House of Hohenzollern
The House of Hohenzollern is a German dynasty of former princes, electors and emperors of Hohenzollern, Prussia, the German Empire, Romania. The family arose in the area around the town of Hechingen in Swabia during the 11th century and took their name from Hohenzollern Castle; the first ancestors of the Hohenzollerns were mentioned in 1061. The Hohenzollern family split into two branches, the Catholic Swabian branch and the Protestant Franconian branch, which became the Brandenburg-Prussian branch; the Swabian branch ruled the principalities of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen until 1849, ruled Romania from 1866 to 1947. Members of the Franconian branch became Margrave of Brandenburg in 1415 and Duke of Prussia in 1525; the Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia were ruled in personal union after 1618 and were called Brandenburg-Prussia. The Kingdom of Prussia was created in 1701 leading to the unification of Germany and the creation of the German Empire in 1871, with the Hohenzollerns as hereditary German Emperors and Kings of Prussia.
Germany's defeat in World War I in 1918 led to the German Revolution. The Hohenzollerns were overthrown and the Weimar Republic was established, thus bringing an end to the German monarchy. Georg Friedrich, Prince of Prussia is the current head of the royal Prussian line, while Karl Friedrich, Prince of Hohenzollern is the head of the princely Swabian line. Zollern, from 1218 Hohenzollern, was a county of the Holy Roman Empire, its capital was Hechingen. The Hohenzollerns named their estates after Hohenzollern Castle in the Swabian Alps; the Hohenzollern Castle lies on an 855 meters high mountain called Hohenzollern. It still belongs to the family today; the dynasty was first mentioned in 1061. According to the medieval chronicler Berthold of Reichenau, Burkhard I, Count of Zollern was born before 1025 and died in 1061. In 1095 Count Adalbert of Zollern founded the Benedictine monastery of Alpirsbach, situated in the Black Forest; the Zollerns received the comital title from Emperor Henry V in 1111.
As loyal vassals of the Swabian Hohenstaufen dynasty, they were able to enlarge their territory. Count Frederick III accompanied Emperor Frederick Barbarossa against Henry the Lion in 1180, through his marriage was granted the Burgraviate of Nuremberg by Emperor Henry VI in 1192. In about 1185 he married the daughter of Conrad II, Burgrave of Nuremberg. After the death of Conrad II who left no male heirs, Frederick III was granted Nuremberg as Burgrave Frederick I. In 1218 the burgraviate passed to Frederick's elder son Conrad I, he thereby became the ancestor of the Franconian Hohenzollern branch, which acquired the Electorate of Brandenburg in 1415; until 1061: Burkhard I before 1125: Frederick I between ca. 1125 and 1142: Frederick II, eldest son of Frederick I between ca. 1143 and 1150–1155: Burkhard II, 2nd oldest son of Frederick I between ca. 1150–1155 and 1160: Gotfried of Zimmern, 4th oldest son of Frederick I before 1171 – c. 1200: Frederick III/I After Frederick's death, his sons partitioned the family lands between themselves: Conrad I received the county of Zollern and exchanged it for the burgraviate of Nuremberg with his younger brother Frederick IV in 1218, thereby founding the Franconian branch of the House of Hohenzollern.
Members of the Franconian line became the Brandenburg-Prussia branch. The Franconian line converted to Protestantism. Frederick IV received the burgraviate of Nuremberg in 1200 from his father and exchanged it for the county of Zollern in 1218 with his brother, thereby founding the Swabian branch of the House of Hohenzollern; the Swabian line remains Catholic. The senior Franconian branch of the House of Hohenzollern was founded by Conrad I, Burgrave of Nuremberg; the family supported the Hohenstaufen and Habsburg rulers of the Holy Roman Empire during the 12th to 15th centuries, being rewarded with several territorial grants. Beginning in the 16th century, this branch of the family became Protestant and decided on expansion through marriage and the purchase of surrounding lands. In the first phase, the family added to their lands, at first with many small acquisitions in the Franconian region of Germany: Ansbach in 1331 Kulmbach in 1340In the second phase, the family expanded their lands further with large acquisitions in the Brandenburg and Prussian regions of Germany and current Poland: Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1417 Duchy of Prussia in 1618These acquisitions transformed the Franconian Hohenzollerns from a minor German princely family into one of the most important dynasties in Europe.
