Lewisham West (UK Parliament constituency)
Lewisham West was a borough constituency in south-east London represented in the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It elected one Member of Parliament by the first past the post system of election from 1918, until it was abolished for the 2010 general election. From 1966 until 1992, Lewisham West was a classic bellwether seat, being won by whichever party won the General Election. However, long-term demographic trends have since turned the seat away from being a Labour-Conservative marginal into a safe Labour seat; this has occurred because of a strong increase in the number of ethnic minority residents. At the same time, the communities of Catford and Forest Hill have become much less leafy and suburban over the past 30 years; the large council estate of Bellingham has always been a Labour stronghold, the other areas of the seat can now be regarded as quite safe for Labour, whereas in the past they were not. 1918-1950: The Metropolitan Borough of Lewisham wards of Brockley, Forest Hill, Sydenham, parts of the wards of Catford and Lewisham Village.
1950-1974: The Metropolitan Borough of Lewisham wards of Brockley, Forest Hill, Honor Oak Park, Sydenham East, Sydenham West. 1974-1983: The London Borough of Lewisham wards of Bellingham, Forest Hill, Honor Oak Park, Rushey Green, Sydenham East, Sydenham West. 1983-2010: The London Borough of Lewisham wards of Bellingham, Forest Hill, Perry Hill, Rushey Green, St Andrew, Sydenham East, Sydenham West. Lewisham West constituency covered the south-western part of the London Borough of Lewisham, being based on the communities of Catford, Forest Hill and Bellingham. Following their review of parliamentary representation in South London, the Boundary Commission for England created a new constituency of Lewisham West and Penge, using electoral wards from Bromley and Lewisham. List of Parliamentary constituencies in Greater London Iain Dale, ed.. The Times House of Commons 1929, 1931, 1935. Politico's. ISBN 1-84275-033-X; the Times House of Commons 1945. The Times. 1945. The Times House of Commons 1950; the Times.
1950. The Times House of Commons 1955; the Times. 1955. Craig, F. W. S.. British parliamentary election results 1918-1949. Chichester: Parliamentary Research Services. ISBN 0-900178-06-X. Leigh Rayment's Historical List of MPs – Constituencies beginning with "L"
House of Commons of the United Kingdom
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the upper house, the House of Lords, it meets in the Palace of Westminster; the full name of the house is the Honourable the Commons of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Owing to shortage of space, its office accommodation extends into Portcullis House; the Commons is an elected body consisting of 650 members known as Members of Parliament. Members are elected to represent constituencies by the first-past-the-post system and hold their seats until Parliament is dissolved; the House of Commons of England started to evolve in 14th centuries. It became the House of Commons of Great Britain after the political union with Scotland in 1707, assumed the title of "House of Commons of Great Britain and Ireland" after the political union with Ireland at the start of the 19th century; the "United Kingdom" referred to was the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1800, became the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland after the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922.
Accordingly, the House of Commons assumed its current title. Under the Parliament Act 1911, the Lords' power to reject legislation was reduced to a delaying power; the Government is responsible to the House of Commons and the Prime Minister stays in office only as long as she or he retains the confidence of a majority of the Commons. Although it does not formally elect the prime minister, the position of the parties in the House of Commons is of overriding importance. By convention, the prime minister is answerable to, must maintain the support of, the House of Commons. Thus, whenever the office of prime minister falls vacant, the Sovereign appoints the person who has the support of the House, or, most to command the support of the House—normally the leader of the largest party in the Commons, while the leader of the second-largest party becomes the Leader of the Opposition. Since 1963, by convention, the prime minister is always a member of the House of Commons, rather than the House of Lords.
