Privy Council of the United Kingdom
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council known as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords; the Privy Council formally advises the sovereign on the exercise of the Royal Prerogative, corporately it issues executive instruments known as Orders in Council, which among other powers enact Acts of Parliament. The Council holds the delegated authority to issue Orders of Council used to regulate certain public institutions; the Council advises the sovereign on the issuing of Royal Charters, which are used to grant special status to incorporated bodies, city or borough status to local authorities. Otherwise, the Privy Council's powers have now been replaced by its executive committee, the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. Certain judicial functions are performed by the Queen-in-Council, although in practice its actual work of hearing and deciding upon cases is carried out day-to-day by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
The Judicial Committee consists of senior judges appointed as Privy Counsellors: predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and senior judges from the Commonwealth. The Privy Council acted as the High Court of Appeal for the entire British Empire, continues to hear appeals from the Crown Dependencies, the British Overseas Territories, some independent Commonwealth states; the Privy Council of the United Kingdom was preceded by the Privy Council of Scotland and the Privy Council of England. The key events in the formation of the modern Privy Council are given below: In Anglo-Saxon England, Witenagemot was an early equivalent to the Privy Council of England. During the reigns of the Norman monarchs, the English Crown was advised by a royal court or curia regis, which consisted of magnates and high officials; the body concerned itself with advising the sovereign on legislation and justice. Different bodies assuming distinct functions evolved from the court; the courts of law took over the business of dispensing justice, while Parliament became the supreme legislature of the kingdom.
The Council retained the power to hear legal disputes, either in the first instance or on appeal. Furthermore, laws made by the sovereign on the advice of the Council, rather than on the advice of Parliament, were accepted as valid. Powerful sovereigns used the body to circumvent the Courts and Parliament. For example, a committee of the Council—which became the Court of the Star Chamber—was during the 15th century permitted to inflict any punishment except death, without being bound by normal court procedure. During Henry VIII's reign, the sovereign, on the advice of the Council, was allowed to enact laws by mere proclamation; the legislative pre-eminence of Parliament was not restored until after Henry VIII's death. Though the royal Council retained legislative and judicial responsibilities, it became a administrative body; the Council consisted of forty members in 1553, but the sovereign relied on a smaller committee, which evolved into the modern Cabinet. By the end of the English Civil War, the monarchy, House of Lords, Privy Council had been abolished.
The remaining parliamentary chamber, the House of Commons, instituted a Council of State to execute laws and to direct administrative policy. The forty-one members of the Council were elected by the House of Commons. In 1653, Cromwell became Lord Protector, the Council was reduced to between thirteen and twenty-one members, all elected by the Commons. In 1657, the Commons granted Cromwell greater powers, some of which were reminiscent of those enjoyed by monarchs; the Council became known as the Protector's Privy Council. In 1659, shortly before the restoration of the monarchy, the Protector's Council was abolished. Charles II restored the Royal Privy Council, but he, like previous Stuart monarchs, chose to rely on a small group of advisers. Under George I more power transferred to this committee, it now began to meet in the absence of the sovereign, communicating its decisions to him after the fact. Thus, the British Privy Council, as a whole, ceased to be a body of important confidential advisers to the sovereign.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the definition of the word privy in Privy Council is an obsolete meaning "of or pertaining to a particular person or persons, one's own". It is related to the word private, derives from the French word privé; the sovereign, when acting on the Council's advice, is known as the King-in-Council or Queen-in-Council. The members of the Council are collectively known as The Lords of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council; the chief officer of the body is the Lord President of the Council, the fourth highest Great Officer of State, a Cabinet member and either the Leader of the House of Lords or of the House of Commons. Another important official is the Clerk, whose signature is appended to all orders made in the Council. Both Privy Counsellor and Privy Councillor may be used to refer to a member of the Council; the former, however, is preferred by the Privy Council Office, emphasising English usage of the term Counsellor a
University College Dublin
University College Dublin is a research university in Dublin, Ireland. It has over 1,482 faculty and 32,000 students, it is Ireland's largest university. Rooted in Roman Catholicism, UCD originates in a body founded in 1854, which opened as the Catholic University of Ireland on the Feast of Saint Malachy and with John Henry Newman as its first rector; the Universities Act, 1997 renamed the constituent university as the "National University of Ireland, Dublin", a ministerial order of 1998 renamed the institution as "University College Dublin - National University of Ireland, Dublin". In locations across Dublin city, all faculties have since relocated to a 133-hectare campus at Belfield, four kilometres to the south of the city centre; the 2019 QS World University Rankings rates UCD as the second highest ranked irish university. A report published in May 2015 showed the economic output generated by UCD and its students in Ireland amounted to €1.3 billion annually. UCD is ranked among the top universities in Europe.
