Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design and maintenance of the physical and built environment, including public works such as roads, canals, airports, sewerage systems, structural components of buildings, railways. Civil engineering is traditionally broken into a number of sub-disciplines, it is considered the second-oldest engineering discipline after military engineering, it is defined to distinguish non-military engineering from military engineering. Civil engineering takes place in the public sector from municipal through to national governments, in the private sector from individual homeowners through to international companies. Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles for solving the problems of society, its history is intricately linked to advances in the understanding of physics and mathematics throughout history; because civil engineering is a wide-ranging profession, including several specialized sub-disciplines, its history is linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geology, hydrology, environment and other fields.
Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and construction was carried out by artisans, such as stonemasons and carpenters, rising to the role of master builder. Knowledge was retained in guilds and supplanted by advances. Structures and infrastructure that existed were repetitive, increases in scale were incremental. One of the earliest examples of a scientific approach to physical and mathematical problems applicable to civil engineering is the work of Archimedes in the 3rd century BC, including Archimedes Principle, which underpins our understanding of buoyancy, practical solutions such as Archimedes' screw. Brahmagupta, an Indian mathematician, used arithmetic in the 7th century AD, based on Hindu-Arabic numerals, for excavation computations. Engineering has been an aspect of life since the beginnings of human existence; the earliest practice of civil engineering may have commenced between 4000 and 2000 BC in ancient Egypt, the Indus Valley Civilization, Mesopotamia when humans started to abandon a nomadic existence, creating a need for the construction of shelter.
During this time, transportation became important leading to the development of the wheel and sailing. Until modern times there was no clear distinction between civil engineering and architecture, the term engineer and architect were geographical variations referring to the same occupation, used interchangeably; the construction of pyramids in Egypt were some of the first instances of large structure constructions. Other ancient historic civil engineering constructions include the Qanat water management system the Parthenon by Iktinos in Ancient Greece, the Appian Way by Roman engineers, the Great Wall of China by General Meng T'ien under orders from Ch'in Emperor Shih Huang Ti and the stupas constructed in ancient Sri Lanka like the Jetavanaramaya and the extensive irrigation works in Anuradhapura; the Romans developed civil structures throughout their empire, including aqueducts, harbors, bridges and roads. In the 18th century, the term civil engineering was coined to incorporate all things civilian as opposed to military engineering.
The first self-proclaimed civil engineer was John Smeaton. In 1771 Smeaton and some of his colleagues formed the Smeatonian Society of Civil Engineers, a group of leaders of the profession who met informally over dinner. Though there was evidence of some technical meetings, it was little more than a social society. In 1818 the Institution of Civil Engineers was founded in London, in 1820 the eminent engineer Thomas Telford became its first president; the institution received a Royal Charter in 1828, formally recognising civil engineering as a profession. Its charter defined civil engineering as:the art of directing the great sources of power in nature for the use and convenience of man, as the means of production and of traffic in states, both for external and internal trade, as applied in the construction of roads, aqueducts, river navigation and docks for internal intercourse and exchange, in the construction of ports, moles and lighthouses, in the art of navigation by artificial power for the purposes of commerce, in the construction and application of machinery, in the drainage of cities and towns.
