Massachusetts Institute of Technology
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is a private research university in Cambridge, Massachusetts. Founded in 1861 in response to the increasing industrialization of the United States, MIT adopted a European polytechnic university model and stressed laboratory instruction in applied science and engineering; the Institute is a land-grant, sea-grant, space-grant university, with a campus that extends more than a mile alongside the Charles River. Its influence in the physical sciences and architecture, more in biology, linguistics and social science and art, has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. MIT is ranked among the world's top universities; as of March 2019, 93 Nobel laureates, 26 Turing Award winners, 8 Fields Medalists have been affiliated with MIT as alumni, faculty members, or researchers. In addition, 58 National Medal of Science recipients, 29 National Medals of Technology and Innovation recipients, 50 MacArthur Fellows, 73 Marshall Scholars, 45 Rhodes Scholars, 41 astronauts, 16 Chief Scientists of the US Air Force have been affiliated with MIT.
The school has a strong entrepreneurial culture, the aggregated annual revenues of companies founded by MIT alumni would rank as the tenth-largest economy in the world. MIT is a member of the Association of American Universities. In 1859, a proposal was submitted to the Massachusetts General Court to use newly filled lands in Back Bay, Boston for a "Conservatory of Art and Science", but the proposal failed. A charter for the incorporation of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, proposed by William Barton Rogers, was signed by the governor of Massachusetts on April 10, 1861. Rogers, a professor from the University of Virginia, wanted to establish an institution to address rapid scientific and technological advances, he did not wish to found a professional school, but a combination with elements of both professional and liberal education, proposing that: The true and only practicable object of a polytechnic school is, as I conceive, the teaching, not of the minute details and manipulations of the arts, which can be done only in the workshop, but the inculcation of those scientific principles which form the basis and explanation of them, along with this, a full and methodical review of all their leading processes and operations in connection with physical laws.
The Rogers Plan reflected the German research university model, emphasizing an independent faculty engaged in research, as well as instruction oriented around seminars and laboratories. Two days after MIT was chartered, the first battle of the Civil War broke out. After a long delay through the war years, MIT's first classes were held in the Mercantile Building in Boston in 1865; the new institute was founded as part of the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Act to fund institutions "to promote the liberal and practical education of the industrial classes" and was a land-grant school. In 1863 under the same act, the Commonwealth of Massachusetts founded the Massachusetts Agricultural College, which developed as the University of Massachusetts Amherst. In 1866, the proceeds from land sales went toward new buildings in the Back Bay. MIT was informally called "Boston Tech"; the institute adopted the European polytechnic university model and emphasized laboratory instruction from an early date. Despite chronic financial problems, the institute saw growth in the last two decades of the 19th century under President Francis Amasa Walker.
Programs in electrical, chemical and sanitary engineering were introduced, new buildings were built, the size of the student body increased to more than one thousand. The curriculum drifted with less focus on theoretical science; the fledgling school still suffered from chronic financial shortages which diverted the attention of the MIT leadership. During these "Boston Tech" years, MIT faculty and alumni rebuffed Harvard University president Charles W. Eliot's repeated attempts to merge MIT with Harvard College's Lawrence Scientific School. There would be at least six attempts to absorb MIT into Harvard. In its cramped Back Bay location, MIT could not afford to expand its overcrowded facilities, driving a desperate search for a new campus and funding; the MIT Corporation approved a formal agreement to merge with Harvard, over the vehement objections of MIT faculty and alumni. However, a 1917 decision by the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court put an end to the merger scheme. In 1916, the MIT administration and the MIT charter crossed the Charles River on the ceremonial barge Bucentaur built for the occasion, to signify MIT's move to a spacious new campus consisting of filled land on a mile-long tract along the Cambridge side of the Charles River.