Five Nobel Laureates are among current and former staff. UCD can trace its history to the institution founded in 1854 as the Catholic University of Ireland, was established as UCD in 1880 under the auspices of the Royal University of Ireland, received its charter in 1908. After the Catholic Emancipation period of Irish history, a movement led by Paul Cullen, Archbishop of Armagh attempted to provide for the first time in Ireland higher-level education both accessible to followesr of Roman Catholicism and taught by such people. In the 19th century, the question of denominational education in Ireland was a contentious one. For many years it had divided the Young Ireland Movement; the Catholic Hierarchy demanded a Catholic alternative to the University of Dublin's Trinity College, whose Anglican origins the Hierarchy refused to overlook. The Hierarchy wanted to counteract the "Godless Colleges" of the Queen's University of Ireland - established in the cities of Galway and Cork; the University of Dublin had since the 1780s admitted Catholics to study.
Thus, in 1850 at the Synod of Thurles, it was decided to open in Dublin - for Catholics - a rival institution to that city's University. As a result of these efforts, a new "Catholic University of Ireland" opened in 1854, with John Henry Newman appointed as its first rector. Newman had been an integral figure in the Oxford Movement in the 19th century; the Catholic University opened its doors on the feast of St Malachy, 3 November 1854. On that day the names of seventeen students were entered on the register and Newman gave the students an address "What are we here for" and prophesied that in years they would look back with pride on the day; the Catholic University opened with three houses: 86 St Stephen's Green, known as St Patrick's or University House, under the care of The Rev. Michael Flannery. To prepare students for entry to the new Catholic University, a feeder school under the guidance of Bartholomew Woodlock and Cardinal Newman, referred to as the Catholic University School, was established.
Among the first students enrolled were the grandson of Daniel O'Connell. Another included William O'Shea who would go on to become a Captain in the British Army and was central to the divorce crises which brought down Charles Stewart Parnell's career in trying to establish Home Rule for Ireland. O'Shea, clashed with Newman and found the Catholic University insufficiently inspiring, so departed after one year to instead attend Trinity. Of the eight original students in Newman's own home, two were Irish, two English, two Scottish and two French. Among them were a French viscount, Irish baronet Sir Reginald Barnewall, the son of a French countess, the grandson of a Scottish marquis, the son of an English lord. Were added to his care two Belgian princes and a Polish count. Many were attracted to the Catholic University on the basis of the reputation of Newman; as a private university, the Catholic University was never given a royal charter, so was unable to award recognized degrees and suffered from chronic financial difficulties.
Newman left the university in 1857. Bartholomew Woodlock was appointed Rector and served until he became Bishop of Ardagh and Clonmacnoise in 1879. In this period he attempted to secure a site of 34 acres at Clonliffe West but the scheme collapsed when expansion of the railway system on the north side of Dublin cut across the site, he turned his attention to expanding along St Stephen's Green and over these years bought from No. 82 to 87. The decline was halted in 1880 with the establishment of the Royal University of Ireland; the Royal Universities charter entitled all Irish students to sit the Universities examinations and receive its degrees. Although in many respects the Catholic University can be viewed as a failure, UCD would inherit substantial assets from it including a successful medical school and two beautiful buildings, Newman House on St Stephen's Green and the adjoining University Ch
Anthony Foster, of Collon, County Louth, was an Anglo-Irish politician and judge. He was the eldest son of John Foster, MP for Dunleer, his wife Elizabeth Fortescue, youngest daughter of William Fortescue of Neuragh, a member of the Fortescue family which held the title Earl of Clermont; the Fosters had come to Ireland from Cumberland in the previous century, had acquired lands and political influence in Louth. He was Chief Baron of the Irish Exchequer 1766-1777. Prior to appointment to the Bench he represented the family constituency of Dunleer in the Irish House of Commons from 1738 to 1761 and subsequently Louth from 1761 to 1767, he attended the school in Dublin run by Thomas Sheridan, the friend of Jonathan Swift and grandfather of Richard Brinsley Sheridan. He matriculated from the University of Dublin in 1722 and took his degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1726, he entered Middle Temple in 1726 and was called to the Irish Bar in 1732. He acted as counsel to the Board of Revenue; as a member of Parliament he worked tirelessly to promote the interests of the manufacturers of Irish linen.