The first private college to teach civil engineering in the United States was Norwich University, founded in 1819 by Captain Alden Partridge. The first degree in civil engineering in the United States was awarded by Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1835; the first such degree to be awarded to a woman was granted by Cornell University to Nora Stanton Blatch in 1905. In the UK during the early 19th century, the division between civil engineering and military engineering, coupled with the demands of the Industrial Revolution, spawned new engineering education initiatives: the Class of Civil Engineering and Mining was founded at King's College London in 1838 as a response to the growth of the railway system and the need for more qualified engineers, the private College for Civil Engineers in Putney was established in 1839, the UK's first Chair of Engineering was established at the University of Glasgow in 1840. Civil engineers possess an academic degree in civil engineering; the length of study is three to five years, the completed degree is designated as a bachelor
Samuel James Mitchell
Samuel James Mitchell was an Australian politician and judge. He was a member of the South Australian House of Assembly from 1901 to 1910, representing the Northern Territory, he was Government Resident of the Northern Territory and the inaugural judge of the Supreme Court of the Northern Territory from 1910 to 1912. He returned to South Australia after 1912. Mitchell was born near Mount Barker in South Australia, he was educated at RC Mittons Grammar school in Adelaide. He worked at Mount Gambier and Melrose before moving to Port Augusta in 1871 and working as an auctioneer, he was a Corporate Town of Port Augusta councillor and served as its mayor for two years before returning to Adelaide and working as a draper. He married Eliza Ann Gardner on 15 September 1875, he became an article clerk for Henry Edward Downer in 1885. Samuel Mitchell graduated from the University of Adelaide in 1890 and was admitted to the Bar and practised with Paris Nesbit QC and Robert Ingleby QC, he was Mayor of Port Augusta for 2 years.
He stood unsuccessfully for parliament in 1900, but in 1901 won the House of Assembly seat for the Northern Territory. He was re-elected in 1902 and 1906 and was Attorney-General for 6 months from June 1909. In 1910 with the transfer of the Northern Territory to Commonwealth control, he resigned to become the Government resident and the Northern Territory Judge. In 1911 he helped to effect the transfer of control to the Commonwealth, he remained Acting Administrator and Judge but resigned in 1912 after the Federal authorities would not make his appointment for life. He returned to South Australia and became a Stipendiary Magistrate and in 1916 transferred to the Adelaide Police Court, he was the first South Australian Judge of Insolvency from 1918 to 1926 and a Stipendiary Magistrate of the Adelaide Local Court and Taxation Appeal Court. His son Harold, born 11 August 1885, practised law for a short time in Renmark before joining the AIF. Lieutenant Mitchell was buried at Millencourt Cemetery in France.
Dame Roma Mitchell, his grand daughter, born 2 October 1913 was Australia's first female Queen's Counsel in 1962 and first female Judge in 1965. She became Governor of South Australia in 1990, is regarded as a pioneer of women's rights. Northern Territory Supreme Court profile History of Dame Roma Mitchell, with references to him History of Patron Dame Roma Mitchell, with references to him
Edward Joseph Egan is an Australian folk musician and a former public servant who served as Administrator of the Northern Territory from 2003 to 2007. Egan was born in Coburg, moving to the Northern Territory in 1949 at the age of 16 in search of work and adventure. In his early career with the Department of Aboriginal Affairs he was in the bush and engaged in jobs such as stockwork and crocodile hunting while employed as a patrol officer and reserve superintendent, he was a teacher at bush schools. He was a member of the first National Reconciliation Council. Egan was the sole teacher at the Newcastle Waters Station in 1965 and was stranded at the property for six weeks when the creek flooded. During this time no supplies were able to be delivered so Egan had to hunt for animals, such as bush turkey for food, he returned to the station in 2012 for the book launch of Middle of Everywhere about life in the area. Egan began recording in 1969 with "Drinkers of the Northern Territory" and has released 28 albums themed around outback life and Aboriginal affairs.