The Commons may indicate its lack of support for the Government by rejecting a motion of confidence or by passing a motion of no confidence. Confidence and no confidence motions are phrased explicitly, for instance: "That this House has no confidence in Her Majesty's Government." Many other motions were until recent decades considered confidence issues though not explicitly phrased as such: in particular, important bills that were part of the Government's agenda. The annual Budget is still considered a matter of confidence; when a Government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons, the prime minister is obliged either to resign, making way for another MP who can command confidence, or to request the monarch to dissolve Parliament, thereby precipitating a general election. Parliament sits for a maximum term of five years. Subject to that limit, the prime minister could choose the timing of the dissolution of parliament, with the permission of the Monarch. However, since the Fixed-Term Parliaments Act 2011, terms are now a fixed five years, an early general election is brought about by a two-thirds majority in favour of a motion for a dissolution, or by a vote of no confidence, not followed within fourteen days by a vote of confidence.
By this second mechanism, the UK's government can change its political composition without an intervening general election. Only four of the eight last Prime Ministers have attained office as the immediate result of a general election; the latter four were Jim Callaghan, John Major, Gordon Brown and the current Prime Minister Theresa May. In such circumstances there may not have been an internal party leadership election, as the new leader may be chosen by acclaim, having no electoral rival. A prime minister will resign after party defeat at an election if unable to lead a coalition, or obtain a confidence and supply arrangement, she or he may resign after a motion of no confidence or for health reasons. In such cases, the premiership goes to, it has become the practice to write the constitution of major UK political parties to provide a set way in which to appoint a new leader. Until 1965, the Conservative Party had no fixed mechanism for this, it fell to the Queen to appoint Harold Macmillan as the new prime minister, after taking the consensus of cabinet ministers.
By convention, ministers are members of the House of House of Lords. A handful have been appointed who were outside Parliament, but in most cases they entered Parliament in a by-election or by receiving a peerage. Exceptions include Peter Mandelson, appointed Secretary of State for Business and Regulatory Reform in October 2008 before his peerage. Since 1902, all prime ministers have been members of the Commons; the new session of Parliament was delayed to await the outcome of his by-election, which happened
Cheshire is a county in North West England, bordering Merseyside and Greater Manchester to the north, Derbyshire to the east and Shropshire to the south and Flintshire and Wrexham county borough to the west. Cheshire's county town is the City of Chester. Other major towns include Crewe, Ellesmere Port, Northwich, Runcorn and Winsford The county covers 905 square miles and has a population of around 1 million, it is rural, with a number of small towns and villages supporting the agricultural and other industries which produce Cheshire cheese, salt and silk. Cheshire's name was derived from an early name for Chester, was first recorded as Legeceasterscir in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, meaning "the shire of the city of legions". Although the name first appears in 980, it is thought that the county was created by Edward the Elder around 920. In the Domesday Book, Chester was recorded as having the name Cestrescir, derived from the name for Chester at the time. A series of changes that occurred as English itself changed, together with some simplifications and elision, resulted in the name Cheshire, as it occurs today.
Because of the close links with the land bordering Cheshire to the west, which became modern Wales, there is a history of interaction between Cheshire and North Wales. The Domesday Book records Cheshire as having two complete Hundreds that became the principal part of Flintshire. Additionally, another large portion of the Duddestan Hundred became known as Maelor Saesneg when it was transferred to North Wales. For this and other reasons, the Welsh language name for Cheshire is sometimes used. After the Norman conquest of 1066 by William I, dissent and resistance continued for many years after the invasion. In 1069 local resistance in Cheshire was put down using draconian measures as part of the Harrying of the North; the ferocity of the campaign against the English populace was enough to end all future resistance. Examples were made of major landowners such as Earl Edwin of Mercia, their properties confiscated and redistributed amongst Norman barons. William I made Cheshire a county palatine and gave Gerbod the Fleming the new title of Earl of Chester.
