Ireland is an island in the North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel, the Irish Sea, St George's Channel. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, the twentieth-largest on Earth. Politically, Ireland is divided between the Republic of Ireland, which covers five-sixths of the island, Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom. In 2011, the population of Ireland was about 6.6 million, ranking it the second-most populous island in Europe after Great Britain. Just under 4.8 million live in the Republic of Ireland and just over 1.8 million live in Northern Ireland. The island's geography comprises low-lying mountains surrounding a central plain, with several navigable rivers extending inland, its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate, free of extremes in temperature. Much of Ireland was woodland until the end of the Middle Ages. Today, woodland makes up about 10% of the island, compared with a European average of over 33%, most of it is non-native conifer plantations.
There are twenty-six extant mammal species native to Ireland. The Irish climate is influenced by the Atlantic Ocean and thus moderate, winters are milder than expected for such a northerly area, although summers are cooler than those in continental Europe. Rainfall and cloud cover are abundant; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC. Gaelic Ireland had emerged by the 1st century AD; the island was Christianised from the 5th century onward. Following the 12th century Norman invasion, England claimed sovereignty. However, English rule did not extend over the whole island until the 16th–17th century Tudor conquest, which led to colonisation by settlers from Britain. In the 1690s, a system of Protestant English rule was designed to materially disadvantage the Catholic majority and Protestant dissenters, was extended during the 18th century. With the Acts of Union in 1801, Ireland became a part of the United Kingdom. A war of independence in the early 20th century was followed by the partition of the island, creating the Irish Free State, which became sovereign over the following decades, Northern Ireland, which remained a part of the United Kingdom.
Northern Ireland saw much civil unrest from the late 1960s until the 1990s. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. Irish culture has had a significant influence on other cultures in the field of literature. Alongside mainstream Western culture, a strong indigenous culture exists, as expressed through Gaelic games, Irish music and the Irish language; the island's culture shares many features with that of Great Britain, including the English language, sports such as association football, horse racing, golf. The names Éire derive from Old Irish Eriu; this in turn comes from the Proto-Celtic *Iveriu, the source of Latin Hibernia. Iveriu derives from a root meaning'fat, prosperous'. During the last glacial period, up until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Sea levels were lower and Ireland, like Great Britain, formed part of continental Europe.
By 16,000 BC, rising sea levels due to ice melting caused Ireland to become separated from Great Britain. Around 6000 BC, Great Britain itself became separated from continental Europe; the earliest evidence of human presence in Ireland is dated at 10,500 BC, demonstrated by a butchered bear bone found in a cave in County Clare. It is not until about 8000 BC, that more sustained occupation of the island has been shown, with evidence for Mesolithic communities around the island; these Mesolithic communities lived as hunter-gatherers across the island until about 4000 BC. Some time before 4000 BC, Neolithic settlers arrived introducing cereal cultivars, domesticated animals such as cattle and sheep, large timber building, stone monuments; the earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Co.. Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. Field systems were developed in different parts of Ireland, including at the Céide Fields, preserved beneath a blanket of peat in present-day Tyrawley.
An extensive field system, arguably the oldest in the world, consisted of small divisions separated by dry-stone walls. The fields were farmed for several centuries between 3500 BC and 3000 BC. Wheat and barley were the principal crops; the Bronze Age – defined by the use of metal – began around 2500 BC, with technology changing people's everyday lives during this period through innovations such as the wheel. According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that included Britain, western France and Iberia, that this is where Celtic languages developed; this contrasts with the traditional view that their origin lies in mainland Europe with the Hallstatt culture. During the Iron Age, a Celtic language and culture emerged in Ireland. How and when the island became Celtic has been debated for close to a century, with the migrations of the Celts being one of the more enduring themes of archaeological and linguistic studies.
The most recent genetic research s
Ohio City, Cleveland
Ohio City is one of the oldest neighborhoods in Cleveland, Ohio. It is located west of the Cuyahoga River; the City of Ohio became an independent municipality on March 3, 1836, splitting from Brooklyn Township. The city grew from a population of 2,400 people in the early 1830s to over 4,000 in 1850; the municipality was annexed by Cleveland on June 5, 1854. James A. Garfield, who became the 20th president of the United States preached at Franklin Circle Christian Church in 1857. Franklin Circle Christian Church is located at the intersection of Franklin Boulevard and Fulton Road; the birthplace of John Heisman, famous for the annual Heisman Trophy awarded to the best player in college football, is located in Ohio City. He was born in the neighborhood in 1869, an Ohio Historical Society marker stands in commemoration near the corner of Bridge Avenue and West 29th Place; the salient feature of Ohio City's business district is the historic West Side Market, built in 1912. The European-styled market, located at the intersection of Lorain Avenue and West 25th Street, draws an estimated one million visitors annually.