As an orator he was badly thought of, being described as "slow and charmless". He married firstly Elizabeth Burgh, daughter of William Burgh in 1736, they had three children: John Foster, 1st Baron Oriel, the last Speaker of the Irish House of Commons. William Foster, successively Bishop of Cork and Ross, Bishop of Kilmore and Bishop of Clogher. Margaret Foster who married Henry Maxwell, successively Dean of Kilmore, Bishop of Dromore and Bishop of Meath, he married secondly Elizabeth's cousin Dorothea Burgh, daughter of the celebrated architect Thomas de Burgh and his wife Mary Smyth, in 1749. He built an impressive country seat, Collon House, much added to by his son and heir, Lord Oriel. Anthony had a keen interest in agricultural development, his improvements at Collon were described as being "of a magnitude never before attempted". Collon became famous for its great variety of its cider orchard. Foster was not regarded as the most outstanding lawyer on the Irish Bench in his lifetime, but it has been argued that he was its most gifted member overall, with his wide-ranging interests in law, politics and agriculture.
If he has been forgotten, this may be because his reputation was eclipsed by that of his more gifted son, John
The Ceann Comhairle is the chairperson of Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas of Ireland. The person who holds the position is elected by members of the Dáil from among their number in the first session after each general election; the Ceann Comhairle of the 32nd Dáil is Fianna Fáil TD Seán Ó Fearghaíl, elected on 10 March 2016. The Ceann Comhairle is expected to observe strict impartiality. Despite this, a government tries to select a member of its own political party for the position, if it has enough deputies to allow that choice. In order to protect the neutrality of the chair, the Constitution of Ireland provides that an incumbent Ceann Comhairle does not seek re-election as a Teachta Dála, but rather is deemed automatically to have been re-elected by their constituency at that general election, unless they are retiring; as a consequence, the constituency that an incumbent Ceann Comhairle represents elects one fewer TD in a general election than its usual entitlement, but still has the same number of TDs.
The Ceann Comhairle vote except in the event of a tie. In this event they vote in accordance with the parliamentary conventions relating to the Speaker of the British House of Commons, which tend to amount to voting against motions; the Ceann Comhairle formally opens. The Ceann Comhairle has a number of special functions; the Ceann Comhairle: Calls on members to speak. All speeches must be addressed to the Ceann Comhairle. Puts supervises and declares the results of divisions. Has authority to suppress disorder. To ensure obedience to his rulings the Ceann Comhairle may order members to withdraw from the Dáil or suspend an individual from the House for a period. In the case of great disorder the Ceann Comhairle can adjourn the house. Rings a bell when deputies are out of order; the bell is a half-sized reproduction of the ancient bell of Lough Lene Castle found at Castle Island, Lough Lene, County Westmeath in 1881 and now in the National Museum. The reproduction was presented in 1931 by the widow of Bryan Cooper, a former TD.
The Ceann Comhairle is an ex officio member of the Presidential Commission, the Council of State, the Commission for Public Service Appointments. Since the 1937 Constitution, the Ceann Comhairle has been an ex officio member of the Council of State, beginning with Frank Fahy; the earlier presiding officers never served on the Council of State: i.e. those of the Revolutionary Dáil and the Free State Dáil. The position of Ceann Comhairle is as old as the Dáil, first established as a breakaway revolutionary parliament in 1919; the first Ceann Comhairle was Cathal Brugha, who served for only one day, presiding over the house's symbolic first meeting, before leaving the post to become Príomh Aire. The office was continued under the 1922–37 Irish Free State, the constitution of which referred to the office-holder as the "Chairman of Dáil Éireann"; the practice of automatically re-electing the Ceann Comhairle in a general election was introduced by a constitutional amendment in 1927. For a brief period following the 11 December 1936 abolition of the office of Governor-General, the Ceann Comhairle was assigned some of the former office's ceremonial functions, including signing bills into law and convening and dissolving the Dáil.