When Gerbod returned to Normandy in about 1070, the king used his absence to declare the earldom forfeit and gave the title to Hugh d'Avranches. Because of Cheshire's strategic location on Welsh Marches, the Earl had complete autonomous powers to rule on behalf of the king in the county palatine; the earldom was sufficiently independent from the kingdom of England that the 13th-century Magna Carta did not apply to the shire of Chester, so the earl wrote up his own Chester Charter at the petition of his barons. Cheshire in the Domesday Book is recorded as a much larger county, it included two hundreds and Exestan, that became part of North Wales. At the time of the Domesday Book, it included as part of Duddestan Hundred the area of land known as English Maelor in Wales; the area between the Mersey and Ribble formed part of the returns for Cheshire. Although this has been interpreted to mean that at that time south Lancashire was part of Cheshire, more exhaustive research indicates that the boundary between Cheshire and what was to become Lancashire remained the River Mersey.
With minor variations in spelling across sources, the complete list of hundreds of Cheshire at this time are: Atiscross, Chester, Exestan, Middlewich, Roelau, Tunendune and Wilaveston. Feudal baronies or baronies by tenure were granted by the Earl as forms of feudal land tenure within the palatinate in a similar way to which the king granted English feudal baronies within England proper. An example is the barony of Halton. One of Hugh d'Avranche's barons has been identified as Robert Nicholls, Baron of Halton and Montebourg. In 1182 the land north of the Mersey became administered as part of the new county of Lancashire, thus resolving any uncertainty about the county in which the land "Inter Ripam et Mersam" was. Over the years, the ten hundreds consolidated and changed names to leave just seven—Broxton, Eddisbury, Nantwich and Wirral. In 1397 the county had lands in the march of Wales added to its territory, was promoted to the rank of principality; this was because of the support the men of the county had given to King Richard II, in particular by his standing armed force of about 500 men called the "Cheshire Guard".
As a result, the King's title was changed to "King of England and France, Lord of Ireland, Prince of Chester". No other English county has been honoured in this way, although it lost the distinction on Richard's fall in 1399. Through the Local Government Act 1972, which came into effect on 1 April 1974, some areas in the north became part of the metropolitan counties of Greater Manchester and Merseyside. Stockport, Hyde and Stalybridge in the north-east became part of Greater Manchester. Much of the Wirral Peninsula in the north-west, including the county boroughs of Birkenhead and Wallasey, joined Merseyside as the Metropolitan Borough of Wirral. At the same time the Tintwistle Rural District was transferred to Derbyshire; the area of south Lancashire not included within either the Merseyside or Greater Manchester counties, including Widnes and the county b
Cecil Edward Parkinson, Baron Parkinson, PC was a British Conservative politician and cabinet minister. A chartered accountant by training, he entered Parliament in November 1970, was appointed a minister in Margaret Thatcher's first government in May 1979, he managed the Conservative Party's 1983 election campaign, was rewarded with an appointment as Secretary of State for Trade and Industry, but was forced to resign after revelations that his former secretary, Sara Keays, was pregnant with his child, whom she bore and named Flora Keays. Parkinson subsequently served as Secretary of State for Energy, Secretary of State for Transport, he resigned that office in 1990, on the same day. He was created Baron Parkinson in 1992, served in the House of Lords until his retirement in September 2015. Parkinson was born in Lancashire, in 1931, the son of a railway worker, he was educated at Lancaster Royal Grammar School, a state-run day and boarding school for boys, from where he won a scholarship to Cambridge University, where he read English at Emmanuel College switching to read law.
He won a Blue as an athlete, competing over 440 yards. While at university, Parkinson was a Labour supporter, he did National Service as an NCO in the Royal Air Force. He married Ann Mary Jarvis in 1957, they had three daughters: Mary and Joanna. He had a daughter, Flora—who is disabled and whom he refused to meet—born in 1983 to his former secretary, Sara Keays. After leaving university, Parkinson worked as a manager for the Metal Box Company becoming a consultant, he trained and qualified as a chartered accountant, founded Parkinson-Hart Securities in 1961. He was a supporter of Preston North End, in November 1988 paid a tribute to Tom Finney on This Is Your Life. Parkinson was an active freemason. In the June 1970 general election Parkinson stood as Conservative candidate for Northampton, but was not elected, he was elected MP for Enfield West at a by-election in November 1970, following the death of Iain Macleod. When that constituency was abolished for the February 1974 general election he was elected for the new South Hertfordshire constituency.
