University of Oregon
The University of Oregon is a public flagship research university in Eugene, Oregon. Founded in 1876, the institution's 295-acre campus is along the Willamette River. Since July 2014, UO has been governed by the Board of Trustees of the University of Oregon; the university has a Carnegie Classification of "highest research activity" and has 19 research centers and institutes. UO was admitted to the Association of American Universities in 1969; the University of Oregon is organized into five colleges and seven professional schools and a graduate school. Furthermore, UO offers 316 graduate degree programs. Most academic programs follow the 10 week Quarter System. UO student-athletes compete as the Ducks and are part of the Pac-12 Conference in the National Collegiate Athletic Association. With eighteen varsity teams, the Oregon Ducks are best known for their football team and track and field program; the university's motto, Mens agitat molem, is shared by the Military Academy of the German Armed Forces founded in 1957, the University of Warwick founded in 1965, Eindhoven University of Technology founded in 1956.
Book VI, line 727 of the Aeneid by Virgil has been identified as the first written record of this thought. The Oregon State Legislature established the university on October 12, 1872, despite the new state's funding woes; the residents of Eugene struggled to help finance the institution, holding numerous fundraising events such as strawberry festivals, church socials, produce sales. They raised $27,500, enough to buy eighteen acres of land at a cost of $2,500; the doors opened in 1876 with the name of Oregon State University and Deady Hall as its sole building. The first year of enrollment contained 155 students taught by five faculty members; the first graduating class was in 1878. In 1881, the university was nearly closed. In 1913 and 1932, there were proposals to merge the university with what is now Oregon State University. Both proposals were defeated. During Prince Lucien Campbell's tenure as president from 1902 to 1925, the university experienced tremendous growth; the budget, enrollment and faculty members all grew several times its amount prior to his presidency.
Numerous schools were established during his tenure, including the School of Music in 1902, the School of Education in 1910, the School of Architecture, the College of Business in 1914, the School of Law in 1915, the School of Journalism in 1916, the School of Health and Physical Education in 1920. However, the University of Oregon lost its School of Engineering to Oregon Agricultural College, now known as Oregon State University. In 1917, a "three term" calendar was adopted by the university faculty as a war-time measure; this academic calendar has remained since then. However, it is now referred to as the Quarter System; the Zorn-MacPherson Bill in 1932 proposed the University of Oregon State College merge. The bill lost in a landslide vote of over 6 to 1; the University of Oregon Medical School was founded in 1887 in Portland and merged with Willamette University's program in 1913. However, in 1974 it became an independent institution known as Oregon Health Sciences University. In 1969, the UO was admitted into the Association of American Universities.
With financial support from the state dwindling from 40% to 13% of the university budget, in January 2001, University President Dave Frohnmayer began Campaign Oregon with the goal of raising $600 million by December 2008, the most ambitious philanthropic fundraising campaign in the state's history at the time. With contributions exceeding $100 million from benefactors such as Phil Knight and Lorry I. Lokey, the campaign goal was exceeded by over $253 million; the university occupies over 80 buildings. There are several ongoing campus construction projects such as a $95 million expansion and renovation of the Erb Memorial Union scheduled to open in September 2016 as well as a $16.75 million successor to the Science Library complex. These projects, among others, were commissioned in part to support current student enrollment as well as possible future increases. In reaction to a growing movement to establish an independent university board, the Oregon Legislature in 2013 passed SB 270, requiring local governing boards for the state's three largest institutions.
