Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society
Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society. In its earliest days, it was a venture of the Royal Societys secretary. It became an official society publication in 1752 and it was established in 1665, making it the first journal in the world exclusively devoted to science, and therefore the worlds longest-running scientific journal. The use of the word Philosophical in the title refers to natural philosophy, in 1887 the journal expanded and divided into two separate publications, one serving the physical sciences and the other focusing on the life sciences. Both journals now publish themed issues and issues resulting from papers presented at the Discussion Meetings of the Royal Society, primary research articles are published in the sister journals Proceedings of the Royal Society, Biology Letters, Journal of the Royal Society Interface, and Interface Focus. The first issue, published in London on 6 March 1665, was edited and published by the Societys first secretary, Henry Oldenburg, four-and-a-half years after the Royal Society was founded.
Oldenburg published the journal at his own expense and seems to have entered into an agreement with the societys council allowing him to keep any resulting profits. He was to be disappointed, since the journal performed poorly from a point of view during his lifetime. Oldenburg put out 136 issues of the Transactions before his death in 1677, the familiar functions of the scientific journal – registration, certification and archiving − were introduced at inception by Philosophical Transactions. The printed journal replaced much of Oldenburgs letter-writing to correspondents, at least on scientific matters, Oldenburg described his journal as one of these philosophical commonplace books, indicating his intention to produce a collective notebook between scientists. The final article of the issue concerned The Character, Lately Published beyond the Seas, of an Eminent Person, not Long Since Dead at Tholouse, the eminent person recently deceased was Pierre de Fermat, although the issue failed to mention his last theorem.
In the aftermath of the Interregnum, the potential for censorship was very real, by reporting ongoing and often unfinished scientific work that may otherwise have not been reported, the journal had a central function of being a scientific news service. Foundation, print was heavily regulated, and there was no such thing as a free press, in fact, the first English newspaper, The London Gazette, did not appear until after Phil. Oldenburgs compulsive letter writing to foreign correspondents led to him being suspected of being a spy for the Dutch, a rival took the opportunity to publish a pirate issue of Philosophical Transactions, with the pretense of it being Issue 27. Oldenburg repudiated the issue by publishing the real 27 upon his release, upon Oldenburgs death, following a brief hiatus, the position of Editor was passed down through successive secretaries of the Society as an unofficial responsibility and at their own expense. Robert Hooke changed the name of the journal to Philosophical Collections in 1679 – a name that remained until 1682, the position of editor was sometimes held jointly and included William Musgrave and Robert Plot.
By the mid-eighteenth century, the most notable editors, besides Oldenburg, were Hans Sloane, James Jurin, in virtually all cases the journal was edited by the serving secretary of the society. These editor-secretaries carried the burden of publishing the Philosophical Transactions
Sir Sidney Lee was an English biographer and critic. Lee was born Solomon Lazarus Lee in 1859 at 12 Keppel Street, Bloomsbury and he was educated at the City of London School and at Balliol College, where he graduated in modern history in 1882. In 1883, Lee became assistant-editor of the Dictionary of National Biography, in 1890 he became joint editor, and on the retirement of Sir Leslie Stephen in 1891, succeeded him as editor. Lee wrote over 800 articles in the Dictionary, mainly on Elizabethan authors or statesmen and his sister Elizabeth Lee contributed. While still at Balliol, Lee had written two articles on Shakespearean questions, which were printed in The Gentlemans Magazine, in 1884, he published a book about Stratford-on-Avon, with illustrations by Edward Hull. Lees article on Shakespeare in the 51st volume of the Dictionary of National Biography formed the basis of his Life of William Shakespeare, Lee received a knighthood in 1911. Between 1913 and 1924, he served as Professor of English Literature, there are personal letters from Lee, including those written during his final illness, in the T. F.
Tout Collection of the John Rylands Library in Manchester, John Denham Parsons Oxford Dictionary of National Biography Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Lee, Sidney. Sidney Lee Dictionary of National Biography and Epitome Works by Sidney Lee at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Sidney Lee at Internet Archive
Liverpool is a major city and metropolitan borough in North West England.24 million people in 2011. Liverpool historically lay within the ancient hundred of West Derby in the south west of the county of Lancashire and it became a borough from 1207 and a city from 1880. In 1889 it became a county borough independent of Lancashire, Liverpool sits on the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary and its growth as a major port is paralleled by the expansion of the city throughout the Industrial Revolution. Along with general cargo, raw materials such as coal and cotton, the city was directly involved in the Atlantic slave trade. Liverpool was home to both the Cunard and White Star Line, and was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic and others such as the RMS Lusitania, Queen Mary, and Olympic. The city celebrated its 800th anniversary in 2007, and it held the European Capital of Culture title together with Stavanger, several areas of Liverpool city centre were granted World Heritage Site status by UNESCO in 2004.
The Liverpool Maritime Mercantile City includes the Pier Head, Albert Dock, tourism forms a significant part of the citys economy. Liverpool is the home of two Premier League football clubs and Everton, matches between the two being known as the Merseyside derby, the world-famous Grand National horse race takes place annually at Aintree Racecourse on the outskirts of the city. The city is home to the oldest Black African community in the country. Natives of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians and colloquially as Scousers, a reference to scouse, the word Scouse has become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. Pool is a place name element in England from the Brythonic word for a pond, inlet, or pit, cognate with the modern Welsh. The derivation of the first element remains uncertain, with the Welsh word Llif as the most plausible relative and this etymology is supported by its similarity to that of the archaic Welsh name for Liverpool Llynlleifiad. Other origins of the name have suggested, including elverpool.
