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John Gorton

Sir John Grey Gorton was the nineteenth Prime Minister of Australia, in office from 1968 to 1971. He led the Liberal Party during that time, having been a long-serving government minister. Gorton had a turbulent childhood, he studied at Brasenose College, after finishing his secondary education at Geelong Grammar School, returned to Australia to take over his father's property in northern Victoria. Gorton enlisted in the Royal Australian Air Force in 1940, served as a fighter pilot in Malaya and New Guinea during the Second World War, he suffered severe facial injuries in a crash landing on Bintan Island in 1942, whilst being evacuated. He returned to farming after being discharged in 1944, was elected to the Kerang Shire Council in 1946. After a previous unsuccessful candidacy at state level, Gorton was elected to the Senate at the 1949 federal election, he took a keen interest in foreign policy, gained a reputation as a strident anti-Communist. Gorton was promoted to the ministry in 1958, over the following decade held a variety of different portfolios in the governments of Robert Menzies and Harold Holt.

He was responsible at various times for the Navy, public works and science. He was elevated to the Cabinet in 1966, the following year, he was promoted to Leader of the Government in the Senate. Gorton defeated three other candidates for the Liberal leadership after Harold Holt's disappearance on 17 December 1967, he became the first and only senator to assume the office of Prime Minister, but soon transferred to the House of Representatives in line with constitutional convention. The Gorton Government continued Australian involvement in the Vietnam War, but began withdrawing troops amid growing public discontent, it retained office at the 1969 federal election, albeit with a reduced majority. Gorton's domestic policies, which emphasised centralisation and economic nationalism, were controversial in his own party, his individualistic style alienated many of his Cabinet members, he resigned as Liberal leader in 1971 after a confidence motion in his leadership was tied, was replaced by William McMahon.

After losing the premiership, Gorton was elected deputy leader under McMahon and appointed Minister for Defence. He was sacked for disloyalty after a few months. After the Coalition's defeat at the 1972 federal election, Gorton unsuccessfully stood as McMahon's replacement, he served as an opposition frontbencher under Billy Snedden, but stood down in 1974 and spent the rest of his career as a backbencher. Gorton resigned from the Liberal Party when Malcolm Fraser was elected leader, at the 1975 election mounted an unsuccessful campaign for the Senate as an independent, he spent several years as a political commentator, retiring from public life in 1981. John Grey Gorton was the second child of John Rose Gorton, he had no birth certificate, but on official forms recorded his date of birth as 9 September 1911 and his place of birth as Wellington, New Zealand. His birth was registered in the state of Victoria as occurring on that date, but in the inner Melbourne suburb of Prahran. However, that document contained a number of inaccuracies – his name was given as "John Alga Gordon", his parents were recorded as husband and wife, his father's name was incorrect, his sister was recorded as deceased.

At some point, Gorton's father told him that he had been born in Wellington. There are no records of his birth in New Zealand, but his parents are known to have travelled there on several occasions. John Gorton believed he was born in Wellington, listing the city as his place of birth on his RAAF enlistment papers. If John Gorton was indeed born in New Zealand, this would have made him a New Zealand citizen from 1 January 1949 under changes to New Zealand nationality law. Holding dual-citizenship would have rendered Gorton ineligible to sit in Australia's federal parliament under Section 44 of the Australian Constitution. Gorton's eligibility to have sat in parliament throughout his career is therefore unclear. Gorton's father was born to a middle-class family in Manchester, England, UK; as a young man he moved to Johannesburg, South Africa, where he went into business as a merchant – during the Boer War, he developed a reputation as a war profiteer. He reputedly escaped the Siege of Ladysmith by sneaking through Boer lines, made his way to Australia.

He was involved in various business schemes in multiple states, was to said to have "lived on the brink of a fortune which never quite materialised". One of his business partners was the inventor George Julius. At some point, Gorton's father separated from his first wife, Kathleen O'Brien, began living with Alice Sinn – born in Melbourne to a German father and an Irish mother. However, Kathleen refused to grant him a divorce; some official documents record Gorton's parents as having married in New Zealand at some point, but there are no records of this occurring. Gorton never denied his illegitimacy as an adult, but it did not become known until a biography was published during his premiership. Gorton spent his early years living with his maternal grandparents in Port Melbourne, as his parents were away on business trips; when he was about four years old, his parents took him to live with them in Sydney, where they had an apartment at Edgecliff. Gorton began his education at Edgecliff Preparatory School.