The neoclassical "New Technology" campus was designed by William W. Bosworth and had been funded by anonymous donations from a mysterious "Mr. Smith", starting in 1912. In January 1920, the donor was revealed to be the industrialist George Eastman of Rochester, New York, who had invented methods of film production and processing, founded Eastman Kodak. Between 1912 and 1920, Eastman donated $20 million in cash and Kodak stock to MIT. In the 1930s, President Karl Taylor Compton and Vice-President Vannevar Bush emphasized the importance of pure sciences like physics and chemistry and reduced the vocational practice required in shops and drafting studios; the Compton reforms "renewed confidence in the ability of the Institute to develop leadership in science as well as in engineering". Unlike Ivy League schools, MIT catered more to middle-class families, depended more on tuition than on endow
Senior Hall (Berkeley, California)
Senior Hall is a historic building on the University of California, Berkeley campus, in Berkeley, California. The rustic log cabin structure was designed by architect John Galen Howard; the building was proposed in 1903 and dedicated in 1906. It was used as the university's student union and run by the senior male students. A senior honor society called the Order of the Golden Bear was responsible for building the hall, it held secret meetings at the hall after its construction. According to the Daily Californian, Senior Hall was responsible for student self-governance at Berkeley, as the hall gave seniors a place to meet and discuss campus issues. A new student union replaced the hall in 1923, but the Order of the Golden Bear continues to meet there. Senior Hall was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974. Senior Hall
National Academy of Design
The National Academy of Design is an honorary association of American artists, founded in New York City in 1825 by Samuel Morse, Asher Durand, Thomas Cole, Martin E. Thompson, Charles Cushing Wright, Ithiel Town, others "to promote the fine arts in America through instruction and exhibition." The original founders of the National Academy of Design were students of the American Academy of the Fine Arts. However, by 1825 the students of the American Academy felt a lack of support for teaching from the academy, its board composed of merchants and physicians, from its unsympathetic president, the painter John Trumbull. Samuel Morse and other students set about forming "the drawing association", to meet several times each week for the study of the art of design. Still, the association was viewed as a dependent organization of the American Academy, from which they felt neglected. An attempt was made to reconcile differences and maintain a single academy by appointing six of the artists from the association as directors of the American Academy.
When four of the nominees were not elected, the frustrated artists resolved to form a new academy and the National Academy of Design was born. Morse had been a student at the Royal Academy in London and emulated its structure and goals for the National Academy of Design. After three years and some tentative names, in 1828 the academy found its longstanding name "National Academy of Design", under which it was known for one and a half centuries. In 1997, newly appointed director Annette Blaugrund rebranded the institution as the "National Academy Museum and School of Fine Art", to reflect "a new spirit of integration incorporating the association of artists and school", to avoid confusion with the now differently understood term "design"; this change was reversed in 2017. 1825 The New York Drawing Association 1826 The National Academy of The Arts of Design 1828 The National Academy of Design 1997 The National Academy Museum and School of Fine Art 2017 The National Academy of Design The Academy occupied several locations in Manhattan over the years.
Notable among them was a building on Park Avenue and 23rd Street designed by architect P. B. Wight and built 1863–1865 in a Venetian Gothic style modeled on the Doge's Palace in Venice. Another location was at West 109th Amsterdam Avenue. Since 1942 the academy has occupied a mansion at Fifth Avenue and Eighty-ninth Street, the former home of sculptor Anna Hyatt Huntington and philanthropist Archer M. Huntington, who donated the house in 1940; the academy is a professional honorary organization, with a museum. One cannot apply for membership, which since 1994, after many changes in numbers, is limited to 450 American artists and architects. Instead, members are elected by their peers on the basis of recognized excellence. Full members of the National Academy are identified by the post-nominal "NA", associates by "ANA"; the school offers studio instruction, master classes, intensive critiques, various workshops, lunchtime lectures. Scholarships are available; the museum houses a public collection of over 7,000 works of American art from the 19th, 20th, 21st centuries.
As of November 2018 the academy's Board of Governors consists of 18 board members, with Bruce Fowle as President and James Siena as Chairman of the Abbey Council. Maura Reilly serves as Executive Director since 2015. Among the teaching staff were numerous artists, including Will Hicok Low, who taught from 1889 to 1892; the famous American poet William Cullen Bryant gave lectures. Architect Alexander Jackson Davis taught at the academy. Painter Lemuel Wilmarth was the first full-time instructor. Silas Dustin was a curator; some of the Academy's better-known members include: American Watercolor Society Effects of the financial crisis of 2007–2009 on museums List of museums and cultural institutions in New York City Official website National Academy of Design at Google Cultural Institute
Julia Morgan was an American architect. She designed more than 700 buildings in California during a prolific career, she is best known for her work on Hearst Castle in California. Morgan was the first woman to be admitted to the architecture program at l'École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris and the first woman architect licensed in California, she designed many buildings for institutions serving women and girls, including YWCA buildings and buildings for Mills College. Morgan embraced the Arts and Crafts Movement and used various producers of California pottery to adorn her buildings, she sought to reconcile classical and Craftsman and innovation, formalism and whimsy. Julia Morgan was the first woman to receive the AIA Gold Medal, posthumously in 2014. Morgan's father, Charles Bill Morgan, was born into a prominent East Coast family that included successful military men and influential businessmen, he studied to be a mining engineer. He returned the next year to marry Eliza Woodland Parmelee, the favored daughter of Albert O. Parmelee, a cotton trader and self-made millionaire.