Effective July 1, 2014, the University of Oregon became an independent public body governed by the Board of Trustees of the University of Oregon. Proponents of local governing boards believe an independent board will give the university more autonomy, free it from relying on inadequate state funding. On August 6, 2014, Michael R. Gottfredson resigned as president. In the summer of 2014, former UO president Robert Berdahl told the president of the university's board of trustees he believes UO risks losing its membership in the Association of American Universities. To address this growing concern, UO began preparing several initiatives which include a cluster-hire and a capital campaign. In the fall of 2014 the institution announced; this number was revised to $3 billion in the fall of 2018. Michael H. Schill became the university's president in the summer of 2015. In June 2015, UO's endowment surpassed the $700 million mark. Eugene will host the 2021 World Championships in Athletics. University facilities, such
Democratic Party (United States)
The Democratic Party is one of the two major contemporary political parties in the United States, along with the Republican Party. Tracing its heritage back to Thomas Jefferson and James Madison's Democratic-Republican Party, the modern-day Democratic Party was founded around 1828 by supporters of Andrew Jackson, making it the world's oldest active political party; the Democrats' dominant worldview was once social conservatism and economic liberalism, while populism was its leading characteristic in the rural South. In 1912, Theodore Roosevelt ran as a third-party candidate in the Progressive Party, beginning a switch of political platforms between the Democratic and Republican Party over the coming decades, leading to Woodrow Wilson being elected as the first fiscally progressive Democrat. Since Franklin D. Roosevelt and his New Deal coalition in the 1930s, the Democratic Party has promoted a social liberal platform, supporting social justice. Well into the 20th century, the party had conservative pro-business and Southern conservative-populist anti-business wings.
The New Deal Coalition of 1932–1964 attracted strong support from voters of recent European extraction—many of whom were Catholics based in the cities. After Franklin D. Roosevelt's New Deal of the 1930s, the pro-business wing withered outside the South. After the racial turmoil of the 1960s, most Southern whites and many Northern Catholics moved into the Republican Party at the presidential level; the once-powerful labor union element became less supportive after the 1970s. White Evangelicals and Southerners became Republican at the state and local level since the 1990s. People living in metropolitan areas, women and gender minorities, college graduates, racial and ethnic minorities in the United States, such as Jewish Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, Arab Americans and African Americans, tend to support the Democratic Party much more than they support the rival Republican Party; the Democratic Party's philosophy of modern liberalism advocates social and economic equality, along with the welfare state.
It seeks to provide government regulation in the economy. These interventions, such as the introduction of social programs, support for labor unions, affordable college tuitions, moves toward universal health care and equal opportunity, consumer protection and environmental protection form the core of the party's economic policy. Fifteen Democrats have served as President of the United States; the first was President Andrew Jackson, the seventh president and served from 1829 to 1837. The most recent was President Barack Obama, the 44th president and held office from 2009 to 2017. Following the 2018 midterm elections, the Democrats held a majority in the House of Representatives, "trifectas" in 14 states, the mayoralty of numerous major American cities, such as Boston, Los Angeles, New York City, San Francisco, Portland and Washington, D. C. Twenty-three state governors were Democrats, the Party was the minority party in the Senate and in most state legislatures; as of March 2019, four of the nine Justices of the Supreme Court had been appointed by Democratic presidents.
Democratic Party officials trace its origins to the inspiration of the Democratic-Republican Party, founded by Thomas Jefferson, James Madison and other influential opponents of the Federalists in 1792. That party inspired the Whigs and modern Republicans. Organizationally, the modern Democratic Party arose in the 1830s with the election of Andrew Jackson. Since the nomination of William Jennings Bryan in 1896, the party has positioned itself to the left of the Republican Party on economic issues, they have been more liberal on civil rights issues since 1948. On foreign policy, both parties have changed position several times; the Democratic Party evolved from the Jeffersonian Republican or Democratic-Republican Party organized by Jefferson and Madison in opposition to the Federalist Party of Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. The party favored republicanism; the Democratic-Republican Party came to power in the election of 1800. After the War of 1812, the Federalists disappeared and the only national political party left was the Democratic-Republicans.
The era of one-party rule in the United States, known as the Era of Good Feelings, lasted from 1816 until the early 1830s, when the Whig Party became a national political group to rival the Democratic-Republicans. However, the Democratic-Republican Party still had its own internal factions, they split over the choice of a successor to President James Monroe and the party faction that supported many of the old Jeffersonian principles, led by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, became the modern Democratic Party. As Norton explains the transformation in 1828: Jacksonians believed the people's will had prevailed. Through a lavishly financed coalition of state parties, political leaders, newspaper editors, a popular movement had elected the president; the Democrats became the nation's first well-organized national party and tight party organization became the hallmark of nineteenth-century American politics. Opposing factions led by Henry Clay helped form the Whig Party; the Democratic Party had a small yet decisive advantage over the Whigs until the 1850s, when the Whigs fell apart over the issue of slavery.