These powers were transferred to the new office of President of Ireland when a new Constitution came into force on 29 December 1937. The new Constitution retained the position of Ceann Comhairle and the practice of automatic re-election; the first Ceann Comhairle since 1919 to resign the office was John O'Donoghue in 2009, after an expenses scandal. As an ordinary TD he was no longer entitled to be returned automatically at the next general election in 2011, in which he lost his seat. One other Ceann Comhairle died in office, Joseph Brennan in 1980; the Ceann Comhairle was first elected by secret ballot in 2016. This list includes the constituencies and political affiliation of each Ceann Comhairle as well as the number of their Dáil Éireann and time they spent in the position; the Leas-Cheann Comhairle holds office as the Deputy Chairman of Dáil Éireann under Article 15.9.1 of the Constitution. In the absence of the Ceann Comhairle, the Leas-Cheann Comhairle deputises and performs the duties and exercises the authority of the Ceann Comhairle in Dáil proceedings.
The current Leas-Cheann Comhairle is Fianna Fáil TD Pat "the Cope" Gallagher, since 6 July 2016. By tradition, the position is reserved for the Opposition, but the appointment is made by the Taoiseach of the day; the role carries the same status as that of a Minister of State. Cathaoirleach Politics of the Republic of Ireland History of the Republic of Ireland Dáil Éireann Dáil Éireann Speaker of the Northern Ireland Assembly O'Connor, Tom. "8: An Ceann Comhairle". Politics in a Changing Ireland 1960–2007: A Tribute to Seamus Pattison. Institute of Public Administration. Pp. 121–138. ISBN 9781904541691. Retrieved 4 December 2015. Official website Lough Lene Bell, maquette photo
Viscount Massereene is a title in the Peerage of Ireland. It was created in 1660, along with the subsidiary title of Baron Loughneagh. From 1665 to 1816 the Skeffington Baronetcy of Fisherwick was attached to the viscountcy and from 1756 to 1816 the Viscounts held the title of Earl of Massereene. Since 1843 the peerages are united with titles of Viscount Ferrard, of Oriel and Baron Oriel, both in the Peerage of Ireland, Baron Oriel, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom; the Viscount holds the subsidiary titles of Baron Loughneagh and Baron Oriel in the Peerage of Ireland and Baron Oriel in the Peerage of the United Kingdom. As Baron Oriel, he sat in the House of Lords until 1999; the family seat was Chilham Castle, near Kent. John Clotworthy was a prominent Anglo-Irish politician during the Civil War. In 1660 he was created Baron Loughneugh and Viscount Massereene in the Peerage of Ireland, with remainder to his son-in-law Sir John Skeffington, 4th Baronet, of Fisherwick, the husband of his daughter the Hon. Mary Clotworthy, in default thereof to his heirs general.
This makes the peerages unique in being the only extant Irish peerages that can descend through heirs general rather than heirs male only. Lord Massereene was succeeded according to the special remainder by his son-in-law, the second Viscount. In 1756 his great-grandson, the fifth Viscount, was created Earl of Massereene in Peerage of Ireland. However, the earldom and baronetcy became extinct in 1816 on the death of his grandson, the fourth Earl; the barony of Loughneugh and viscountcy of Massereene were inherited according to the special remainder by his daughter Harriet, the ninth Viscountess. She was the wife of 2nd Viscount Ferrard. Lord Ferrard and Lady Massereene were both succeeded by their son, the tenth Viscount Massereene and third Viscount Ferrard. In 1817 he assumed by Royal licence the surname of Skeffington in lieu of Foster, his son, the eleventh and fourth Viscount, notably served as Lord Lieutenant of County Louth. His son, the twelfth and fifth Viscount, was Lord Lieutenant of Antrim and a member of the Senate of Northern Ireland.
As of 2017 the titles are held by the latter's grandson, the fourteenth and seventh Viscount, who succeeded his father in 1992. Both he and his father have been presidents of the Conservative Monday Club. John Foster served as Chancellor of the Irish Exchequer and as Speaker of the Irish House of Commons and represented County Louth in the British House of Commons. In 1821 he was created Baron Oriel, of Ferrard in the County of Louth, in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, his wife Margaretta Amelia Foster was created Baroness Oriel, of Collon, in 1790, Viscountess Ferrard, of Oriel in 1797, both in the Peerage of Ireland. Both Lord Oriel and Lady Ferrard were succeeded by the second Viscount, he was the husband of 9th Viscountess Massereene. Both he and his wife were succeeded by their son, the tenth Viscount Massereene and third Viscount Ferrard; the titles remain united. For history of the peerages, see above. William Skeffington was High Sheriff of Staffordshire in 1601 and 1623. On 8 May 1627 he was created a Baronet, of Fisherwick in the County of Stafford, in the Baronetage of England.