The wedding was in New York, where she had grown up. As a wedding present, Parmelee gave his daughter an envelope full of money so that she could raise a family in comfort, he indicated. The newlyweds traveled to San Francisco and settled downtown in a family-oriented but luxurious residential hotel. In April 1870, a son was named Parmelee Morgan. On January 20, 1872, Julia Morgan was born. Two years the Morgans moved across the San Francisco Bay to Oakland, to live in a large house they had built in the Stick-Eastlake style at 754 14th Street at its intersection with Brush Street at the downtown edge of what is now known as West Oakland. Three more children were born to the family in Oakland. At every new birth, grandfather Parmelee paid for the Morgans to travel to the East Coast by transcontinental train so that the grandchild could be christened in the traditional family church in New York. Charles Morgan was not successful in any of his business ventures, so the family relied upon money from grandfather Parmelee.
Eliza Morgan ran the household with a strong hand, providing young Julia with a role model of womanly competence and independence. In mid-1878, Eliza took the children to live near the Parmelees in New York for a year while Charles worked in San Francisco. In New York, Julia was introduced to her older cousin Lucy Thornton, married to successful architect Pierre Le Brun. After returning to Oakland, Julia kept in contact with Le Brun. In New York, Julia got sick with scarlet fever and was kept in bed for a few weeks; as a result of this illness, throughout her adult life she was prone to ear infections. In July 1880, grandfather Parmelee died. Soon, grandmother Parmelee moved into the Oakland house; this reinforced Julia's impression. Morgan resisted her mother's suggestion that she have a debutante party to celebrate her availability for marriage, she argued. Her parents were supportive of this wish. Morgan graduated from Oakland High School in 1890 and enrolled in the University of California, in nearby Berkeley.
At university, she was a member of the Kappa Alpha Theta sorority. After her graduation, Morgan became a member of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, now the American Association of University Women. One of the engineering lecturers of her senior year was Bernard Maybeck, an eccentrically dressed architect who designed buildings that Morgan admired for their respect for the surrounding topography and environment. Maybeck mentored Morgan, along with her classmates Arthur Brown, Jr. Edward H. Bennett and Lewis P. Hobart, in architecture at his Berkeley home, he encouraged Morgan to continue her studies at the prestigious École nationale supérieure des Beaux-Arts in Paris where he had distinguished himself. She graduated from Cal in 1894 with a degree in civil engineering. Morgan gained a year of work experience building with Maybeck traveled to Paris in 1896 to prepare for the Beaux-Arts entrance exam; the school had never before allowed a woman to study architecture, but in 1897, it opened its entry process to women applicants because of pressure from a union of French women artists, whom Morgan characterized as "bohemians".
Morgan was exposed to their feminist views. In principle, the school admitted the top 30 candidates, it took Morgan three tries to get in: on the first try, she placed too low, while on her second try, in 1898, although she placed well into the top 30, the examiners "arbitrarily lowered" her marks. After more than a year of further study, tutored by François-Benjamin Chaussemiche, a winner of the Prix de Rome, she passed the entrance exams in the Architecture Program, placing 13th out of 376 applicants, was duly admitted. However, she could study only until her 30th birthday. In early 1902, as her birthday approached, Morgan submitted an outstanding design for a palatial theatre; this earned her a certificate in architecture, making her the first woman to receive one from the school. She stayed in Paris long enough to collaborate with Chaussemiche on
Hearst Memorial Mining Building
The Hearst Memorial Mining Building at the University of California, Berkeley, is home to the university's Materials Science and Engineering Department, with research and teaching spaces for the subdisciplines of biomaterials. The Beaux-Arts-style Classical Revival building is listed in the National Register of Historic Places and is designated as part of California Historical Landmark #946, it was designed by John Galen Howard, with the assistance of the UC Berkeley-educated architect Julia Morgan and the Dean of the College of Mines at that time, Samuel B. Christy, it was the first building on that campus designed by Howard. Construction began in 1902 as part of the Phoebe Hearst campus development plan; the building was dedicated to the memory of her husband George Hearst, a successful miner. From 1998 to 2003, the building underwent a massive renovation and seismic retrofit, in which a platform was built underneath the building, a suspension system capable of up to 1 meter lateral travel was installed.
