population in the 1850s added much to its prosperity.

It was always conservative. Barton in his Literature in New South Wales said in 1866 that its Toryism had "increased in a direct ratio to the Radicalism of the constitution, its prosperity in a direct ratio to its Toryism", but this is an overstatement. The Herald was moved to its present site in 1856, at that date claimed to have the largest circulation in the "colonial empire". A weekly journal, The Sydney Mail, was established, its first number was published on 7 July 1860, it continued to appear until 1938. In 1851, John Fairfax was a foundation director of the Australian Mutual Provident Society, in the 1860s a director of the Sydney Insurance Co. the New South Wales Marine Insurance Co. the Australian Joint Stock Bank and The Australian Gaslight Co. and a trustee of the Savings Bank of New South Wales. Fairfax was a sincerely religious man, a member of the Congregational Church at Pitt St. However, his paper was kept free from religious bias and was in no way responsible for the strong sectarian feelings which existed in Sydney.

His household was Victorian in its outlook. However, in the newspaper, due importance was given to music and the theatre and art. To Fairfax, the conduct of the press was a sacred trust and he never betrayed this. On 26 December 1863, Charles Fairfax, the eldest son and Fairfax's right-hand man on the paper, was thrown from his horse and killed. John Fairfax never recovered from his son's death, but the work of the newspaper went on. In 1865, Fairfax and his wife again visited England. Fairfax became a member of the New South Wales Legislative Council in 1874, but never took an active part in politics, his wife, died on 12 August 1875 and soon afterwards his own health began to fail. He died at his home,'Ginahgulla', Bellevue Hill, on 16 June 1877, he was buried at the Rookwood Cemetery, Independent Section, on 19 June 1877. Of his children, his second son, Sir James Reading Fairfax, entered his father's office in 1852 and was admitted as a partner in 1856; when his father died, James Fairfax was in control of the paper.

James Fairfax was intimately associated with it for 67 years. Like his father, Fairfax was a religious man, for a long period was president of the YMCA as well as dedicated to helping other social services of the community. H

John Prados

John Prados is a well-known and prolific author, security analyst, game designer. He specializes in history of World War II, history of the Vietnam War, current international relations. Prados received a Ph. D. from Columbia University in Political Science with an emphasis on International Relations. Prados is a Senior fellow with the National Security Archive, where he leads its Intelligence Documentation Project and its Vietnam Project. Prados has written over 20 books, he has written articles and book reviews for Vanity Fair, Scientific American, Naval History, the Journal of American History, Diplomatic History and National Security, Naval Institute Proceedings, The Journal of National Security Law & Policy, The Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists, the Journal of East-West Studies, The New York Times, The Los Angeles Times, The Washington Post, The Boston Globe. Prados has designed strategy games, including Avalanche's Third Reich, his game Khe Sahn, 1968 received the Charles S. Roberts award for "Best Modern Wargame" in 2002.

Some of the other games he designed include The Seeds of Disaster, Set Europe Ablaze, The Victory of Arminius: Teutoburg Forest, IX AD. Combined Fleet Decoded was named by New York Military Affairs Symposium as the recipient of The Arthur Goodzeit Book Award in 1995. Combined Fleet Decoded was named a Notable Naval Book of the Year by the United States Naval Institute. Valley of Decision: The Siege of Khe Sanh written with Ray W. Stubbe was named Notable Naval Book of the Year by the United States Naval Institute in 1991. Prados, John; the Ghosts of Langley: Into the CIA's Heart of Darkness. The New Press. ISBN 9781620970881. OCLC 974700011. Prados, John. Storm Over Leyte: The Philippine Invasion and the Destruction of the Japanese Navy. New York: NAL Caliber. ISBN 9780451473615. OCLC 930786579. Prados, John. In Country: Remembering the Vietnam War. Lanham, MD: Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 9781566638685. OCLC 681502179. Prados, John. Normandy Crucible: The Decisive Battle That Shaped World War II in Europe. New York: NAL Caliber.