When he was eight years old, his mother contracted tuberculosis and was sent to a sanatorium to avoid passing on the disease. She di


Slash'EM is a variant of the roguelike game NetHack that offers extra features and items. Several of its novel features, such as the Monk class, "conducts", the Sokoban levels, have been reincorporated into NetHack; the main dungeon in Slash'EM is much larger than in NetHack, introducing special levels such as the Sunless Sea, where a magic lamp lies, the Guild of Disgruntled Adventurers, populated by "player monsters". Compared to NetHack, Gehennom comprises fewer levels, though it contains a special level for each demon lord and prince, including those who only appear when summoned in NetHack; these alterations serve to reduce player tedium that results from trekking through repetitive maze levels. Warren Cheung began Slash'EM development in 1997, basing it on Slash. Enhanced graphical options exist, such as the isometric perspective of Vulture, or the three-dimensional rendering that noegnud offers. Vulture is a fork of the now-defunct Falcon's Eye project. Vulture adds additional graphics, sounds and performance enhancements and is under active development.

Official website O'Reilly interview with the Slash'EM development team Slash'EM: The Sum of All NetHacks History and Genealogy of Roguelike Games


Usenet is a worldwide distributed discussion system available on computers. It was developed from the general-purpose Unix-to-Unix Copy dial-up network architecture. Tom Truscott and Jim Ellis conceived the idea in 1979, it was established in 1980. Users post messages to one or more categories, known as newsgroups. Usenet resembles a bulletin board system in many respects and is the precursor to Internet forums that are used today. Discussions are threaded, as with web forums and BBSs, though posts are stored on the server sequentially; the name comes from the term "users network". A major difference between a BBS or web forum and Usenet is the absence of a central server and dedicated administrator. Usenet is distributed among a large changing conglomeration of servers that store and forward messages to one another via "news feeds". Individual users may read messages from and post messages to a local server, which may be operated by anyone. Usenet is culturally and significant in the networked world, having given rise to, or popularized, many recognized concepts and terms such as "FAQ", "flame", "spam".

In the 1990s, before access to the Internet became affordable, Usenet connections via Fidonet's dial-up BBS networks made long-distance or worldwide discussions and other communication widespread, not needing a server, just telephone service. Usenet was conceived in 1979 and publicly established in 1980, at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and Duke University, over a decade before the World Wide Web went online, making it one of the oldest computer network communications systems still in widespread use, it was built on the "poor man's ARPANET", employing UUCP as its transport protocol to offer mail and file transfers, as well as announcements through the newly developed news software such as A News. The name "Usenet" emphasizes its creators' hope that the USENIX organization would take an active role in its operation; the articles that users post to Usenet are organized into topical categories known as newsgroups, which are themselves logically organized into hierarchies of subjects.

For instance, sci.math and sci.physics are within the sci.* hierarchy, for science. Or, and talk.atheism are in the talk.* hierarchy. When a user subscribes to a newsgroup, the news client software keeps track of which articles that user has read. In most newsgroups, the majority of the articles are responses to some other article; the set of articles that can be traced to one single non-reply article is called a thread. Most modern newsreaders display the articles arranged into subthreads. For example, in the wine-making newsgroup. Over several days, that conversation about different wine yeasts might branch into several sub-threads in a tree-like form; when a user posts an article, it is only available on that user's news server. Each news server talks to one or more other exchanges articles with them. In this fashion, the article is copied from server to server and should reach every server in the network; the peer-to-peer networks operate on a similar principle, but for Usenet it is the sender, rather than the receiver, who initiates transfers.

Usenet was designed under conditions when networks were not always available. Many sites on the original Usenet network would connect only once or twice a day to batch-transfer messages in and out; this is because the POTS network was used for transfers, phone charges were lower at night. The format and transmission of Usenet articles is similar to that of Internet e-mail messages; the difference between the two is that Usenet articles can be read by any user whose news server carries the group to which the message was posted, as opposed to email messages, which have one or more specific recipients. Today, Usenet has diminished in importance with respect to Internet forums, mailing lists and social media. Usenet differs from such media in several ways: Usenet requires no personal registration with the group concerned. However, it is now possible to read and participate in Usenet newsgroups to a large degree using ordinary Internet browsers since most newsgroups are now copied to several internet sites.