Located north of the West Side Market is The Ohio City Fresh Food Collaborative, one of the largest contiguous urban farms in America. The operation includes a farm, retail farm community kitchen on a 6-acre city parcel. Ohio City contains the largest concentration of craft breweries in Cleveland, which includes Hansa Brewing, Market Garden Brewery, Platform Beer, Saucy Brew Works, Bad Tom Smith Brewing, the state of Ohio's oldest microbrewery, the Great Lakes Brewing Company. Saint Ignatius High School, a Jesuit college prep school, is located near the West Side Market. Founded in 1886, the school has a long list of distinguished graduates and is a perennial contender in several OHSAA sports; the Cleveland Hostel, which opened in 2012, is the only hostel in the city of Cleveland. The hostel is located on West 25th Street and Chatham Avenue adjacent to the W.25th Street Station on the RTA Red Line. Serving as the only auxiliary location for the Cleveland Museum of Art, the Transformer Station, located at Church and West 29th Street, functions as its contemporary art gallery space.
St. John's Episcopal Church, located at Church and West 26th Street, is the oldest consecrated building in Cuyahoga County and is the mother church of the current Episcopal cathedral located in downtown Cleveland; the church was one of the final stops on the Underground Railroad in Northeastern Ohio, the remains of an entrance to a tunnel leading to the banks of the nearby Cuyahoga River can still be seen in the basement. Several nearby streets retain church-related names, such as Vestry. An Episcopal parish continues to worship in the space, although membership has declined with the demographic changes in the neighborhood; the demographics of Ohio City have changed rather in the latter half of the 20th century and first part of the 21st. Composed of English and German descendants, many Eastern European immigrants moved into the area during the migrations in the first half of the 20th century. In the 1960s and 1970s, as Cleveland expanded and the wealthy moved to the surrounding suburbs, the percentage of African Americans increased.
The size of the Latino community has increased. However, Cleveland City Council, with an eye on redevelopment and with the incentive of tax breaks, has lured an increasing number of suburbanites of all backgrounds back into the Ohio City area; this has led to a diverse community. Ohio City Near West Development Corporation Ohio City Ohio City Guide41.484195°N 81.711295°W / 41.484195.
Nelson Hayward was the sixth mayor of Cleveland, Ohio. He served only one term, in 1843. Hayward was born in Massachusetts to William and Marjory Hayward, he was educated in Massachusetts and came to Cleveland with his two brothers and John, in 1825. In 1840 Hayward became the assistant chief of the Old Volunteer Fire Department, he was elected alderman in 1841 and 1842 and served as the vice-president of the city's Temperance Society in 1842. He was elected as mayor in 1843 because of his Jacksonian Democrat political philosophy. Hayward was not re-elected because the city's political views shifted to partisan Whig and Republican. In 1844 he became a members of the Cleveland Lodge of Odd Fellows. Hayward was never married; the Encyclopedia Of Cleveland History by Cleveland Bicentennial Commission, David D. Van Tassel, John J. Grabowski ISBN 0-253-33056-4
John W. Allen
John William Allen was a lawyer and politician from Ohio. John W. Allen was born in Litchfield, Connecticut in August, 1802, he was the son of Representative John Allen. He attended preparatory schools and moved to Chenango County, New York in 1818, he studied law. Allen moved to Cleveland, Ohio in 1825, studied law under judge Samuel Cowles and became a leader of the bar, he was president of the village from 1831 to 1835, a member of the board of directors of the Commercial Bank of Lake Erie in 1832, one of the incorporators of the Cleveland and Newburgh Railroad Company in 1834. Allen was an organizer of the Ohio Railroad in 1836, served in the Ohio State Senate 1836–37, he was elected to the 25th and 26th Congresses as a Whig, served March 4, 1837 – March 3, 1841. He was elected Mayor of Cleveland in 1841. In 1845, Allen was elected president of the Cleveland and Cincinnati Railroad, was a delegate to the first convention on river and harbor improvement, held in Chicago in 1847; when the Whig party dissolved in the 1850s, he joined with the Republicans.