ISBN 9780451233837. OCLC 679930937. Prados, John. Vietnam: The History of an Unwinnable War, 1945-1975. University Press of Kansas. ISBN 9780700616343. OCLC 276995742. Prados, John. Safe for Democracy: The Secret Wars of the CIA. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee. ISBN 1566635748. OCLC 64591926. Prados, John. Inside the Pentagon Papers. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas. ISBN 0700613250. OCLC 54279988. Prados, John. Lost Crusader: The Secret Wars of CIA Director William Colby. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195128478. OCLC 49493468. Prados, John; the Blood Road: The Ho Chi Minh Trail and the Vietnam War. New York: Wiley. ISBN 0471254657. OCLC 38199521. Prados, John. Combined Fleet Decoded: The Secret History of American Intelligence and the Japanese Navy in World War II. Random House. ISBN 0679437010. OCLC 30544409. Prados, John. Valley of Decision: The Siege of Khe Sanh. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0395550033. OCLC 24068862. Appearances on C-SPAN

Grapevine Lake

Grapevine Lake is an American reservoir located in the North Texas region 20 mi northwest of Dallas and northeast of Fort Worth. It was impounded in 1952 by the US Army Corps of Engineers when they dammed Denton Creek, a tributary of Trinity River; the reservoir's primary purposes are flood control and to act as a municipal water reservoir, with a secondary function of providing recreation and open space areas. The lake's name comes from the city of Texas, to which the lake is adjacent. On March 2, 1945, the U. S. Congress approved the River & Harbors Act of 1945 which, among many projects, provided for the construction of Benbrook Lake, Grapevine Lake, Lavon Lake and Ray Roberts Lake, as well as modifications to the existing Garza Dam for the construction of Lewisville Lake. All the projects were for the purposes of both flood navigation; these lakes became part of an extensive floodway system, operated in a coordinated manner to minimize flooding along the Trinity river floodplain. The Grapevine Dam and Reservoir project, as it was known, was initiated in January 1948.

Located on Denton Creek, a tributary of the Elm Fork of the Trinity river, the project spans both Tarrant County and Denton County. In this area north of the City of Grapevine, the Corps of Engineers obtained 15,700 acres of land and placed easements on another 2,200 acres to be flooded by the new reservoir; the project was completed in June 1952, impounding of water began July 3, 1952. The dam is a rolled earth-fill type, 28 feet thick; the crest of the dam is located at 588 feet above sea level. At the dam, the original creek bed was at 451 feet, making the dam 137 ft tall; the dam's spillway is located at 560 feet above sea level. This gives it a flood capacity of at least 425,500 acre feet, including an allowance for the build of up sediment in the lake's bottom; the lake is maintained near its conservation level, at 535 ft, giving it a capacity of 181,100 acre feet and a surface area of 7,280 acres. At conservation level, the lake has 60 mi of shoreline. Three municipalities have water rights to the lake.

Under its September 1953 contract, Grapevine obtained 1,250 acre feet of the water in the elevations between 500 and 535 feet above sea-level. In February 1981, the city obtained an additional 25,000 acre feet in the same elevations "until such time as this is needed for navigation purposes." In March 1953, the city of Dallas obtained 85,000 acre feet of the water between 500 and 535 feet, in March 1955, DCPC obtained 50,000 acre feet at the same elevations. Numerous parks surround the lake; some of the parks are leased or maintained by the local community. Others remain in the Corps of Engineers' control; the area contains 30 miles of natural surface trails including nature and equestrian trails. Trails listed by the Corps of Engineers include the nine mile Northshore trail, the three mile Rocky Point trail, the five mile Crosstimbers horse trail, the four mile Knob Hill trail; the lake has primitive camping, prepared camping sites, trailer / RV camping. Murrell park has tent and primitive camping, but is undergoing an expansion to increase camping facilities.