1192–1200/1204: Frederick I 1204–1218: Frederick II 1218–1261/1262: Conrad I/III 1262–1297: Frederick III, son of 1297–1300: John I, son of 1300–1332: Frederick IV, brother of 1332–1357: John II, son of 1357–1397: Frederick V, son ofAt Frederick V's death on 21 January 1398, his lands were partitioned between his two sons: 1397–1420: John III/I 1397–1427: Frederick VI/I/I, After John III/I's death on 11 June 1420, the margraviates of Brandenburg-Ansbach and Brandenburg-Kulmbach were reunited under Frederick VI/I/I. He ruled the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Ansbach after 1398. From 1420, he became Margrave of Brandenburg-Kulmbach. From 1411 Frederick VI became governor of Brandenburg and Elector and M
Agnes of Brandenburg, Duchess of Pomerania
Agnes of Brandenburg was a Princess of Brandenburg by birth and by marriage successively Duchess of Pomerania and of Saxe-Lauenburg. Agnes, a member of the house Hohenzollern, was a daughter of the Elector John George of Brandenburg from his third marriage with Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst, daughter of Prince Joachim Ernest of Anhalt. On 25 June 1604 in Berlin, she married Duke Philip Julius of Pomerania-Wolgast; the pair resided at Wolgast Castle. A folwark at Udars on the island of Rügen was named after her: Agnisenhof. In 1615, Elisabeth was involved, at the request of her husband, in the financing of a mint in Franzburg. After Philip Julius's death, Agnes lived on the district of Barth. Dubslaff Christoph von Eickstedt auf Rothenklempenow, councillor to her husband, served as her secrete cancillor and captain. Elisabeth married again on 9 September 1628, at Barth Castle, with ten years younger Duke Francis Charles of Saxe-Lauenburg, a general in the imperial army. With this second marriage, she lost her rights to Barth.
However, Francis Charles persuaded Wallenstein to force Duke Bogislaw XIV to allow her to keep Barth until her death. Both of her marriages were childless. Samuel Buchholtz: Versuch einer Geschichte der Churmark Brandenburg, 1767, p. 490, Online http://www.ruegenwalde.com/greifen/phijul/phijul.htm
Philipp Julius, Duke of Pomerania
Philipp Julius was duke of Pomerania in the Teilherzogtum Pomerania-Wolgast from 1592 to 1625. Philipp Julius was the son of Ernst Ludwig, Duke of Pomerania, Sophia Hedwig, daughter of Julius of Brunswick-Lüneburg. Ernst Ludwig died on 17 July 1592. From 1592 to 1603, Philipp Julius was under the tutelage of his uncle, Bogislaw XIII. During this time, he received his education at the University of Leipzig, afterwards travelled to nearly all courts from England to Italy. On 25 June 1604, he married Agnes of Brandenburg, daughter of John George, Elector of Brandenburg and his second wife, Elisabeth of Anhalt-Zerbst. A month after his marriage, Philipp Julius reached his majority and took on his position as a duke on 21 July 1604, he continued his extensive travelling, visiting England, the Dutch Republic, Berlin, Danzig and other locations en route. His travelling caused him to be absent for years. Philipp Julius suffered serious financial difficulties throughout his reign. While not curtailing his own expenses, he limited the travels of the functionaries of his court.