He has been a consistent performer and tourer with his choice of instrument being an empty beer carton played by tapping with his hands and fingers. He has been a prolific performer of contemporary folk songs. Many of these, such as "Gurindji Blues", recognise Indigenous Australian heritage, he introduced Rolf Harris to the song "Two Little Boys". 1973 Bangtail Muster 1975 Outback Australia 1976 The Shearers 1976 The Bush Races 1982 The Overlanders 1985 The Anzacs 1989 The Convicts 1990 Bangtail Muster 1990 The Kimberley 1990 A Town Like Alice 1980 Rodeo Australia 1988 Ted's Shout 1997 The Aboriginals 2000 The Very Best of Ted Egan My Australia 2000 The Urupunga Frog 2002 The Drover's Boy 2003 Land Down Under 2003 Such is Life 2008 I. O. U. 2010 Saving The Best Our Coach Captain The Vision Splendid Beyond the black stump Once a Jolly Swagman Welcome to the Bush "Granny" "A Schluck and a Schnitte" "Sayonara Nakamura" includes song parchment "The Drover's Boy" "2008 Ted Egan Sings" Queensland Opera Kutju Australia 2008 Due Inheritance ISBN 0-7295-0040-3 2003 The Land Downunder ISBN 0-9545726-0-2 1997 A Drop of Rough Ted ISBN 0-9595744-0-9 Justice All Their Own 1993 The Paperboys War Ted Egan An Autobiography ISBN 1-875703-08-X 1997 Sitdown Up North Ted Egan An Autobiography ISBN 1-875703-23-3 1989 Shearers Songbook ISBN 0-909104-75-1 1987 The Aboriginals Songbook -Faces of Australia Series ASIN B000N7AKU0 1978 Outback Holiday ISBN 0-7295-0040-3 1984 The Overlanders Songbook ISBN 0-909104-74-3 1991 Would I Lie to You?
The Goanna Driver and Other Very True Stories ISBN 0-670-90460-0 2000 The Drover's Boy ISBN 0-85091-840-5 This Land Australia series Broome and the Pearl Coast Cape York Peninsula: The Vanishing Frontier Central Australia: The Eighth Wonder Discovering a Rainforest Gulf Country: The Road from Mt. Surprise Hahndorf and the Barossa: Valleys of Hope The Islands of Torres Strait Mysterious Australia Norfolk Island Paddleboats of the Murray River Railways of Yesteryear Snowy MountainsThese are available individually and as boxed sets on DVD from Flashback Entertainment. Egan was appointed Administrator of the Northern Territory by Governor-General Michael Jeffery effective 31 October 2003, he was sworn in on 18 November. On 14 September 2005, he was awarded a one-year extension to his term of office by Jim Lloyd, the Federal Minister for Local Government and Roads; this was further extended for another year to serve until 30 October 2007. Egan has presented and narrated 13 episodes of This Land Australia, a series devoted to iconic Australian people and places.
He wrote and performed the show's theme song of the same name. He has been a co-host of the lifestyle show The Great Outdoors. Egan was made a Member of the Order of Australia in the 1993 Australia Day Honours List for services to the Aboriginal people, for "an ongoing contribution to the literary heritage of Australia through song and verse". In 1995, Egan was inducted into the Australian Roll of Renown. In 2004, Egan was promoted to an Officer of the Order as acknowledgement of "the significance of continuing contribution to the community culminating in his being sworn-in as the 18th Administrator of the Northern Territory". Egan is listed among the "Australia's National Living Treasures" by the National Trust of Australia. Egan was presented with a Lifetime Achievement Award at the 2014 Tamworth Country Music Festival awards ceremony. Ted was the receiver of the National Folk Festival's Lifetime Achievement Award on 02/04/2015 at NFF's Opening Ceremony in Canberra. Egan performed four songs including one about pioneering women in Australia.
Egan's official website Television interview with Egan Official Administrator's site VIDEO: Egan on the crisis in Indigenous Australia on ABC Fora
Nightcliff, Northern Territory
Nightcliff is a northern suburb of the city of Darwin, Northern Territory, Australia. Although the origin of the name Nightcliff has always been surrounded by conjecture and controversy, the naming can be tracked back to 8 September 1839. Early that day, HMS Beagle, engaged on an excursion of the Australian coast, sailed into the area and anchored in Shoal Bay near Hope Inlet. John Lort Stokes, William Forsyth and several other crew members left Beagle on a longboat for an excursion and passed around Lee Point, in the vicinity of which, there appeared to be a major opening. Stokes was to record. "The sea breeze setting in early, we did not reach it till after dark, when we landed for observations at a cliffy projection near the eastern entrance point: this we found to be composed of a kind of clay, mixed with calcareous matter. We had some difficulty in landing, in scrambling up the cliffs by the light of a lantern. If any of the watchful natives happened at the time to be on the look out, they must have stood in astonishment at beholding such strange persons, who at such a time of night, with no ostensible object were visiting their shores".