In 1854, angry with the Kansas–Nebraska Act, anti-slavery Dem
A cappella music is group or solo singing without instrumental accompaniment, or a piece intended to be performed in this way. It contrasts with cantata, accompanied singing; the term "a cappella" was intended to differentiate between Renaissance polyphony and Baroque concertato style. In the 19th century a renewed interest in Renaissance polyphony coupled with an ignorance of the fact that vocal parts were doubled by instrumentalists led to the term coming to mean unaccompanied vocal music; the term is used, albeit as a synonym for alla breve. A cappella music was used in religious music church music as well as anasheed and zemirot. Gregorian chant is an example of a cappella singing, as is the majority of secular vocal music from the Renaissance; the madrigal, up until its development in the early Baroque into an instrumentally-accompanied form, is usually in a cappella form. Jewish and Christian music were a cappella, this practice has continued in both of these religions as well as in Islam.
The polyphony of Christian a cappella music began to develop in Europe around the late 15th century AD, with compositions by Josquin des Prez. The early a cappella polyphonies may have had an accompanying instrument, although this instrument would double the singers' parts and was not independent. By the 16th century, a cappella polyphony had further developed, but the cantata began to take the place of a cappella forms. 16th century a cappella polyphony, continued to influence church composers throughout this period and to the present day. Recent evidence has shown that some of the early pieces by Palestrina, such as what was written for the Sistine Chapel was intended to be accompanied by an organ "doubling" some or all of the voices; such is seen in the life of Palestrina becoming a major influence on Bach, most notably in the Mass in B Minor. Other composers that utilized the a cappella style, if only for the occasional piece, were Claudio Monteverdi and his masterpiece, Lagrime d'amante al sepolcro dell'amata, composed in 1610, Andrea Gabrieli when upon his death it was discovered many choral pieces, one of, in the unaccompanied style.
Learning from the preceding two composeres, Heinrich Schütz utilized the a cappella style in numerous pieces, chief among these were the pieces in the oratorio style, which were traditionally performed during the Easter week and dealt with the religious subject matter of that week, such as Christ's suffering and the Passion. Five of Schutz's Historien were Easter pieces, of these the latter three, which dealt with the passion from three different viewpoints, those of Matthew and John, were all done a cappella style; this was a near requirement for this type of piece, the parts of the crowd were sung while the solo parts which were the quoted parts from either Christ or the authors were performed in a plainchant. In the Byzantine Rite of the Eastern Orthodox Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches, the music performed in the liturgies is sung without instrumental accompaniment. Bishop Kallistos Ware says, "The service is sung though there may be no choir... In the Orthodox Church today, as in the early Church, singing is unaccompanied and instrumental music is not found."
This a cappella behavior arises from strict interpretation of Psalms 150, which states, Let every thing that hath breath praise the Lord. Praise ye the Lord. In keeping with this philosophy, early Russian musika which started appearing in the late 17th century, in what was known as khorovïye kontsertï made a cappella adaptations of Venetian-styled pieces, such as the treatise, Grammatika musikiyskaya, by Nikolai Diletsky. Divine Liturgies and Western Rite masses composed by famous composers such as Peter Tchaikovsky, Sergei Rachmaninoff, Alexander Arkhangelsky, Mykola Leontovych are fine examples of this. Present-day Christian religious bodies known for conducting their worship services without musical accompaniment include some Presbyterian churches devoted to the regulative principle of worship, Old Regular Baptists, Primitive Baptists, Plymouth Brethren, Churches of Christ, Church of God, the Old German Baptist Brethren, Doukhobors the Byzantine Rite and the Amish, Old Order Mennonites and Conservative Mennonites.