Most of the ducal domains were leased to third parties, causing a significant worsening of the peasants' situation. The rate of compulsory work. Studies revealed that nearly all peasants on the island of Rügen were impoverished or indebted by the time of his death; the duke attempted to get the Hanseatic towns of Greifswald and Stralsund to assume parts of his debts, triggering heavy conflicts. In 1604, an intervention in Greifswald's inner affairs went in his favour. In 1612, he humiliated the towns when, in disregard of their traditional autonomy, he entered their limits in company of several hundred mercenaries. In 1613, Philipp Julius granted town law to Bergen for a payment of 8,000 Mark. Philipp Julius attempted to control inflation, with limited success, by seeking closer contacts to the Lower Saxon Circle, causing some conflicts with his home, Upper Saxon Circle as well as the other Pomeranian Teilherzogtum, Pomerania-Stettin. Matthias, Holy Roman Emperor, called in by the Upper Saxon Circle intervened in Philipp Julius' coining policies in the mint of Franzburg in 1616, however confused him with his cousin Philip II of Pomerania-Stettin and thus corresponded with the latter.
In 1622, Philipp Julius followed an invitation of Christian IV of Denmark and participated in an assembly of the Lower Saxon Circle to explore a common financial strategy. The resulting treaty of Hamburg, ratified on 14 March, was to come into effect on 6 July; the Upper Saxon Circle however forced Philipp Julius to return to the previous state on 6 November. Between 1623 and 1625, the duke negotiated with the Danish king the sale of Rügen to the latter in return for 150,000 Reichstalers, which only failed due to Bogislaw XIV's veto; the years of Philipp Julius' reign were dominated by his strruggle to maintain political independence within the Upper Saxon Circle in face of hegemonial tendencies of the Electorate of Saxony and a political crisis resulting from the evolving Thirty Years' War. In 1620, the circle's representatives were assembled in a Kreistag in Leipzig, organized by John George I, Elector of Saxony; the assembly was dominated by the Saxon electorate who had managed to prevent Brandenburg and Saxe-Weimar from participation, furthermore the delegation of Anhalt departed in the course of the negotiations.
It called for a high monetary contribution of the circle's members for the mercenary army raised by Saxony. It claimed neutrality for the circle in the Thirty Years' War that at this time ravaged Bohemia, with the caveat of being able to switch to emperor Ferdinand II's side; the Pomeranian delegation accepted the decisions only ad-referendum, refused to pay its resulting obligations. Continued dunning by the Saxon electorate in 1621, which had furthered her military position by successful campaigns in Silesia, led to a meeting of Pomeranian and Brandenburgian delegations at Prenzlau in 1622 to explore a possible alliance against John George; the alliance however did not take place because of Pomeranian caveats: The Pomeranian dukes did not want to get rid of the Saxon thread at the cost of subordination to Brandenburg. Yet, they supported a Brandenburgian attempt to declare the Leipzig decisions void, rejected by the Saxon electorates and followed by more dunning. In 1623, threatened by Tilly's success in Hesse and Lower Saxony, the Brandenburgian and Saxon electorates formed an alliance, decided to raise armies, divided the circle into two respective domains of command, with Pomerania becoming part of the Brandenburgian one.
Pomerania however raised its own troops. In July 1624, the Saxon-led South of the circle sided with the emperor. Philipp Julius and Bogislaw XIV of Pomerania-Stettin were willing to come to an agreement with the emperor, accepted imperial monetary demands that they had rejected. Yet, neither Philipp Julius nor Bogislaw XIV were able to push their ideas through the opposition of the nobility at the Kreistag in Jüterbog in August. Thus, Pomerania did not follow the Saxon electorate's example - neither did Brandenburg. Philipp Julius died only months before imperial forces occupied parts of the Upper Saxon circle, on 6 February 1625, he was entombed in the ducal crypt in the church of Wolgast. Two years the war would reach Pomerania causing complete devastation and the death of two thirds of the population. With the death of Philipp Julius, Pomerania-Wolgast ceased to exist. Philipp Julius died without issue, Pomerania-Wolgast fell to Bogislaw XIV, who united all of the Duchy of Pomerania under his rule until
Calvinism is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians. Calvinists broke from the Roman Catholic Church in the 16th century. Calvinists differ from Lutherans on the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, theories of worship, the use of God's law for believers, among other things; as declared in the Westminster and Second Helvetic confessions, the core doctrines are predestination and election. The term Calvinism can be misleading, because the religious tradition which it denotes has always been diverse, with a wide range of influences rather than a single founder. In the context of the Reformation, Huldrych Zwingli began the Reformed tradition in 1519 in the city of Zürich, his followers were labeled Zwinglians, consistent with the Catholic practice of naming heresy after its founder. Soon, Zwingli was joined by Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, William Farel, Johannes Oecolampadius and other early Reformed thinkers.