After the 1979 general election he was made a junior trade minister. On 14 September 1981, he was appointed Chairman of the Conservative Party as well as Paymaster-General with a seat in the cabinet. Despite his junior status, he was a member of the small War Cabinet that Margaret Thatcher set up to run the Falklands War, he worked on the Conservative Party's 1983 election campaign, standing in the new Hertsmere constituency after South Hertfordshire's abolition. As a result of his success on the campaign, Thatcher had intended to promote him to Foreign Secretary. Although Thatcher remonstrated with him that Anthony Eden's womanising had been no bar on his being Foreign Secretary, she instead appointed him Secretary of State for Trade and Industry. Parkinson was forced to resign on 14 October 1983, after the news of Sara Keays' pregnancy had become public knowledge; the child was born on New Year's Eve, christened Flora Keays. Subsequently, as a result of a dispute over child maintenance payments, Parkinson was able to gain an injunction in 1993, forbidding the British media from making any reference to their daughter.
Following the birth, Parkinson released a statement in which he wished the baby "peace, privacy and a happy life". Flora Keays has learning difficulties and Asperger syndrome, underwent an operation to remove a brain tumour when she was four, although it is unknown if this either caused or complicated her condition; this court order was the subject of some controversy until Flora Keays reached the age of 18 at the end of 2001, when the court order expired. It was stated in the press that Parkinson had never met his child and had no intention of doing so. While he had assisted with Flora's education and her financial upkeep, it was publicly pointed out that he had not sent her a birthday card and that her mother assumed that Flora could not expect to receive one. At the time of the revelation of Parkinson's relationship with Sara Keays in 1983, Parkinson made much of what he described as the volume of letters in support that he received. Many in the Conservative Party attacked Keays. Edwina Currie said "I feel very sorry for Cecil and his family.
Most of my thoughts on Sara Keays are unprintable. The most polite thing to say is she's a right cow". By 2001, the media focused more upon Flora and her difficulties than in protecting Parkinson's reputation, so more voices were raised in criticism of Parkinson. After four years on the back benches, he was appointed Secretary of State for Energy in 1987, for Transport in the July 1989 reshuffle. One of the highlights during his tenure of the latter job was announcing new main-line rail tunnels across London, called Crossrail, he resigned along with Margaret Thatcher when she was replaced by John Major, stood down from the House of Commons at the 1992 general election. After the 1992 election, he was created Baron Parkinson, of Carnforth, in the County of Lancashire, on 29 June 1992; that year, Parkinson published his memoirs, in which he claimed that, with a determined campaign, Thatcher would have won the second ballot of the Conservative leadership el
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990. She was the longest-serving British prime minister of the 20th century and the first woman to hold that office. A Soviet journalist dubbed her "The'Iron Lady'", a nickname that became associated with her uncompromising politics and leadership style; as Prime Minister, she implemented policies known as Thatcherism. She studied chemistry at Somerville College and worked as a research chemist, before becoming a barrister. Thatcher was elected Member of Parliament for Finchley in 1959. Edward Heath appointed her Secretary of State for Education and Science in his Conservative government. In 1975, Thatcher defeated Heath in the Conservative Party leadership election to become Leader of the Opposition, the first woman to lead a major political party in the United Kingdom, she became Prime Minister after winning the 1979 general election.
Thatcher introduced a series of economic policies intended to reverse high unemployment and Britain's struggles in the wake of the Winter of Discontent and an ongoing recession. Her political philosophy and economic policies emphasised deregulation, flexible labour markets, the privatisation of state-owned companies, reducing the power and influence of trade unions. Thatcher's popularity in her first years in office waned amid recession and rising unemployment, until victory in the 1982 Falklands War and the recovering economy brought a resurgence of support, resulting in her decisive re-election in 1983, she survived an assassination attempt in the Brighton hotel bombing in 1984. Thatcher was re-elected for a third term in 1987, but her subsequent support for the Community Charge was unpopular, her views on the European Community were not shared by others in her Cabinet, she resigned as Prime Minister and party leader in November 1990, after Michael Heseltine launched a challenge to her leadership.