The term'Night Cliff' was thus applied to the locality, it subsequently appeared in this form on Surveyor-General George W. Goyder's original plan of 1869. Goyder mentioned the locality a couple of times in the diary he kept as leader of the Northern Territory Survey Expedition. Despite these well established facts, many people have insisted that the name was derived from a misspelling of the name of John George Knight, one of the best known government officials in Darwin for nearly two decades prior to his death in 1892, it was known that Knight enjoyed visiting the Nightcliff environs and it is believed that he spent long periods of contemplation on the cliff tops. As late as 1952, a former resident who had lived in Darwin between 1876 and 1926 wrote to the Northern Territory News insisting that the area was known during that period as "Knightscliff", it is evident that many Territorians have preferred this variant form of name in deference to one of the most distinguished local public figures of the late nineteenth century.
However, records show that Knight did not arrive in Darwin until 1873, several years after the publication of Goyder's map. The Nightcliff foreshore was the site of Royal Australian Air Force camps with spotlights and large guns used to defend Darwin from bombing during the Second World War. During 1941, a naval outpost including a large concrete artillery outpost bunker was established on the headland. Various other defence facilities were constructed inland as large numbers of military personnel moved into the area; the 2/14 Field Regiment A. I. F. was given the task of planning and constructing a hutted camp which became known as "Night Cliff's Camp". After the war, increasing pressure for suburban development caused the Nomenclature Committee of the N. T. to name the area on 29 October 1948. The conjoint version of the name, "Nightcliff" was adopted. Today, a long footpath along the foreshore of Nightcliff is used for walking and cycling in the evenings after work. Along the footpath there is Nightcliff Beach and Nightcliff Swimming Pool.
On Sundays, the Nightcliff Markets occur from 6am to 2pm. The stalls at the markets are food and drinks but there is craft and massage stalls. A live music band plays music on the stage in the middle of the markets; the Nightcliff area is associated with its sister suburb, Rapid Creek, the adjacent northern suburbs of Millner and Coconut Grove. Nightcliff has arguably become one of Darwin's most popular suburbs, as it is situated directly on the coastal fringe. A lot of development has been completed on Casuarina Drive. Several well-known and long-established sports clubs are associated with the Nightcliff regional area, including the Nightcliff Football Club and the Nightcliff Baseball Club. Close to the foreshore is one of Darwin's oldest schools. Nightcliff Middle School provides education for student in years 7 to Year 9; the eponymous cliffs of Nightcliff are being eroded and around 2 m or more of cliff loss has been recorded in the 2014–2016 period. Areas of Nightcliff have been shored up using concrete boulders to form a sea wall.