Certain high church services and other musical events in liturgical churches may be a cappella, a practice remaining from apostolic times. Many Mennonites conduct some or all of their services without instruments. Sacred Harp, a type of folk music, is an a cappella style of religious singing with shape notes sung at singing conventions. Opponents of musical instruments in the Christian worship believe that such opposition is supported by the Christian scriptures and Church history; the scriptures referenced are Matthew 26:30. There is no reference to instrumental music in early church worship in the New Testament, or in the worship of churches for the first six centuries. Several reasons have been posited throughout church history for the absence of instrumental music in church worship. Christians who believe in a cappella music today believe that in the Israelite worship assembly during Temple worship only the Priests of Levi sang and offered animal sacrifices, whereas in the church era, all Christians are commanded to sing praises to God.
They believe that if God
Michael Dana Gioia is an American poet and writer. He spent the first fifteen years of his career writing at night while working for General Foods Corporation. After his 1991 essay "Can Poetry Matter?" in The Atlantic generated international attention, Gioia quit business to pursue writing full-time. He served as the chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts between 2003 and 2009. Gioia has published five books of poetry and three volumes of literary criticism as well as opera libretti, song cycles and over two dozen literary anthologies. Gioia is the Judge Widney Professor of Poetry and Public Culture at the University of Southern California, where he now teaches. In December 2015 he became the California State Poet Laureate, he divides his time between Los Angeles and Sonoma County, California. Michael Dana Gioia was born in Hawthorne, the son of Michael Gioia and Dorothy Ortez. Of Italian and Mexican descent, Gioia grew up in Hawthorne, "speaking Italian in a Mexican neighborhood", he said.
He attended Catholic schools including Junipero Serra High School in Gardena. His younger brother is jazz historian Ted Gioia. Gioia was the first person in his family to go to college and earned a Bachelor of Arts from Stanford University in 1973, a master's degree from Harvard University in 1975, a Master of Business Administration from Stanford Business School in 1977; as both a graduate and undergraduate, Gioia was editor of Stanford's literary journal the Sequoia Magazine. After business school, Gioia joined General Foods in 1977, where he became vice president of marketing, he was on the team that invented Jell-O Jigglers and is credited with helping reverse a long-running sales decline for Jello. In 1992, Gioia resigned from his position as a vice president at General Foods to pursue a full-time career as a poet. Although Gioia writes in both free and formal verse, he is classified as one of the "New Formalists", who write in traditional forms and have declared that a return to rhyme and more fixed meters is the new avant-garde.
He is a particular proponent of accentual verse. While working at General Foods, Gioia wrote in the evenings, producing several books of poetry and translation. Gioia has written several collections of criticisms. In his landmark 1991 essay "Can Poetry Matter?" Gioia objects to how marginalized poetry has become in America. He believes that university English departments appropriated the field from the public:The voluntary audience of serious contemporary poetry consists of poets, would-be poets, a few critics. Additionally, there is a larger involuntary and ephemeral audience consisting of students who read contemporary poetry as assigned course work. In sociological terms, it is significant that most members of the poetry subculture are paid to read poetry: most established poets and critics now work for large educational institutions. Over the last half-century, literary bohemia had been replaced by an academic bureaucracy. Gioia has written or co-written over two dozen literary anthologies and college textbooks, including An Introduction to Poetry.
He has written many essays and reviews. He wrote a column for San Francisco magazine as their music critic, it was as a poet that Gioia first began to attract widespread attention in the early 1980s, with frequent appearances in The Hudson Review and The New Yorker. In the same period, he published a number of essays and book reviews. Both his poetry and his prose helped to establish him as one of the leading figures in the New Formalist movement, which emphasized a return to traditional poetic techniques such as rhyme and fixed form, to narrative and non-autobiographical subject matter; as a result, Daily Horoscope, his first collection, was one of the most anticipated and discussed poetry volumes of its time. Its contents range in form and theme. Among its more notable—and reprinted—pieces are "California Hills in August", "In Cheever Country", "The Sunday News"; the Gods of Winter, his second collection contains "Planting a Sequoia" about the tragic loss of his infant son, as well as the long dramatic monologues, "Counting the Children", in which an accountant has a disturbing interaction with a grotesque doll collection, "The Homecoming", in which a murderer explains his motivations for returning home to commit one more murder.