The groups in alt.binaries are still used for data transfer. Many Internet service providers, many other Internet sites, operate news servers for their users to access. ISPs that do not operate their own servers directly will offer their users an account from another provider that operates newsfeeds. In early news implementations, the server and newsreader were a single program suite, running on the same system. Today, one uses separate newsreader client software, a program that resembles an email client but accesses Usenet servers instead; some clients such as Mozilla Thunderbird and Outlook Express provide both abilities. Not all ISPs run news servers. A news server is one of the most difficult Internet services to administer because of the large amount of data involved, small customer base, a disproportionately high volume of customer support incidents (frequently complaining of missing news articles that are not the I

Battle of Mong Cai

The Battle of Mong Cai was fought during the Sino-Vietnamese War between 16 February and 10 March 1979 over the city of Móng Cái and other districts of Quảng Ninh Province that bordered the People's Republic of China. The battle broke out as Chinese People's Liberation Army units launched diversionary attacks in support of the Chinese invasion in the major fronts of Lạng Sơn, Cao Bằng and Lào Cai. However, the Chinese failed to attract any Vietnamese reinforcements into the battle. Initiated earlier than the overall invasion, Chinese operations in Quảng Ninh area began at around 23:00 on 16 February with artillery shelling and an infantry assault against Hoành Mô, Bình Liêu District. On 17 February, the township of Móng Cái and the Xuan Hoa state farm were subjected to Chinese artillery bombardment. On the day, PLA troops contested the six-kilometer perimeter within the vicinity of Móng Cái, as well as positions in Quảng Hà District near Pò Hèn. Attacks against Móng Cái were renewed on 20 and 21 February from assembly positions in Dongxing, Guangxi.

Fighting waned until 2 March. On 3 March, the PLA struck Hill 1050. Both of the attacks were repulsed according to a Vietnamese report. Chinese artillery continued pounding Vietnamese positions until 10 March in coordination with infantry raids in smaller scales. On 10 March alone, 3,000 shells were fired against other border points in Quảng Ninh; as Quảng Ninh was a place of no strategic importance, Chinese attacks in the province could have proved wrong and wasteful, unless they had been explained as an attempt to distract the Vietnam People's Army from the major offensives. In fact, the assaults failed, not only to draw Vietnamese reinforcements to the area, but to capture or retain any positions from the enemy; the lack of military skills was illustrated by Chinese combat performance in the battle for Cao Ba Lanh, a strategic peak located 9 km from the border crossing at Hoành Mô: a regiment-sized Chinese force, after five hours staging numerous waves of mass formation attacks and the toll of 360 casualties, were able to capture a height defended by a single Vietnamese platoon.

The defeat in Quảng Ninh Province was perceived by Chinese leadership. Among China's announcements about the war, there was no mention about the fighting in Quảng Ninh


Pegaso was a Spanish manufacturer of trucks, tractors, armored vehicles, for a while, sports cars. The parent company, was created in 1946 and based in the old Hispano-Suiza factory, under the direction of the renowned automotive engineer Wifredo Ricart. In 1990, Iveco took over Enasa, the Pegaso name disappeared in 1994. Enasa, a state-owned company, had its main business interest in the bus market. Pegaso became one of the leading European industrial vehicle makers, with significant exports to both Europe and Latin America; the main Enasa factories were located in Barcelona and Valladolid. Between 1946 and 1990, Pegaso built more than 350,000 vehicles; the first Enasa produced truck, a modified Hispano-Suiza 66G, was the Pegaso I, of which only a few units were made in 1946 and 1947. An enhanced but still petrol-engined version, the Pegaso II, was launched late in 1947 and reached some hundreds of units while awaiting a much-needed diesel model; this was the 125 hp Pegaso Diesel, nicknamed Mofletes for its bulbous front end, which made its debut in 1949 and established itself as the leader in the still weak Spanish truck market.

Artic tractor, road train, coach or'bus versions soon were available, all together they became El camión español, as Enasa badges and advertisements proudly stated. Pegaso built about a hundred Z-102 sports cars in the 1950s; the cars were, in many ways, advanced for the time, as they had a five-speed rear-mounted transaxle and powerful all-aluminum DOHC engines. They were offered with the choice of Touring, Serra, or Enasa's own luxury bodies; the Z-102 was the fastest production car sold in 1953 and was capable of reaching 155 miles per hour. In 1954, the old Pegaso Diesel engine was uprated to 140 hp while Ricart's other masterpiece, the Pegaso Z-207 truck, was made ready to enter mass production, into which it was placed from 1955 to 1959; the model Z-207 featured a V6 engine and a corrugated-sheet cab, used in other Pegaso truck models in the 1960s and 1970s. The unusual corrugated design became a characteristic sight of the Spanish landscape in the years following; the Z-702 was the tractor for semi-trailers version of the Z-207, while the corresponding motorcoach, model named Z-407, featuring the V-6 engine located in the rear never passed the prototype stage.