To keep the expansion distinct from the historic building, shot peened aluminium and a more modern design were used in the new construction. The Lawson Adit - a horizontal mining tunnel - is directly to the east of the building. Construction of the Hearst Memorial Mining Building began in 1902, the building was completed in 1907, with a dedication ceremony held on August 23 of that year; the $1,065,000 construction cost was a gift of Phoebe Apperson Hearst, dedicated to the memory of her late husband, Senator George Hearst, who had made much of his fortune in mining. When construction began in 1903, the College of Mines, with its 247 students was the largest of its kind in the world; the college did not have a dedicated building, due to the size of the college, the Hearst Memorial Mining Building was chosen as the first building under the Hearst Plan to be constructed. University architect John Galen Howard designed the building with the assistance of the Dean of the College of Mines, Professor Samuel B.
Christy and UC Berkeley-educated architect Julia Morgan. The architects set out to create a building that harmonized classical elements with architectural innovation, building off prior examples of European and American mining building architecture, staying true to the Beaux-Arts style that defined Howard's vision for the Hearst campus plan. In order to help them realize this vision, Hearst funded a trip for Howard and Christy to visit mining schools throughout the United States and Europe so that they could study standardized architectural forms for mining schools, as libraries and hospitals had realized in their own architectural evolution. Howard and Christy did not find many examples of mining colleges—the majority of the buildings they visited were built for other purposes. Howard feared that the scant number examples to study would make his design prone to the mistakes of an architectural form early in its evolution; this problem is what inspired Howard to create an "elastic" design—the building's exterior shell would be built separate from the interior, so that the interior could be modified in the future without having to scrap the shell or compromise the building's strength.
Vents and chimneys were built independent of the shell, as these architectural features were expected to have shorter lifespans than the exterior structure. California Hall, another Howard-designed building on the UC Berkeley campus was constructed with an "elastic" interior form. Howard, reflecting upon their work after the construction was complete, said: We have sought to secure beauty not by easy masquerade and putting on of architectural stuff, but by organic composition, working from within out, letting the heart of the thing speak... If the expression be true, no matter how strange it may seem at first, in the end it must be seen to be inevitable; the roof of the building is tiled, brackets made of timber, ornamentation is of the classical tradition. The roof tiles are reminiscent of Spanish roofing tiles used in late California mission architecture; as the building's centerpiece, the center vestibule was made notable from the exterior by being made the highest point of the building's facade.
Howard unified the exterior facade not by the classical elements of symmetry and hierarchy, but rather filled in voids with ornamental details. Six granite corbel sculptures created by Robert Ingersoll Aitken support the wooden roof brackets. According to Howard, the two male sculptures on the west signified "primal elements", the two on the east "eternal forces", representative of the character of mining; the two central female sculptures provided a balancing presence, representing "the ideal art, the final flower of life--fresh, pure--emerging from the void of chaos". The central entrance vestibule was dedicated to Senator Hearst, was to serve as a space for the mining museum, it was designed to recall Henri Labrouste's Reading Room in the Bibliothèque Nationale de France. The golden oak doors that open into it from the building's exterior were intended to create a dramatic entrance into an dramatic, high-ceilinged space where domes 50 feet in the air are covered in buff-toned Guastavino tiles.
The columns that support the internal structure are composed of steel beams, continue through two floors of balconies lined with blue-green cast-iron railings housed upon steel lattice trusses. Construction details such as its bricks are intentionally exposed to communicate a brusk aesthetic; the Guastavino tiles were a proprietary feature to the domed structural system. They were