The second Baronet was Member of Parliament for Newcastle under Lyme and served as High Sheriff of Staffordshire in 1637. The fourth Baronet married Hon. Mary Clotworthy, daughter of John Clotworthy, 1st Viscount Massereene. In 1665 he succeeded his father-in-law as second Viscount Massereene according to a special remainder in the letters patent; the titles remained united until the extinction of the baronetcy in 1816. For history of the titles, see above. John Clotworthy, 1st Viscount Massereene John Skeffington, 2nd Viscount Massereene Clotworthy Skeffington, 3rd Viscount Massereene Clotworthy Skeffington, 4th Viscount Massereene Clotworthy Skeffington, 5th Viscount Massereene Clotworthy Skeffington, 1st Earl of Massereene, 5th Viscount Massereene Clotworthy Skeffington, 2nd Earl of Massereene, 6th Viscount Massereene Henry Skeffington, 3rd Earl of Massereene, 7th Viscount Massereene Chichester Skeffington, 4th Earl of Massereene, 8th Viscount Massereene Harriet Skeffington, 9th Viscountess Massereene John Skeffington, 10th Viscount Massereene, 3rd Viscount Ferrard Clotworthy John Skeffington, 11th Viscount Massereene, 4th Viscount Ferrard Algernon William John Clotworthy Skeffington, 12th Viscount Massereene, 5th Viscount Ferrard John Clotworthy Talbot Foster Whyte-Melville-Skeffington, 13th Viscount Massereene, 6th Viscount Ferrard, 6th Baron Oriel John David Clotworthy Whyte-Melville Foster Skeffington, 14th Viscount Massereene, 7th Viscount Ferrard, 7th Baron Oriel The heir apparent is the present holder's son the Hon. Charles Clotworthy Whyte-Melville Foster Skeffington The heir apparent's heir apparent is his son James Algernon Foster Clotworthy Skeffington Margaretta Amelia Foster, 1st Viscountess Ferrard Thomas Skeffington, 2nd Viscount Ferrard John Skeffington, 3rd Viscount Ferrard see above for further succession John Foster, 1st Baron Oriel Thomas Henry Skeffington, 2nd Baron Oriel see above for further succession Sir William Skeffington, 1st Baronet Sir John Skeffington, 2nd Baronet.
Sir William Skeffington, 3rd Baronet Sir John Skeffington, 4th Baronet (succee
Clonskeagh or Clonskea, is a small southern suburb of Dublin, Ireland. The district straddles the River Dodder. Clonskeagh is a townland in the civil parish of Donnybrook in the traditional barony of Dublin; the modern suburb lies within the administrative area of Dublin City Council but in that of Dún Laoghaire–Rathdown. Roebuck Road defines the southernmost end of Clonskeagh; the area is principally defined by the Clonskeagh Road and its extension into Roebuck Road, which spans its length. The northern end of the Clonskeagh Road at the junction with Eglinton Road / Milltown Road separates it from Ranelagh to the north, the campus of University College Dublin at Belfield is to the east while Goatstown and Dundrum lie to the south. To the west is Windy Arbour, but there is no clear point at which that boundary might be defined. Clonskeagh is a residential area, developed in the early decades of the 20th century, it has a small village green with a few local shops, but without a main centre. The district has changed in character as population growth in greater Dublin has imposed intensive use of land and the nearby Luas light railway has improved commuter access to central Dublin.
In the mid-1970s, Clonskeagh consisted of low-density housing with significant areas of private open land owned by the Catholic Church. Since the closure of the Masonic Boys' School has led to commercial redevelopment north of Clonskeagh Road and former church land adjacent to Bird Avenue and Roebuck Road now has housing. Since 2000, housing development has intensified land use further by building in larger gardens, replacing houses by apartments and adding storeys to properties; this may be resisted by residents objecting to planning applications. The Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland, established in 1992, is based in Clonskeagh. There is a mid-20th century Catholic church on Bird Avenue, the Islamic Cultural Centre of Ireland and its associated primary school is on Roebuck Road; the former Vergemount Fever Hospital at Clonskeagh is now a nursing home facility for the elderly. There are several green spaces, as well as a large health and fitness club, fishing takes place on the Dodder.