The namesake of the movement, French reformer John Calvin, converted to the Reformed tradition from Roman Catholicism only in the late 1520s or early 1530s as it was being developed. The movement was first called referring to John Calvin, by Lutherans who opposed it. Many within the tradition find it either an indescriptive or an inappropriate term and would prefer the word Reformed to be used instead; some Calvinists prefer the term Augustinian-Calvinism since Calvin credited his theology to Augustine of Hippo. The most important Reformed theologians include John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, William Farel, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, John Knox. In the twentieth century, Abraham Kuyper, Herman Bavinck, B. B. Warfield, J. Gresham Machen, Karl Barth, Martyn Lloyd-Jones, Cornelius Van Til, Gordon Clark, R. C. Sproul were influential. Contemporary Reformed theologians include J. I. Packer, John MacArthur, Timothy J. Keller, David Wells, Michael Horton. Reformed churches may exercise several forms of ecclesiastical polity.
Calvinism is represented by Continental Reformed and Congregationalist traditions. The biggest Reformed association is the World Communion of Reformed Churches with more than 100 million members in 211 member denominations around the world. There are more conservative Reformed federations such as the World Reformed Fellowship and the International Conference of Reformed Churches, as well as independent churches. Calvinism is named after John Calvin, it was first used by a Lutheran theologian in 1552. It was a common practice of the Catholic Church to name; the term first came out of Lutheran circles. Calvin denounced the designation himself: They could attach us no greater insult than this word, Calvinism, it is not hard to guess. Despite its negative connotation, this designation became popular in order to distinguish Calvinists from Lutherans and from newer Protestant branches that emerged later; the vast majority of churches that trace their history back to Calvin do not use it themselves, since the designation "Reformed" is more accepted and preferred in the English-speaking world.
Moreover, these churches claim to be—in accordance with John Calvin's own words—"renewed accordingly with the true order of gospel". Since the Arminian controversy, the Reformed tradition—as a branch of Protestantism distinguished from Lutheranism—divided into two separate groups: Arminians and Calvinists. However, it is now rare to call Arminians a part of the Reformed tradition. While the Reformed theological tradition addresses all of the traditional topics of Christian theology, the word Calvinism is sometimes used to refer to particular Calvinist views on soteriology and predestination, which are summarized in part by the Five Points of Calvinism; some have argued that Calvinism as a whole stresses the sovereignty or rule of God in all things including salvation. First-generation Reformed theologians include Huldrych Zwingli, Martin Bucer, Wolfgang Capito, John Oecolampadius, Guillaume Farel; these reformers came from diverse academic backgrounds, but distinctions within Reformed theology can be detected in their thought the priority of scripture as a source of authority.