Vineyards campground, managed by the city of Grapevine, offers site camping, RV parking, cabins. There are three marinas located on the lake, all operated by the private company Marinas International. On the south shore, in Grapevine, are Scott's Landing and Silver Lake. On the north shore, in Flower Mound, is Twin Coves; the marinas support an active boating community on the lake. Both the Grapevine Sailing Club and the United States Coast Guard Auxiliary are based at Scott's Landing. Twelve boat ramps provide access to the lake, of which only the two ramps at Murrell park are controlled by the Corps of Engineers and available for free. Of the remaining ramps: The City of Trophy Club operates Trophy Club Park which includes a fee-based ramp; the City of Grapevine operates public fee-based ramps at Meadowmere, Oak Grove, Katie's Woods parks. The private company Marinas International operates a fee-based ramp at Silver Lake Marina; the City of Flower Mound operates a fee-based ramp at Twin Coves Park The lake is home to a number of fish species, including largemouth bass, spotted bass, white bass, white crappie, channel catfish, alligator gar.

Fishing regulations of most species are managed under statewide regulations. The exception is a 14 to 18 inch slot limit on largemouth bass. Daily bag limit for all species of black bass is 5 in any combination. Murrell Park, a premier spot for catching sand and black bass on the north shore, was damaged in the summer 2007 flood and was closed. With a hunting license, hunting permit, in season, public hunting is allowed on the Corps of Engineers land located at the north-west end of the lake. Waterfowl and small game hunting, as well as bow hunting of feral hogs and deer is permitted. Hunting licenses are obtained from

Zopher Delong House

Zopher Delong House is a historic home located at Glens Falls, Warren County, New York, United States. It is a 2 1⁄2 - story, three-bay brick residence with a frame service wing, it has Italianate- and Second Empire–style design elements, including a mansard roof. It features a 2-story central pavilion and bracketed entrance portico. On the property is the original carriage house, it is maintained as a historic house museum known as the Chapman Historical Museum by the Glens Falls-Queensbury Historical Association. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1984. Chapman Historical Museum National Register of Historic Places listings in Warren County, New York The Chapman Museum website

Froebel gifts

The Froebel gifts are educational play materials for young children designed by Friedrich Fröbel for the first kindergarten at Bad Blankenburg. Playing with Froebel gifts, singing and growing plants were each important aspects of this child-centered approach to education; the series was extended from the original six to at least ten sets of Gifts. The Sonntagsblatt published by Fröbel explained the meaning and described the use of each of his six initial "play gifts": "The active and creative and life producing being of each person, reveals itself in the creative instinct of the child. All human education is bound up in the conscientious nurture of this instinct of activity. In 1850, production was moved to the Erzgebirge region of the Kingdom of Saxony in a factory established for this purpose by S F Fischer. Fröbel developed a series of activities such as sewing and modeling with clay, for children to extend their experiences through play. Ottilie de Liagre in a letter to Fröbel in 1844 observed that playing with the Froebel gifts empowers children to be lively and free, but people can degrade it into a mechanical routine.

Each of the first five gifts was assigned a number by Fröbel in the Sonntagsblatt, which indicated the sequence in which each gift was to be given to child. The first gift is a soft ball or yarn ball in solid color, the right size for the hand of a small child; when attached to a matching string, the ball can be moved by a mother in various ways as she sings to the child. Although Fröbel sold single balls, they are now supplied in sets of six balls consisting of the primary colors: red and blue; these soft balls can be squashed in the hand, they revert to their original shapes. The first gift was intended by Fröbel to be given to young children, his intention was that, through holding, rolling, swinging and revealing the balls, the child may acquire knowledge of objects and spatial relationships, movement and time, color and contrast, weights and gravity. The second gift consisted of two wooden objects, a sphere and a cube. Fröbel called this gift "the child's delight", since he observed the joy of each child discovering the differences between the sphere and cube.