Technically advanced was the Pegaso Z-403 Monocasco, a two-level monocoque coach with its 125 hp diesel engine mounted amidships, built between 1951 and 1957. In these years, Pegaso built the more conventional Z-404 coach or urban'bus chassis, with a striking body by Seida of Bilbao, the Z-501 trolleybus, which featured electric equipment by Cenemesa. In the off-road segment, the first Pegaso product was a caterpillar tractor based on technology from Vender, an Italian specialist, launched in 1957. From on, Pegaso original crawler tractors and tractors were badged as EMPRESA locally and these were all produced at their Sagrera factory in Barcelona. In the 1950s, ENASA company started to work with the three local mobilecrane and truckcrane firms known as IASA, IBESA and LUNA. All of them needed a large specialist company that could show interest as their business partners. ENASA was chosen, as it was the longest established manufacturer and they soon built & designed several types of original special cranecarriers and specially built cranechassis most with Pegaso Diesel engines and other parts fitted with necessary modern hydraulics some with 6WD axles others in 8WD form for offroad use and began supplying these 3 Spanish crane specialists with medium to heavy duty 6 wheeled, 8 wheeled and 10 wheeled cranecarriers so that each crane maker would start their own truckcrane and mobilecrane production.

The Huesca-based large LUNA crane company is now the only firm with the largest models available on offer on their range, while the other two only make medium-sized lorry mounted cranes. The now defunct KYNOS-KOEHRING Hispania Crane Group was a short-lived crane company, the result of a successful joint-venture founded between the American KOEHRING a large crane specialist and the local Spanish KYNOS a military engineering firm & construction company that together developed and built large mobilecrane and some giant truckcrane models, all were assembled or made with numerous Pegaso components and running gear. In the 1960s and 1970s, Pegaso kept pace with the impressive economic development of Spain, tens of thousands of Pegaso trucks and buses ran on Spanish roads and through Spanish cities and, more important, crossed borders in TIR sealed-container traffic to link the Spanish economy with the European Economic Community; the Pegaso flagship of the time was the 2011 tractor for semi-trailers.

Pegaso marketed by a full variety of commercial vehicles. Production of Pegaso Monotral buses and coaches, based on an Italian Viberti design, began in 1961 and gave rise to a long line of Pegaso chassisless new models d


The Liri is one of the principal rivers of central Italy, flowing into the Tyrrhenian Sea a little below Minturno under the name Garigliano. The Liri's source is in the Monte Camiciola, elevation 1,701 metres, in the Monti Simbruini of central Apennines, it flows at first in a southeasterly direction through a long trough-like valley, parallel to the general direction of the Apennines, until it reaches the city of Sora. In the upper part of Isola del Liri it receives the waters of Fibreno and it divides into two branches which rejoin, surrounding the lower part of the town. One branch makes a 28-metre high waterfall situated in a unique case in Europe. A dam is built on the river after the conjunction with the Sacco River at Ceprano; the last important Liri's tributary is the Melfa. After Cassino it receives the waters of the Gari, afterwards it is known as Garigliano; the Liri-Garigliano system has a total water drainage basin of 5,020 square kilometres. Both Strabo and Pliny tell us that it was called Clanis, a name which appears to have been common to many Italian rivers.

The surrounding area was devastated by Hannibal during his invasion in response to the locals' having burnt the bridges over the river. In 238 BC, the adjacent city of Fregella was the site of a crushed rebellion against Roman rule; the Liris is noticed by several of the Roman poets, as a gentle and tranquil stream, a character which it well deserves in the lower part of its course, where it was described by a nineteenth century traveller as a wide and noble river, winding under the shadow of poplars through a lovely vale, gliding towards the sea. At the mouth of the Liris near Minturnae, was an extensive sacred grove consecrated to Marica, a nymph or local divinity, represented by a tradition, adopted by Virgil, as mother of Latinus, while others identified her with Circe, her grove and temple were not only objects of great veneration to the people of the neighboring town of Minturnae, but appear to have enjoyed considerable celebrity with the Romans themselves. Adjoining its mouth was an extensive marsh, formed by the stagnation of the river itself, celebrated in history in connection with the adventures of Gaius Marius.

About 70 miles upstream from its mouth, the river passes what used to be Lake Fucino, separated from the lake basin by the mountain ridge of Monte Salviano. The Roman emperor Claudius had a tunnel dug through the ridge in an attempt to drain the lake, which had no natural outlet, to the Liri; the emperor Hadrian tried to improve the tunnel but, after the fall of the empire, tunnel maintenance was not maintained and it was blocked by silt and debris, allowing the lake to refill. A new tunnel was completed in the 1860s, the basin of the former lake still drains to the Liri via that tunnel, through the ridge near the town of Avezzano. During the Italian Campaign of the Second World War, the German defenses of the Gustav Line followed the Liri valley. Liri came from Illyrian "lirë" which mean “free”. Manco, The Italian hydronym: lagno, Università di Napoli L'Orientale, p. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Bunbury, Edward Hurbert. "Liri". In Smith, William.

Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. 2. London: John Murray. P. 196. "Liri". Encyclopædia Britannica. 1911