Domain.com.au Suburb profile
John Norman "Jock" Nelson was an Australian politician. Born in Bundaberg, Queensland, he was the son of politician Harold Nelson. Jock Nelson was educated at state schools in Darwin before becoming a jackeroo and goldminer, a bore contractor at Alice Springs. After serving in the military from 1942 to 1945, he became a pastoralist. In 1949, he was elected to the Australian House of Representatives as the Labor member for Northern Territory, defeating the sitting independent, Adair Blain. At this time, the member for Northern Territory could only vote on matters relating to the Territory itself. In 1963, he was re-elected unopposed, the last occasion when a member was returned to the House of Representatives in this fashion, he retired in 1966, an occasion used by the Country Party to take the seat. Nelson returned to pastoralism and served as Mayor of Alice Springs and Administrator of the Northern Territory before his death in 1991. Darwin Rebellion
University of Melbourne
The University of Melbourne is a public research university located in Melbourne, Australia. Founded in 1853, it is the oldest in Victoria. Melbourne's main campus is located in Parkville, an inner suburb north of the Melbourne central business district, with several other campuses located across Victoria. Melbourne is a sandstone university and a member of the Group of Eight, Universitas 21 and the Association of Pacific Rim Universities. Since 1872 various residential colleges have become affiliated with the university. There are 10 colleges located on the main campus and in nearby suburbs offering academic and cultural programs alongside accommodation for Melbourne students and faculty. Melbourne comprises 11 separate academic units and is associated with numerous institutes and research centres, including the Walter and Eliza Hall Institute of Medical Research, Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, the Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research and the Grattan Institute.
Amongst Melbourne's 15 graduate schools the Melbourne Business School, the Melbourne Law School and the Melbourne Medical School are well regarded. Times Higher Education ranked Melbourne 32nd globally in 2017-2018, while the Academic Ranking of World Universities places Melbourne 38th in the world, in the QS World University Rankings 2019 Melbourne ranks 39th globally and ranked sixth in the world according to the 2019 QS Graduate Employability Rankings. Four Australian prime ministers and five governors-general have graduated from the University of Melbourne. Ten Nobel laureates have been the most of any Australian university; the University of Melbourne was established by Hugh Childers, the Auditor-General and Finance Minister, in his first Budget Speech on 4 November 1852, who set aside a sum of £10,000 for the establishment of a university. The university was established by Act of Incorporation on 22 January 1853, with power to confer degrees in arts, medicine and music; the act provided for an annual endowment of £9,000, while a special grant of £20,000 was made for buildings that year.
The foundation stone was laid on 3 July 1854, on the same day the foundation stone for the State Library Classes commenced in 1855 with three professors and sixteen students. The original buildings were opened by the Lieutenant Governor of the Colony of Victoria, Sir Charles Hotham, on 3 October 1855; the first chancellor, Redmond Barry, held the position until his death in 1880. The inauguration of the university was made possible by the wealth resulting from Victoria's gold rush; the institution was designed to be a "civilising influence" at a time of rapid settlement and commercial growth. In 1881, the admission of women was a seen as victory over the more conservative ruling council; the university's 150th anniversary was celebrated in 2003. The Melbourne School of Land and Environment was disestablished on the first of January, 2015, its agriculture and food systems department moved alongside veterinary science to form the Faculty of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, while other areas of study, including horticulture, forestry and resource management, moved to the Faculty of Science in two new departments.
As of May 2009 the university "suspended" the Bachelor of Music Theatre and Puppetry courses at the college and there were fears they may not return under the new curriculum. A 2005 heads of agreement over the merger of the VCA and the university stated that the management of academic programs at the VCA would ensure that "the VCA continues to exercise high levels of autonomy over the conduct and future development of its academic programs so as to ensure their integrity and quality" and that the college's identity will be preserved. New dean Sharman Pretty outlined drastic changes under the university's plan for the college in early April 2009; as a result, it is now being called into question. Staff at the college responded to the changes, claiming the university did not value vocational arts training, voicing fears over the future of quality training at the VCA. Former Victorian arts minister Race Mathews has weighed in on the debate expressing his hope that, "Melbourne University will not proceed with its proposed changes to the Victorian College of the Arts", for'good sense' to prevail.
In 2011, the Victorian State Government allocated $24 million to support arts education at the VCA and the faculty was renamed the Faculty of the Victorian College of the Arts and the Melbourne Conservatorium of Music. The Parkville Campus is the primary campus of the university. Established in a large area north of Grattan Street in Parkville, the campus has expanded well beyond its boundaries, with many of its newly acquired buildings located in the nearby suburb of Carlton; the university is undertaking an'ambitious infrastructure program' to reshape campuses. Melbourne University has 10 residential colleges in total, seven of which are located in an arc around the cricket oval at the northern edge of the campus, known as College Crescent; the other three are located outside of university grounds. The residential colleges aim to provide accommodation and holistic education experience to university students. Most of the university's residential colleges admit students from RMIT University and Monash University, Parkville campus, with selected colleges accepting students from the Australian Catholic University and Victoria University.