He was appointed postmaster of Cleveland April 4, 1870, by President Grant, was re-appointed in 1874, serving until he resigned January 11, 1875. He died in Cleveland on October 5, 1887, was interred at Erie Street Cemetery. List of railroad executives United States Congress. "John W. Allen". Biographical Directory of the United States Congress. John W. Allen at Find a Grave
A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways; the term electric street railways was used in the United States. In the United States, the term tram has sometimes been used for rubber-tyred trackless trains, which are unrelated to other kinds of trams. Tram vehicles are lighter and shorter than main line and rapid transit trains. Today, most trams use electrical power fed by a pantograph sliding on an overhead line. In some cases by a contact shoe on a third rail is used. If necessary, they may have dual power systems—electricity in city streets, diesel in more rural environments. Trams carry freight. Trams are now included in the wider term "light rail", which includes grade-separated systems; some trams, known as tram-trains, may have segments that run on mainline railway tracks, similar to interurban systems. The differences between these modes of rail transport are indistinct, a given system may combine multiple features.
One of the advantages over earlier forms of transit was the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on steel rails, allowing the trams to haul a greater load for a given effort. Problems included the fact that any given animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed and cared for day in and day out, produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar company was charged with disposing of. Electric trams replaced animal power in the late 19th and early 20th century. Improvements in other forms of road transport such as buses led to decline of trams in mid 20th century. Trams have seen resurgence in recent years; the English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram, referring to a type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram derived from Middle Flemish trame; the identical word la trame with the meaning "crossbeam" is used in the French language. Etymologists believe that the word tram refers to the wooden beams the railway tracks were made of before the railroad pioneers switched to the much more wear-resistant tracks made of iron and steel.
The word Tram-car is attested from 1873. Although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; the term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, referred to horsecars. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or trolleys. A held belief holds the word to derive from the troller, a four-wheeled device, dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires. "Trolley" and variants refer to the verb troll, meaning "roll" and derived from Old French, cognate uses of the word were well established for handcarts and horse drayage, as well as for nautical uses. The alternative North American term'trolley' may speaking be considered incorrect, as the term can be applied to cable cars, or conduit cars that instead draw power from an underground supply. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US.
Furthering confusion, the term tram has instead been applied to open-sided, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires used to ferry tourists short distances, for example on the Universal Studios backlot tour and, in many countries, as tourist transport to major destinations. The term may apply to an aerial ropeway, e.g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Although the use of the term trolley for tram was not adopted in Europe, the term was associated with the trolleybus, a rubber-tyred vehicle running on hard pavement, which draws its power from pairs of overhead wires; these electric buses, which use twin trolley poles, are called trackless trolleys, or sometimes trolleys. The New South Wales, government has decided to use the term "light rail" for their trams; the history of trams, streetcars or trolley systems, began in early nineteenth century. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used; the world's first passenger train or tram was the Swansea and Mumbles Railway, in Wales, UK.
The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1804, horse-drawn service started in 1807. The service was restarted in 1860, again using horses, it was worked by steam from 1877, from 1929, by large electric tramcars, until closure in 1961. The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was something of a one-off however, no street tramway would appear in Britain until 1860 when one was built in Birkenhead by the American George Francis Train. Street railways developed in America before Europe due to the poor paving of the streets in American cities which made them unsuitable for horsebuses, which were common on the well-paved streets of European cities. Running the horsecars on rails allowed for a much smoother ride. There are records of a street railway running in Baltimore as early as 1828, however the first authenticated streetcar in America, was the New York and Harle
Stephen Grover Cleveland was an American politician and lawyer, the 22nd and 24th president of the United States, the only president in American history to serve two non-consecutive terms in office. He won the popular vote for three presidential elections—in 1884, 1888, 1892—and was one of two Democrats to be elected president during the era of Republican political domination dating from 1861 to 1933. Cleveland was the leader of the pro-business Bourbon Democrats who opposed high tariffs, Free Silver, inflation and subsidies to business, farmers, or veterans, his crusade for political reform and fiscal conservatism made him an icon for American conservatives of the era. Cleveland won praise for his honesty, self-reliance and commitment to the principles of classical liberalism, he fought political corruption and bossism. As a reformer, Cleveland had such prestige that the like-minded wing of the Republican Party, called "Mugwumps" bolted the GOP presidential ticket and swung to his support in the 1884 election.