Scripture was viewed as a unified whole, which led to a covenantal theology of the sacraments of baptism and the Lord's Supper as visible signs of the covenant of grace. Another Reformed distinctive present in these theologians was their denial of the bodily presence of Christ in the Lord's supper; each of these theologians understood salvation to be by grace alone, affirmed a doctrine of particular election. Martin Luther and his successor Philipp Melanchthon were undoubtedly significant influences on these theologians, to a larger extent Reformed theologians; the doctrine of justification by faith alone was a direct inheritance from Luther. John Calvin, Heinrich Bullinger, Wolfgang Musculus, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Andreas Hyperius belong to the second generation of Reformed theologians. Calvin's Institutes of the Christian Religion was one of the most influential theologies of the era. Toward the middle of the 16th
Erdmuthe of Brandenburg
Erdmuthe of Brandenburg was a Princess of Brandenburg and by marriage Duchess of Pomerania. Erdmuthe was the eldest daughter of the Elector of Brandenburg John George from his second marriage to Sabina, daughter of the Margrave George of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach; the princess was her father's favorite child on account of her love for science and Latin literature. She married on 17 February 1577 in Stettin John Frederick of Pomerania. At the age of 7 years she was engaged to the 26 years old John Frederick. On this occasion, the old inheritance treaty between the two houses and the entitlements in case one of them would go extinct, were redefined; the marriage was described as a happy one. After a miscarriage, Elizabeth of Doberschütz gave her a drug to lower the fever. Elizabeth was accused of having bewitched Erdmuthe and making her barren. Erdmuthe was instrumental in the initiation of the marriage of her nephew Christian II of Saxony with Hedwig of Denmark and Norway. In 1596, she wrote a prayer book for her sister Sophie, one of the oldest prayer books for women.
After her husband died on 9 February 1600, Erdmuthe received the district of Stolp as Wittum and lived in the castle of Stolp. After the death of Schantes of Tessen in 1608, she spent time on the outwork of Schmolsin castle, she appointed Michael Brüggemann as a chaplain at the Castle Church in Stolp. Daniel Martin Ernst Kirchner: The Electors and queens on the throne of the Hohenzollerns, Wiegandt & Greaves, 1867, p. 30Notes women in power in the period 1600-1640
Joachim II Hector, Elector of Brandenburg
Joachim II was a Prince-elector of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the sixth member of the House of Hohenzollern. Joachim II was the eldest son of Joachim I Nestor, Elector of Brandenburg and his wife Elizabeth of Denmark and Sweden, he received the cognomen Hector after the Trojan prince and warrior for his athel qualities and prowess. Joachim II was born in Cölln, his father, Joachim I Nestor, made Joachim Hector sign an inheritance contract in which he promised to remain Roman Catholic. This was intended in part to assist Joachim Nestor's younger brother, the Archbishop-Elector Albert of Mainz. Albert had borrowed huge amounts from the banking house of Fugger in order to pay the Holy See for his elevation to the Prince-Bishopric of Halberstadt and for a dispensation permitting him to hold both the Archbishopric of Magdeburg and Archbishopric of Mainz. Joachim Nestor, who had co-financed this accumulation of offices, agreed to let Albert recover these costs by the sale of indulgences to his subjects.
Joachim's neighbor, Elector John Frederick I of Saxony, forbade the sale of indulgences, because Albert had outbid his candidate for the see of Mainz, but on principle, being persuaded by his subject Martin Luther. Thus repayment of the debt to the Fugger depended on the sale of indulgences to Catholic believers in Brandenburg. However, had Joachim Hector not agreed to this, he would have been passed over in the line of inheritance, his first marriage was to Magdalena of Saxony from the ducal Albertine line of the House of Wettin. She died in 1534. In 1535 he married daughter of King Sigismund I the Old of Poland; as the Jagiellon dynasty was Catholic, Joachim II promised Sigismund that he would not make Hedwig change her religious affiliation. With the deaths of his father Joachim Nestor and father-in-law Sigismund, Joachim turned to the Protestant Reformation. On 1 November 1539, he received Communion under both kinds in Spandau's St. Nicholas' Church, an act that indicated a degree of sympathy with the new religious ideas.