St. Kilians Deutsche Schule and the secondary campus of the Lycée Français d'Irlande share a "Eurocampus" in Roebuck Road, offering private schooling in a multicultural and multilingual environment, claimed to be unique to Ireland; the first All-Ireland Senior Football Championship final was held in Beech Hill, one of the features of the area, on April 29, 1888 on the ground of St. Benburb's Football Club. Isaac Butt Q. C. M. P. who founded the Irish Home Rule Movement lived in a cottage on the junction of Wynnsward Drive and the Clonskeagh Road. Seán MacBride, former Irish politician and Cabinet Minister, his mother, Maud Gonne, lived at Roebuck House, near Clonskeagh Green. Current Irish politicians who live in the area are: Eamon Ryan the former Minister for Communications and Natural Resources and Mary Harney, former Minister for Health and Children and Tánaiste. Chief Baron and Judge Christopher Palles was a resident after his retirement. List of towns and villages in Ireland Roebuck Castle- the most heraldic house in Dublin?
Elizabeth Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire
Elizabeth Christiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire was an English novelist and duchess. She is best known as Lady Elizabeth Foster, the close friend of Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire. Elizabeth supplanted the Duchess, gaining the affections of William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire, marrying him. Known as Bess, she was born Elizabeth Christiana Hervey in a small house in Horringer, St Edmundsbury, Suffolk, her father, Frederick Hervey became the fourth Earl of Bristol. In 1776, Elizabeth married Irishman John Thomas Foster, he was a first cousin of the brothers John Foster, last Speaker of the Irish House of Commons, Bishop Foster. The Fosters had two sons and Augustus John Foster, their only daughter named Elizabeth, was born prematurely on 17 November 1778 and lived only eight days. When her father succeeded as the earl in 1779, she became Lady Elizabeth Foster; the couple resided after 1779 with her parents at Ickworth House in Suffolk. The marriage was not a success, the couple separated within five years, plausibly after Foster had a relationship with a servant.
Foster did not allow the boys to see Bess for 14 years. In May 1782, Bess met the Duke and Duchess of Devonshire in Bath, became Georgiana's closest friend. From this time, she lived in a triad with Georgiana and her husband, the 5th Duke of Devonshire, for about 25 years, she bore two illegitimate children by the Duke: a daughter, Caroline St Jules, a son, who were raised at Devonshire House with the Duke's legitimate children by Georgiana. Georgiana grew ill and died in 1806, he died two years later. Bess is said to have had affairs with several other men, including Cardinal Ercole Consalvi, John Sackville, 3rd Duke of Dorset, Count Axel von Fersen, Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond, Valentine Quin, 1st Earl of Dunraven and Mount-Earl. There is some evidence that Quin fathered an illegitimate son by her, who became the noted physician Frederic Hervey Foster Quin. Quin joined the Duchess as her travelling physician in Rome in December 1820, afterwards attended her in that city during her fatal illness in March 1824.
Lady Elizabeth was a friend of the French author Madame de Staël, with whom she corresponded from about 1804. Lady Elizabeth Foster was depicted by Hayley Atwell in the 2008 film The Duchess. With John Thomas Foster: Frederick Elizabeth Sir Augustus Foster, Bt With William Cavendish, 5th Duke of Devonshire: Caroline Rosalie Adelaide, who as Caroline St Jules, married George Lamb Sir Augustus Clifford, Bt 13 May 1759 – 1776: Miss Elizabeth Hervey 1776 – 23 December 1779: Mrs John Foster 23 December 1779 – 1809: The Lady Elizabeth Foster 1809 – 29 July 1811: Her Grace The Duchess of Devonshire 29 July 1811 – 30 March 1824: Her Grace The Dowager Duchess of Devonshire Vere Foster, The Two Duchesses.. Family Correspondence relating to.. Blackie & Son, Glasgow & Dublin, 1898. Vere Foster, her grandson, was educationalist. Brian Masters, Georgiana Duchess of Devonshire, Hamish Hamilton, 1981. Amanda Foreman, Duchess of Devonshire. Caroline Chapman & Jane Dormer,Elizabeth and Georgiana, John Wiley & Sons Inc. 2002.
"Archival material relating to Elizabeth Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire". UK National Archives