As his second administration began, disaster hit the nation when the Panic of 1893 produced a severe national depression, which Cleveland was unable to reverse. It ruined his Democratic Party, opening the way for a Republican landslide in 1894 and for the agrarian and silverite seizure of the Democratic Party in 1896; the result was a political realignment that ended the Third Party System and launched the Fourth Party System and the Progressive Era. Cleveland was a formidable policymaker, he drew corresponding criticism, his intervention in the Pullman Strike of 1894 to keep the railroads moving angered labor unions nationwide in addition to the party in Illinois. Critics complained that Cleveland had little imagination and seemed overwhelmed by the nation's economic disasters—depressions and strikes—in his second term. So, his reputation for probity and good character survived the troubles of his second term. Biographer Allan Nevins wrote, "n Grover Cleveland, the greatness lies in typical rather than unusual qualities.
He had no endowments. He possessed honesty, firmness and common sense, but he possessed them to a degree other men do not." By the end of his second term, public perception showed him to be one of the most unpopular U. S. presidents, he was by rejected by most Democrats. Today, Cleveland is considered by most historians to have been a successful leader ranked among the upper-mid tier of American presidents. Stephen Grover Cleveland was born on March 18, 1837, in Caldwell, New Jersey, to Ann and Richard Falley Cleveland. Cleveland's father was a Congregational and Presbyterian minister, from Connecticut, his mother was the daughter of a bookseller. On his father's side, Cleveland was descended from English ancestors, the first of the family having emigrated to Massachusetts from Cleveland, England in 1635, his father's maternal grandfather, Richard Falley Jr. fought at the Battle of Bunker Hill, was the son of an immigrant from Guernsey. On his mother's side, Cleveland was descended from Anglo-Irish Protestants and German Quakers from Philadelphia.
Cleveland was distantly related to General Moses Cleaveland, after whom the city of Cleveland, was named. Cleveland, the fifth of nine children, was named Stephen Grover in honor of the first pastor of the First Presbyterian Church of Caldwell, where his father was pastor at the time, he became known as Grover in his adult life. In 1841, the Cleveland family moved to Fayetteville, New York, where Grover spent much of his childhood. Neighbors described him as "full of fun and inclined to play pranks," and fond of outdoor sports. In 1850, Cleveland's father moved to Clinton, New York, to work as district secretary for the American Home Missionary Society. Despite his father's dedication to his missionary work, the income was insufficient for the large family. Financial conditions forced him to remove Grover from school into a two-year mercantile apprenticeship in Fayetteville; the experience was valuable and brief, the living conditions quite austere. Grover returned to his schooling at the completion of the apprentice contract.
In 1853, when missionary work began to take a toll on his health, Cleveland's father took an assignment in Holland Patent, New York and the family moved again. Shortly after, he died from a gastric ulcer, with Grover reputedly hearing of his father's death from a boy selling newspapers. Cleveland received his elementary education at the Fayetteville Academy and the Clinton Liberal Academy. After his father died in 1853, he again left school to help support his family; that year, Cleveland's brother William was hired as a teacher at the New York Institute for the Blind in New York City, William obtained a place for Cleveland as an assistant teacher. He returned home to Holland Patent at the end of 1854, where an elder in his church offered to pay for his college education if he would promise to become a minister. Cleveland declined, in 1855 he decided to move west, he stopped first in New York, where his uncle, Lewis F. Allen, gave him a clerical job. Allen was an important man in Buffalo, he introduced his nephew to influential men there, including the partners in the law firm of Rogers and Rogers.