Published in Britain, it was chosen as the main selection of the U. K. Poetry Book Society. Interrogations at Noon, Gioia's third collection, was the winner of the 2002 American Book Award, it includes both translation and many original poems in which contemplative and wistful notes predominate, as in the concluding stanza of "Summer Storm": "And memory insists on pining / For places it never went, / As if life would be happier / Just by being different." His poem "Words" explores the power and limits of language to understand the world. Many of the other poems examine the lives of poets and composers. Pity the Beautiful marked Gioia's return to poetry after his term in public office as chairman of the NEA; as with his previous books of poetry, it featured free verse. "Special Treatments Ward" garnered notice for its description of a pediatric cancer ward. "Haunted", the central poem in the collection, is a long dramatic monologue, both love story and ghost story. 99 Poems: New & Selected is Gioia's latest book of poetry.
It collects his old poems along with several new poems. It was the winner of the 2018 Poets' Prize. In December 2015, Gioia was named Poet Laureate of California; as Poet Laureate, Gioia intends to visit each of the state's 58 counties
Patrick Joseph Buchanan is an American paleoconservative political commentator, syndicated columnist and broadcaster. Buchanan was a senior advisor to U. S. Presidents Richard Nixon, Gerald Ford, Ronald Reagan, was an original host on CNN's Crossfire, he sought the Republican presidential nomination in 1992 and 1996. He ran on the Reform Party ticket in the 2000 presidential election, he launched a foundation named The American Cause. He has been published in Human Events, National Review, The Nation, Rolling Stone, he was a political commentator on the MSNBC cable network, including the show Morning Joe until February 2012, now appears on Fox News. Buchanan has been a regular on The McLaughlin Group since the 1980s, his political positions can be described as paleoconservative, many of his views his opposition to American imperialism and the managerial state, echo those of the Old Right Republicans of the first half of the 20th century. Buchanan was born in Washington, D. C. a son of William Baldwin Buchanan, a partner in an accounting firm, his wife Catherine Elizabeth Buchanan, a nurse and a homemaker.
Buchanan had two sisters. Bay served as U. S. Treasurer under Ronald Reagan, his father was of Irish and Scottish ancestry, his mother was of German descent. He had a great-grandfather who fought in the American Civil War in the Confederate States Army, why he is a member of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, he admires the Confederate States of America. Of his southern ancestry, Buchanan has written: I have family roots in the South, in Mississippi; when the Civil War came, Cyrus Baldwin did not survive Vicksburg. William Buchanan of Okolona, who would marry Baldwin's daughter, fought at Atlanta and was captured by General Sherman. William Baldwin Buchanan was the name given by him to my late brother; as a member of the Sons of Confederate Veterans, I have been to their gatherings. I spoke at the 2001 SCV convention in Lafayette, LA; the Military Order of the Stars and Bars presented me with a battle flag and a wooden canteen like the ones my ancestors carried. Buchanan was born into a Catholic family and attended Catholic schools, including the Jesuit-run Gonzaga College High School.
As a student at Georgetown University, he did not complete the program. He earned his bachelor's degree in English from Georgetown, received his draft notice after he graduated in 1960; the District of Columbia draft board exempted Buchanan from military service because of reactive arthritis, classifying him as 4-F. He received a master's degree in journalism from Columbia University in 1962, writing his thesis on the expanding trade between Canada and Cuba. Buchanan joined the St. Louis Globe-Democrat at age 23. During the first year of the United States embargo against Cuba in 1961, Canada–Cuba trade tripled; the Globe-Democrat published a rewrite of Buchanan's Columbia master's project under the eight-column banner "Canada sells to Red Cuba — And Prospers" eight weeks after Buchanan started at the paper. According to Buchanan's memoir Right from the Beginning, this article was a career milestone. Buchanan said the embargo strengthened the communist regime and he turned against it. Buchanan was promoted to assistant editorial page editor in 1964 and supported Barry Goldwater's presidential campaign.