After retiring from the Commons in 1992, she was given a life peerage as Baroness Thatcher which entitled her to sit in the House of Lords. In 2013, she died of a stroke in London at the age of 87. Always a controversial figure, she is nonetheless viewed favourably in historical rankings of British prime ministers, her tenure constituted a realignment towards neoliberal policies in the United Kingdom. Margaret Hilda Roberts was born on 13 October 1925, in Lincolnshire, her parents were Alfred Roberts, from Northamptonshire, Beatrice Ethel, from Lincolnshire. She spent her childhood in Grantham. In 1938, prior to the Second World War, the Roberts family gave sanctuary to a teenage Jewish girl who had escaped Nazi Germany. Margaret, with her pen-friending elder sister Muriel, saved pocket money to help pay for the teenager's journey. Alfred Roberts was an alderman and a Methodist local preacher, brought up his daughter as a strict Wesleyan Methodist, attending the Finkin Street Methodist Church.
He stood as an Independent. He served as Mayor of Grantham in 1945–46 and lost his position as alderman in 1952 after the Labour Party won its first majority on Grantham Council in 1950. Margaret Roberts attended Huntingtower Road Primary School and won a scholarship to Kesteven and Grantham Girls' School, a grammar school, her school reports showed continual improvement. She was head girl in 1942–43. In her upper sixth year she applied for a scholarship to study chemistry at the University of Oxford's Somerville College, a women's college at the time, but she was rejected and was offered a place only after another candidate withdrew. Roberts arrived at Oxford in 1943 and graduated in 1947 with Second-Class Honours, in the four-year Chemistry Bachelor of Science degree, specialising in X-ray crystallography under the supervision of Dorothy Hodgkin, her dissertation was on the structure of the antibiotic gramicidin. Thatcher did not devote herself to studying chemistry as she only intended to be a chemist for a short period of time.
While working on the subject, she was thinking towards law and politics. She was prouder of becoming the first Prime Minister with a science degree than becoming the first woman, as Prime Minister attempted to preserve Somerville as a women's college. During her time at Oxford, she was noted for her isolated and serious attitude, her first boyfriend, Tony Bray, recalled that she was "very thoughtful and a good conversationalist. That's what interested me, she was good at general subjects". Her enthusiasm for politics as a girl made him think of her as "unusual". Bray met Roberts' parents and described them as "slightly austere" and "very proper". At the end of the term at Oxford, Bray became more distant and hoped for their relationship to "fizzle out". Bray recalled that he thought Roberts had taken the relationship more than he had done; when asked about Bray in life, Thatcher prevaricated but acknowledged the circumstances between herself and Bray. Roberts became President of the Oxford University Conservative Association in 1946.
She was influenced at university by political works such as Friedrich Hayek's The Road to Serfdom, which condemned economic intervention by government as a
Selwyn College, Cambridge
Selwyn College, Cambridge is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in the United Kingdom. The college was founded by the Selwyn Memorial Committee in memory of George Augustus Selwyn, the first Bishop of New Zealand, subsequently Bishop of Lichfield, it consists of three main courts built of stone and brick along with several secondary buildings, including adjacent townhouses and lodges serving as student hostels on Grange Road, West Road and Sidgwick Avenue. The college has 110 non-academic staff. In 2017, Selwyn was ranked ninth on the Tompkins Table of Cambridge colleges in order of undergraduates' performances in examinations, but was first in 2008; the college was ranked 16th out of 30 in an assessment of college wealth conducted by the student newspaper Varsity in November 2006. Selwyn's sister college at the University of Oxford is Keble College; the college was founded following the death of Bishop George Augustus Selwyn, who had played an important role in the establishment of New Zealand as its first bishop.