Millard Fillmore, the 13th president of the United States, had worked for the partnership. Cleveland took a clerkship with the firm, began to read the law, was admitted to the New York bar in 1859. Cleveland
Public Square, Cleveland
Public Square is the two-block central plaza of downtown Cleveland, Ohio. Based on an 18th-century New England model, it was part of the original 1796 town plat overseen by Moses Cleaveland, remains today as an integral part of the city's center; the 10-acre square is centered on the former intersection of Ontario Street. Cleveland's three tallest buildings, Key Tower, 200 Public Square and the Terminal Tower, face the square. Other Public Square landmarks include the 1855 Old Stone Church and the former Higbee's department store made famous in the 1983 film A Christmas Story, which reopened as the Horseshoe Casino Cleveland on May 14, 2012; the square was redeveloped in 2016 by the city into a more pedestrian-friendly environment with green space on the northern half of the square, a hard surface on the southern half of the square, transit lanes on a newly constructed Superior Avenue. A 125-foot-tall monument to Civil War soldiers and sailors occupies the southeast section of the square. City founder Moses Cleaveland and reformist mayor Tom L. Johnson each have statues on the square.
Public Square was part of the Connecticut Land Company's original plan for the city, which were overseen by Moses Cleaveland in the 1790s. The square is signature of the layout for early New England towns, which Cleveland was modeled after. While it served as a common pasture for settlers' animals, less than a century Public Square was the height of modernity, when in 1879 it became the first street in the world to be lit with electric street lights, arc lamps designed by Cleveland native Charles F. Brush; the square was added to the National Register of Historic Places on December 18, 1975. A parking lot now faces the northwest quadrant of the square. A 12-story building, built on the spot in 1913, was demolished in 1990 to make way for the new Ameritrust Center, an 1,197-foot skyscraper designed by New York's Kohn Pedersen Fox. Before construction began, Ameritrust was acquired by Society Bank, planning to construct and subsequently relocate to a new building on Public Square—Key Tower; because Society did not need two skyscrapers, plans for the Ameritrust building across the square were scrapped.
Other buildings that face the square include 55 Public Square, 75 Public Square, the Society for Savings Building, Metzenbaum Courthouse, the former May Company department store, the Park Building, the Renaissance Cleveland Hotel. The demolished Cuyahoga Building and Williamson Building stood on the site of 200 Public Square. Public Square is the site of political rallies and civic functions, including a free annual Independence Day concert by the Cleveland Orchestra. At the Balloonfest'86, close to 1.5 million balloons rose up from Public Square, engulfing the Terminal Tower and setting a world record. In collaboration with landscape architect James Corner, the city in 2009 began to explore concepts for a redesign of the square. In October 2011, Cleveland mayor Frank Jackson proposed his plan to redevelop the square, which included closing Superior Avenue and Ontario Street to create a large green space in the center. On October 23, 2014, the Cleveland Landmarks Commission approved a plan which closed Ontario Street but kept Superior Avenue open to bus traffic, kept the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument prominent.
The project began construction on March 9, 2015, was opened on June 30, 2016. Public Square's development was showcased during the Cleveland Cavaliers championship parade as a welcome sight with much of the construction materials removed to display the renovation. At first, buses did not run along Superior Avenue as planned, but in order to avoid a $12 million repayment of grants to the Federal Transit Administration, the Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority agreed to run buses along it by March 2017; the City of Cleveland installed Jersey Barriers along Superior Avenue due to fears of terrorism contrary to the original design. An episode of NBC's American Ninja Warrior was held in Public Square and aired in July 2017 A operated cafe, located in the southwestern area of Public Square, opened in July 2016. Public Square is bounded by East Roadway and West Roadway at the western and eastern ends and by Rockwell Avenue and South Roadway at the northern and southern ends. In total, ten U.
S. and state routes meet at Public Square. It is the northern terminus of SR 3, SR 8, SR 43. US 6 passes through the square on Superior, US 20 enters from the west on Superior and leaves via Euclid Avenue. US 21 terminated at Public Square until that route was truncated to Marietta in 1967. Public Square is adjacent to the Tower City transit station, served by three RTA rail lines; the HealthLine, a bus rapid transit line that travels along Euclid Avenue, terminates at Public Square. On April 28, 1865, the casket of President Abraham Lincoln was on public view in Public Square during his body's trip back to Illinois. On the evening of April 29, 1879, Charles F. Brush's new streetlights lit up Public Square for the first time utilizing a generator situated near the Square itself. In 1881, President James A. Garfield lies in state in Public Square following his death In 2011, Public Square was transformed into a beer garden and street scene in Stuttgart, for the filming of The Avengers. Tower City Center The Mall Johannesen, Eric.
From Town to Tower. Western Reserve Historical Society. ISBN 978-0-911704-31-0. Media related to Public Square at Wikimedia Commons