However, Joachim did not explicitly adopt Lutheranism until 1555, to avoid open confrontation with his ally, Emperor Charles V. Prior to this, Joachim promulgated a conservative church order, Lutheran in doctrine, but retained many traditional religious institutions and observances, such as the episcopate, much of the Mass in Latin, religious plays and feast days. In early 1539, at the diet of princes of imperial immediacy of the Holy Roman Empire in Frankfurt upon Main, Lutheran spokesman Philipp Melanchthon revealed to the gathered princes that the anti-Jewish pogroms of 1510 in Brandenburg had been based on a feigned host desecration; this pogrom had resulted in the expulsion of the Jews from Brandenburg. The Jewish advocate Josel von Rosheim, in attendance, pleaded with Joachim to allow the Jews to settle in the Brandenburg again. Joachim acceded to this request on 25 June 1539, his wife Hedwig's mother Barbara Zápolya was a sister of John Zápolya, who had claimed the vacant throne of Hungary after King Louis II was killed in battle against the Ottoman Empire in 1526.
However, Joachim supported Ferdinand of Habsburg, who claimed the crown and challenged the Turkish invaders. In 1542 Joachim assisted Ferdinand against the Ottomans at the Siege of Buda, he commanded an army of Austrian, German, Bohemian and Dalmatian troops, but the Elector was not a seasoned warrior and beat a retreat. He was defeated again by the Ottomans in the Siege of Pest in 1542. In 1545 Joachim held a gala double wedding celebration for his two children, John George and Barbara, they were married to Sophie and George, both children of the Piast Duke Frederick II of Liegnitz in Silesia. Joachim was a brother-in-law of King Sigismund II Augustus of Poland. In 1569, he paid Sigismund for a deed of enfeoffment which made Joachim and his issue heirs to Ducal Prussia in case of the extinction of the Prussian Hohenzollern line. In 1571, Joachim died in the Köpenick Palace, which he had built in 1558. With Magdalena of Saxony: John George, Elector of Brandenburg, had issue Barbara of Brandenburg, Duchess of Brieg, had issue Elisabeth Frederick IV of Brandenburg, Archbishop of Magdeburg and Bishop of Halberstadt Albrecht Georg Paul With Hedwig Jagiellon: Elisabeth Magdalena, married Francis Otto, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, Archbishop of Magdeburg and Bishop of Halberstadt Hedwig, married Julius, Duke of Brunswick-Lüneburg, married William of Rosenberg, Joachim unnamed daughter, born in 1545 Chisholm, Hugh, ed..
"John, Margrave of Brandenburg-Cüstrin". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Cambridge University Press. P. 445. Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Joachim II". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Cambridge University Press. Joachim Hector co-inherits Ducal Prussia "Portrait of Magdalena of Saxony"
John Frederick, Duke of Pomerania
John Frederick was Duke of Pomerania from 1560 to 1600, Bishop of Cammin from 1556 to 1574. Elected bishop in 1556 and heir of the duchy in 1560, he remained under tutelage of his great-uncle Barnim XI until he took on his offices in 1567. Johann Friedrich was the oldest of ten siblings born to Philipp I of Pomerania-Wolgast and Maria of Saxony. At the age of 14, he was elected bishop of Cammin on 29 August 1556, after his predecessor Martin von Weiher had died on 8 June. Starting with John Frederick, the House of Pomerania held this title until the last duke died in 1637, thus ending the considerable independence of the bishopric's territory from the rest of the Duchy of Pomerania. In 1560, the bishopric's administration was reformed accordingly; when his father died on 14 February 1560, John Frederick nominally became duke of Pomerania but was still under the tutelage of his great-uncle, Barnim XI. While his mother appointed High Stewart Ulrich von Schwerin as administrator of the duchy, he went to the court of Emperor Maximilian II at Vienna and participated in the war against the Ottoman Empire.