Selwyn was a scholar of St John's College, a member of the Cambridge crew which competed in the inaugural Boat Race in 1829. He came out second in the Classical Tripos in 1831, graduating Bachelor of Arts 1831, Master of Arts 1834, Doctor of Divinity per lit. reg. 1842, was a fellow of St John's College from 1833 to 1840. After graduating, Selwyn first taught at Eton College. In 1833, he was ordained deacon, and, in 1834, a priest. Selwyn displayed leadership talent and, in 1841, after an episcopal council held at Lambeth had recommended the appointment of a bishop for New Zealand, Charles James Blomfield, Bishop of London, offered the post to Selwyn, he returned to England in 1867, accepted the post of Bishop of Lichfield, which he held until his death on 11 April 1878, aged 69. After Selwyn's death in 1878, a number of scholars from Cambridge launched plans to establish a college to honour his life; the Selwyn Memorial Committee was founded with Charles Abraham as secretary, it proposed that a Cambridge college should be established as a memorial.
The college's first Master, Arthur Lyttelton, was formally elected on 10 March 1879, the Archbishop of Canterbury Archibald Tait was invited to become Visitor on 28 June 1878 and building of Old Court, as it is now known, began in 1880. The foundation stone of the College was laid by Edward Herbert, 3rd Earl of Powis in a ceremony on 1 June 1881, following a lunch in King's College, Cambridge. A Charter of Incorporation was granted by Queen Victoria on 13 September 1882, the west range of Old Court was ready for use by the college's official opening on 10 October 1882, in time for Michaelmas term. Selwyn's first 28 undergraduates, joined the original Master and twelve other Fellows at the Public Hostel of the university in 1882; the first Master of the College was Arthur Lyttelton, who sought to establish the college on a firm academic and financial foundation. Lyttelton had the benefit of experience as a senior tutor at Oxford, he came from a well-established family with strong connections in both the Church and State, his mother being the sister-in-law of the Prime Minister, William Gladstone, to become a major benefactor of the College.
Lyttelton was himself a life-long supporter of the Liberal party and was familiar with many politicians in Westminster, his wife Kathleen, a women's activist, being the daughter of the Liberal MP George Clive. Lyttelton persuaded Gladstone to make a personal gift to the College of the louder of the two Chapel bells. Gladstone believed that Cambridge students needed to be well woken if they were to get up at a productive time in the morning. Today, the Chapel Bell is affectionately known as'Gladstone's Bell' by students; the college was founded with a distinctly religious character. The royal charter for the college, reproducing the terms of the charter of Keble College, was sealed on 13 September 1882; the charter declared that the college was "founded and constituted with the especial object and intent of providing persons desirous of academic education and willing to live economically with a College wherein sober living and high culture of the mind may be combined with Christian training based upon the principles of the Church of England".
Only baptised Christians were accepted as students or scholars. The original foundation charter specified that the college should "make provision for those who intend to serve as missionaries overseas and... educate the sons of clergymen". Selwyn was not yet a full college of the university, but a "Public Hostel", with its undergraduates regarded as non-collegiate and marked with the designation "H. Selw." on Senate House lists. In 1926 the "Public Hostel" status was abolished, replaced with that of "Approved Foundation", granting more security to the college; the distinction of the college as "H. Selw." on Senate House lists had ceased from June 1924. On 14 March 1958, Selwyn was granted full collegiate status. Selwyn, in common with most other Oxford and Cambridge colleges admitted only men, but was one of the first colleges to become mixed when women were admitted from 1976. In that year, women lived only on E and H Staircases, but in subsequent years could live anywhere in College. In 2009, Selwyn became the first Cambridge college to appoint Helen Stephens.
The college's founders purchased from Corpus Christi College 6 acres of land which lay between Grange Road, West Road and Sidgwick Avenue on 3 November 1879 at a cost of £6,111