Several of the earliest campus buildings, such as the Old Quadrangle and Baldwin Spencer buildings, feature period architecture. The new Wilson Hall replaced th
London is the capital and largest city of both England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south-east of England, at the head of its 50-mile estuary leading to the North Sea, London has been a major settlement for two millennia. Londinium was founded by the Romans; the City of London, London's ancient core − an area of just 1.12 square miles and colloquially known as the Square Mile − retains boundaries that follow its medieval limits. The City of Westminster is an Inner London borough holding city status. Greater London is governed by the Mayor of the London Assembly. London is considered to be one of the world's most important global cities and has been termed the world's most powerful, most desirable, most influential, most visited, most expensive, sustainable, most investment friendly, most popular for work, the most vegetarian friendly city in the world. London exerts a considerable impact upon the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism and transportation.
London ranks 26 out of 300 major cities for economic performance. It is one of the largest financial centres and has either the fifth or sixth largest metropolitan area GDP, it is the most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the busiest city airport system as measured by passenger traffic. It is the leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. London's universities form the largest concentration of higher education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted three modern Summer Olympic Games. London has a diverse range of people and cultures, more than 300 languages are spoken in the region, its estimated mid-2016 municipal population was 8,787,892, the most populous of any city in the European Union and accounting for 13.4% of the UK population. London's urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census.
The population within the London commuter belt is the most populous in the EU with 14,040,163 inhabitants in 2016. London was the world's most populous city from c. 1831 to 1925. London contains four World Heritage Sites: the Tower of London. Other landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Paul's Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square and The Shard. London has numerous museums, galleries and sporting events; these include the British Museum, National Gallery, Natural History Museum, Tate Modern, British Library and West End theatres. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world. "London" is an ancient name, attested in the first century AD in the Latinised form Londinium. Over the years, the name has attracted many mythicising explanations; the earliest attested appears in Geoffrey of Monmouth's Historia Regum Britanniae, written around 1136. This had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
Modern scientific analyses of the name must account for the origins of the different forms found in early sources Latin, Old English, Welsh, with reference to the known developments over time of sounds in those different languages. It is agreed; this was adapted into Latin as Londinium and borrowed into Old English, the ancestor-language of English. The toponymy of the Common Brythonic form is much debated. A prominent explanation was Richard Coates's 1998 argument that the name derived from pre-Celtic Old European *lowonida, meaning "river too wide to ford". Coates suggested that this was a name given to the part of the River Thames which flows through London. However, most work has accepted a Celtic origin for the name, recent studies have favoured an explanation along the lines of a Celtic derivative of a proto-Indo-European root *lendh-, combined with the Celtic suffix *-injo- or *-onjo-. Peter Schrijver has suggested, on these grounds, that the name meant'place that floods'; until 1889, the name "London" applied to the City of London, but since it has referred to the County of London and Greater London.
"London" is sometimes written informally as "LDN". In 1993, the remains of a Bronze Age bridge were found on the south foreshore, upstream of Vauxhall Bridge; this bridge either reached a now lost island in it. Two of those timbers were radiocarbon dated to between 1750 BC and 1285 BC. In 2010 the foundations of a large timber structure, dated to between 4800 BC and 4500 BC, were found on the Thames's south foreshore, downstream of Vauxhall Bridge; the function of the mesolithic structure is not known. Both structures are on the south bank. Although there is evidence of scattered Brythonic settlements in the area, the first major settlement was founded by the Romans about four years after the invasion