The child is familiar with the shape of the wooden sphere, the same as the ball of the first gift. The wooden sphere always looks the same. Like the child, the wooden sphere is always on the move; when rolled on a hard surface, the wooden sphere produces sounds. In contrast, the wooden cube is the surprise of the second gift, it remains from each direction presents a different appearance. The second gift was developed to enable a child to enjoy the differences between shapes. By attaching a string or inserting a rod in a hole drilled through these wooden geometric shapes, they can be spun by a child. Although the sphere always appears the same, the spinning cube reveals many shapes when spun in different ways; this led Fröbel to include a wooden cylinder in the second gift, which may be spun in many different ways. The familiar shape of the cube is now divided into eight identical beechwood cubes, about one inch along each edge, a convenient size for the hand of small child. A child delights in pulling apart this gift, rearranging the eight cubes in many ways, reassembling them in the form of a cube.

This is the first building gift. This second building gift at first appears the same as in Gift 3, but a surprise awaits the child. Each of these eight identical beechwood blocks is a rectangular plank, twice as long and half the width of the cubes of the previous gift. Many new possibilities for play and construction arise due to these differences; this building gift consists of more cubes, some of which are divided in quarters. A set of more complex wooden blocks that includes cubes and triangular prisms. Froebel gifts were adapted by Caroline Pratt for the school which she founded in 1913 in the Greenwich Village district of New York City; this school embodied a child-centered approach to education. Children worked together to reconstruct their experiences through play. Based on the ideas of Friedrich Froebel, the curriculum was drawn from the environment of the child. Joachim Liebschner commented in his book, A Child's Work: Freedom and Guidance in Froebel's Educational Theory and Practice: "Realising how the Gifts were misused by Kindergarten teachers who followed after Froebel, it is important to consider what Froebel expected the Gifts to achieve.

He envisaged. Many modernist architects were exposed as children to Fröbel's ideas about geometry, including Frank Lloyd Wright, Le Corbusier, Buckminster Fuller; the American architect Frank Lloyd Wright was

Southmead Hospital

Southmead Hospital is a large public National Health Service hospital, situated in the Southmead ward in the northern suburbs of Bristol, England. It is part of the North Bristol NHS Trust; the 800-bed Brunel Building opened in May 2014, to provide services, which transferred from Frenchay Hospital in advance of its closure. The hospital now covers 60 acres; the hospital opened in 1902 as a 64 bed workhouse for poor sick people. By 1911, there were 520 beds. During the First World War, the Memorial Wing at Bristol Royal Infirmary together with Southmead Hospital were requisitioned by the War Office to create the 2nd Southern General Hospital, a facility for the Royal Army Medical Corps to treat military casualties; the facilities reverted to a workhouse in the early 1920s and were greatly extended to accommodate all the sick. In 1924, the Southmead Infirmary was built and was renamed Southmead Hospital. Notable former medical staff include Geoffrey Tovey and founder of the UK Transplant Service, formed in 1972 and was based at the hospital.

In 2005, a major expansion was planned which included moving most services from Frenchay Hospital to the Southmead site, with Frenchay being downgraded to a Community Hospital. Full approval for the project was given by the NHS South West board in January 2009. A new building, designed by the Building Design Partnership and built by Carillion at a cost of £430 million, was procured under a Private Finance Initiative contract in 2010; the scheme brought all services together under one roof. Called the Brunel building, after Bristol engineer Isambard Kingdom Brunel, it would have 800 beds, 24 operating theatres, patient gardens, a public square, a helipad and visitors' multi-storey car park; the accident and emergency department at Frenchay closed on 19 May 2014 and reopened at Southmead the next day. In early 2014, the second phase of the hospital redevelopment began with the demolition of the old main building to enable construction work to begin on a Brunel Building extension, together with enlarging the area in front of the hospital.

The extension includes a new multi-storey car park for patients and visitors, a cycle centre with storage for 300 bikes, more shops and shower facilities for staff and a community arts space. Following the 2014 opening of the Brunel building, there was a shortage of parking spaces owing to high demands from visitors and staff. In 2014 and 2015, patients and visitors parked at the nearby Beaufort Way multi-storey car park. Improvements were made in 2016, including the construction of a 400-space multi-storey car park next to the Brunel building. Records relating to hospitals within the Southmead Health Authority are held at Bristol Archives. Healthcare in Bristol Bristol Royal Hospital for Children List of hospitals in England Official website