The Globe-Democrat did not endorse Goldwater and Buchanan speculated there was a clandestine agreement between the paper and President Lyndon B. Johnson. Buchanan recalled: "The conservative movement has always advanced from its defeats... I can't think of a single conservative, sorry about the Goldwater campaign." According to the foreword in the most recent edition of Conscience of a Conservative, Buchanan was a member of the Young Americans for Freedom and wrote press releases for that organization. He served as an executive assistant in the Nixon, Rose, Guthrie and Mitchell law offices in New York City in 1965; the next year, he was the first adviser hired by Nixon's presidential campaign. For his speeches aimed at dedicated supporters, he was soon nicknamed "Mr. Inside."Buchanan traveled with Richard Nixon throughout the campaigns of 1966 and 1968. He made a tour of Western Europe, Africa and, in the immediate aftermath of the Six-Day War, the Middle East; when Nixon took the Oval Office in 1969, Buchanan worked as a White House adviser and speechwriter for Nixon and Vice President Spiro Agnew.
Buchanan coined the phrase "Silent Majority," and helped shape the strategy that drew millions of Democrats to Nixon. In a 1972 memo, he suggested the White House "should move to re-capture the anti-Establishment tradition or theme in American politics." His daily assignments included developing political strategy, publishing the President's Daily News Summary, preparing briefing books for news conferences. He accompanied Nixon on his trip to China in 1972 and the summit in Moscow and Minsk in 1974, he suggested that Nixon label Democratic opponent George McGovern an extremist and burn the White House tapes. Buchanan remained as a special assistant to Nixon through the final days of the Watergate scandal, he was not accused of wrongdoing. In 2005 when the actual identity of the press leak was
The Stanford Mendicants are an all-male a cappella group at Stanford University. The group is Stanford University's original a cappella group. Since its founding in 1963, the group's size has varied from 6 to 19 members. Although they are an a cappella group today, they have performed with instruments in previous generations; the group prides itself on singing a wide range of songs, from gospel to barbershop to pop tunes and original compositions. The Mendicants are known around Stanford's campus for their romantic serenades; the Stanford Mendicants was founded in 1963 by Hank Adams, a transfer student from Yale University, with a group of 5 undergraduate men. The group rehearsed only a single song before breaking into the dining commons of Branner Hall, an all-women's dormitory at the time, performing their song during lunch. Adams recalled, himself tearing up, that during their performance, the women wept, there was "not a dry eye in the house". Having only rehearsed the one song, they fled through an open window and went back to rehearsal.
Their 1998 album Besides What You See received a 4.2 rating from the Recorded A Cappella Review Board, the group's highest album score to date. The group was Runner-Up in three categories in the inaugural CARA Awards in 1992 and have been nominated for awards as as 2005. Two Mendicant songs have been featured on the annual "Best of Collegiate A Cappella" Compilation. On February 2nd, 2019, The Stanford Mendicants finished in first place in the ICCA Northern California Quarter-Finals in Redwood City, CA; the Menidcants took home two individual awards, including Outstanding Soloist and Outstanding Choreography. Current members of the Stanford Mendicants include: Tops Nur Shelton, Frank Willey, Johnny Rabe, Trent Sandland Leads Austin Zambito-Valente, Isaac Schaider, Zach Ryan, Khoi Le, Timothy Isaacs, Ben Simon Baritones Kris Kaya, Chris Adusei-Poku, Robby Haag, Nate Lee, Eli Goodman Basses Josh Adamson, Michael Basili, Ryland Pampush Chris Ayer and Songwriter Jordan Gelber, actor from the Broadway run of Avenue Q Founding Mendicant Dick Grant, Director of the Pacific Mozart Ensemble Former Musical Director John Livingston and brother of Ron Livingston Founding Mendicant John Frohnmayer and Oregon State University Professor Brandon Singleton, actor with the Jersey Boys Las Vegas production at the Palazzo Las Vegas-Resort Hotel Casino Joseph Siravo, actor with The Sopranos and Jersey Boys National Tour Untitled Untitled A Fellow Needs a Girl Untitled Untitled Untitled Untitled Untitled Untitled Clean-Cut and Slightly Frayed Somewhere in Hawaii Take You Back Pretending to Care Aquapella Just Like That Feline Casanova Back For Seconds Beggars Can't Be Choosers Besides What You See Room to Grow Best Laid Plans Mendication Beggar's Dozen Roses In My Hand Sh-Boom Just a Group of Guys Mendicants At Large For the Long Haul Stanford University vocal groups Stanford Mendicants Official Website Stanford Mendicants YouTube Stanford Mendicants YouTube 2
National Archives and Records Administration
The National Archives and Records Administration is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives. NARA is responsible for maintaining and publishing the authentic and authoritative copies of acts of Congress, presidential directives, federal regulations; the NARA transmits votes of the Electoral College to Congress. The Archivist of the United States is the chief official overseeing the operation of the National Archives and Records Administration; the Archivist not only maintains the official documentation of the passage of amendments to the U. S. Constitution by state legislatures, but has the authority to declare when the constitutional threshold for passage has been reached, therefore when an act has become an amendment; the Office of the Federal Register publishes the Federal Register, Code of Federal Regulations, United States Statutes at Large, among others.