After his return from the war in 1567, John Frederick took on his position as the bishop of Cammin and his position as the duke of Pomerania, which he provisionally shared with his brother, Bogislaw XIII. 68 years old Barnim XI decided in 1569 to withdraw from his position as a duke, the duchy was internally partitioned among the male members of the House of Pomerania on 23 May 1569 in Jasenitz, approved by the Landtag in Wollin. Johann Friedrich together with his brother, Barnim XII, received the Teilherzogtum Pomerania-Stettin, while his other brothers, Ernest Louis and Bogislaw XIII, received Pomerania-Wolgast and Casimir VI received the bishopric of Cammin, which he took over from John Frederick in 1574; because Bogislaw and Barnim renounced their positions and were compensated with the domains of Barth and Neuenkamp and the domain of Rügenwalde John Frederick got to rule his share alone. John Frederick succeeded in elevating Stettin to one of only three places allowed to coin money in the Upper Saxon Circle, the other two places were Leipzig and Berlin.
He advocated against the imperial prohibition of using coins from outside the Holy Roman Empire, arguing that this undermined his duchy's position as a frontier trade center. In 1570, John Frederick, on behalf of Emperor Maximilian II, hosted the peace conference ending the Northern Seven Years' War between the Swedish Empire and Denmark–Norway, he was the head of the mediators appointed by the emperor. The conference resulted in the Treaty of Stettin. In 1568, he began with the erection of a residence in Köslin. In 1577, he rebuilt the residence in Stettin in Italian Renaissance style, thereby razing and replacing parts of the previous palace and the St. Otto's church. John Frederick tried to elevate Pomerania's military status in the Upper Saxon Circle to match the position of Saxony and Brandenburg, yet without success, he failed to gain the status of a higher rank for himself and remained on the third rank, after the Kreisoberst of Saxony and the Nachgeordneter of Brandenburg. He failed to get the circle assembly to approve of granting the Pomeranian duchy an additional Zugeordneter post instead.
As a consequence, John Frederick refused to pay his obligate financial share to the circle's treasury, the Kreiskasten. John Frederick improved the relations with Brandenburg by marrying Erdmut, oldest daughter of John George, Elector of Brandenburg, he had no children with her. John Frederick died on 9 February 1600, his sudden death during a party at Wolgast contributed to apocalyptic fears which were widespread in 1600. He was succeeded by Barnim XII. Grewolls, Grete. Wer war wer in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern? Ein Personenlexikon. Edition Temmen. ISBN 3-86108-282-9. Hildisch, Johannes. Die Münzen der pommerschen Herzöge von 1569 bis zum Erlöschen des Greifengeschlechtes. Böhlau. ISBN 3-412-04679-5. Inachim, Kyra. Die Geschichte Pommerns. Hinstorff Rostock. ISBN 978-3-356-01044-2. Kaufmann, Thomas. Konfession und Kultur: lutherischer Protestantismus in der zweiten Hälfte des Reformationsjahrhunderts. Mohr Siebeck. ISBN 3161490177. Krüger, Joachim. Zwischen dem Reich und Schweden: die landesherrliche Münzprägung im Herzogtum Pommern und in Schwedisch-Pommern in der frühen Neuzeit.
LIT Verlag Berlin-Hamburg-Münster. ISBN 3-8258-9768-0. Lanzinner, Maximilian. Friedenssicherung und politische Einheit des Reiches unter Kaiser Maximilian II.. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht. ISBN 3-525-35947-0. Lavery, Jason Edward. Germany's northern challenge: the Holy Roman Empire and the Scandinavian struggle for the Baltic, 1563–1576. Brill Academic. ISBN 0-391-04156-8. Nicklas, Thomas. Macht oder Recht: frühneuzeitliche Politik im Obersächsischen Reichskreis. Franz Steiner Verlag. ISBN 3-515-07939-4. Biography of Johann Friedrich at rügenwalde.com Biography of Johann Friedrich at ostdeutsche-biographie.de Coins showing Johann Friedrich's monograph I F H Z S PO at muenzauktion.com