It administers the Electoral College. The National Historical Publications and Records Commission —the agency's grant-making arm—awards funds to state and local governments and private archives and universities, other nonprofit organizations to preserve and publish historical records. Since 1964, the NHPRC has awarded some 4,500 grants; the Office of Government Information Services is a Freedom of Information Act resource for the public and the government. Congress has charged NARA with reviewing FOIA policies and compliance of Federal agencies and to recommend changes to FOIA. NARA's mission includes resolving FOIA disputes between Federal agencies and requesters; each branch and agency of the U. S. government was responsible for maintaining its own documents, which resulted in the loss and destruction of records. Congress established the National Archives Establishment in 1934 to centralize federal record keeping, with the Archivist of the United States as chief administrator; the National Archives was incorporated with GSA in 1949.
The first Archivist, R. D. W. Connor, began serving in 1934; as a result of a first Hoover Commission recommendation, in 1949 the National Archives was placed within the newly formed General Services Administration. The Archivist served as a subordinate official to the GSA Administrator until the National Archives and Records Administration became an independent agency on April 1, 1985. In March 2006, it was revealed by the Archivist of the United States in a public hearing that a memorandum of understanding between NARA and various government agencies existed to "reclassify", i.e. withdraw from public access, certain documents in the name of national security, to do so in a manner such that researchers would not be to discover the process. An audit indicated that more than one third withdrawn since 1999 did not contain sensitive information; the program was scheduled to end in 2007. In 2010, Executive Order 13526 created the National Declassification Center to coordinate declassification practices across agencies, provide secure document services to other agencies, review records in NARA custody for declassification.
NARA's holdings are classed into "record groups" reflecting the governmental department or agency from which they originated. Records include paper documents, still pictures, motion pictures, electronic media. Archival descriptions of the permanent holdings of the federal government in the custody of NARA are stored in the National Archives Catalog; the archival descriptions include information on traditional paper holdings, electronic records, artifacts. As of December 2012, the catalog consisted of about 10 billion logical data records describing 527,000 artifacts and encompassing 81% of NARA's records. There are 922,000 digital copies of digitized materials. Most records at NARA are in the public domain, as works of the federal government are excluded from copyright protection. However, records from other sources may still be protected by donor agreements. Executive Order 13526 directs originating agencies to declassify documents if possible before shipment to NARA for long-term storage, but NARA stores some classified documents until they can be declassified.
Its Information Security Oversight Office monitors and sets policy for the U. S. government's security classification system. Many of NARA's most requested records are used for genealogy research; this includes census records from 1790 to 1940, ships' passenger lists, naturalization records. Archival Recovery Teams investigate the theft of records; the most well known facility of the National Archives and Records Administration is the National Archives Building, located north of the National Mall on Constitution Avenue in Washington, D. C.. A sister facility, known as the National Archives at College Park was opened 1994 near the University of Maryland, College Park; the Washington National Records Center located in the Washington, D. C. metropolitan area, is a large warehouse facility where federal records that are still under the control of the creating agency are stored. Federal government agencies pay a yearly fee for storage at the facility. In accordance with federal records schedules, documents at WNRC are transferred to the legal custody of the National Archives after a certain time.
Temporary records at WNRC are