The name appeared in 1190 as Liuerpul, and it may be that the place appearing as Leyrpole, in a record of 1418. King Johns letters patent of 1207 announced the foundation of the borough of Liverpool, the original street plan of Liverpool is said to have been designed by King John near the same time it was granted a royal charter, making it a borough. The original seven streets were laid out in an H shape, Bank Street, Castle Street, Chapel Street, Dale Street, Juggler Street, Moor Street, in the 17th century there was slow progress in trade and population growth. Battles for the town were waged during the English Civil War, in 1699 Liverpool was made a parish by Act of Parliament, that same year its first slave ship, Liverpool Merchant, set sail for Africa. Since Roman times, the city of Chester on the River Dee had been the regions principal port on the Irish Sea
St John's College, Cambridge
St Johns College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge. The college was founded by Lady Margaret Beaufort, in constitutional terms, the college is a charitable corporation established by a charter dated 9 April 1511. The aims of the college, as specified by its Statutes, are the promotion of education, learning, the colleges alumni include the winners of ten Nobel Prizes, seven prime ministers and twelve archbishops of various countries, at least two princes, and three Saints. HRH Prince William was affiliated with St Johns while undertaking a course in 2014. St Johns College is known for its choir, its members success in a wide variety of inter-collegiate sporting competitions. In 2011 the college celebrated its quincentenary, an event marked by a visit of HM Queen Elizabeth II and HRH Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. The college was founded on the site of the 13th-century Hospital of St John in Cambridge at the suggestion of Saint John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester and chaplain to Lady Margaret Beaufort.
However, Lady Margaret died without having mentioned the foundation of St Johns in her will, and it was largely the work of Fisher that ensured that the college was founded. He had to obtain the approval of King Henry VIII of England, the Pope through the intermediary Polydore Vergil, the college received its charter on 9 April 1511. In November 1512 the Court of Chancery allowed Lady Margarets executors to pay for the foundation of the college from her estates, when Lady Margarets executors took over they found most of the old Hospital buildings beyond repair, but repaired and incorporated the Chapel into the new college. A kitchen and hall were added, and a gate tower was constructed for the College Treasury. The doors were to be closed each day at dusk, sealing the monastic community from the outside world. Over the course of the five hundred years, the college expanded westwards towards the River Cam, and now has eleven courts. The first three courts are arranged in enfilade, St Johns College first admitted women in October 1981, when K. M.
Wheeler was admitted to the fellowship, along with nine female graduate students. The first women undergraduates arrived a year later, St Johns distinctive Great Gate follows the standard contemporary pattern employed previously at Christs College and Queens College. The gatehouse is crenelated and adorned with the arms of the foundress Lady Margaret Beaufort, above these are displayed her ensigns, the Red Rose of Lancaster and Portcullis. The college arms are flanked by curious creatures known as yales, mythical beasts with elephants tails, antelopes bodies, goats heads, and swivelling horns. Above them is a tabernacle containing a figure of St John the Evangelist
Integrated Authority File
The Integrated Authority File or GND is an international authority file for the organisation of personal names, subject headings and corporate bodies from catalogues. It is used mainly for documentation in libraries and increasingly by archives, the GND is managed by the German National Library in cooperation with various regional library networks in German-speaking Europe and other partners. The GND falls under the Creative Commons Zero license, the GND specification provides a hierarchy of high-level entities and sub-classes, useful in library classification, and an approach to unambiguous identification of single elements. It comprises an ontology intended for knowledge representation in the semantic web, available in the RDF format
National Library of the Czech Republic
The National Library of the Czech Republic is the central library of the Czech Republic. It is directed by the Ministry of Culture, the librarys main building is located in the historical Clementinum building in Prague, where approximately half of its books are kept. The other half of the collection is stored in the district of Hostivař, the National Library is the biggest library in the Czech Republic, in its funds there are around 6 million documents. The library has around 60,000 registered readers, as well as Czech texts, the library stores older material from Turkey and India. The library houses books for Charles University in Prague, the library won international recognition in 2005 as it received the inaugural Jikji Prize from UNESCO via the Memory of the World Programme for its efforts in digitising old texts. The project, which commenced in 1992, involved the digitisation of 1,700 documents in its first 13 years, the most precious medieval manuscripts preserved in the National Library are the Codex Vyssegradensis and the Passional of Abbes Kunigunde.
In 2006 the Czech parliament approved funding for the construction of a new building on Letna plain. In March 2007, following a request for tender, Czech architect Jan Kaplický was selected by a jury to undertake the project, in 2007 the project was delayed following objections regarding its proposed location from government officials including Prague Mayor Pavel Bém and President Václav Klaus. Later in 2008, Minister of Culture Václav Jehlička announced the end of the project, the library was affected by the 2002 European floods, with some documents moved to upper levels to avoid the excess water. Over 4,000 books were removed from the library in July 2011 following flooding in parts of the main building, there was a fire at the library in December 2012, but nobody was injured in the event. List of national and state libraries Official website
The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
John Dawson (surgeon)
John Dawson was both a mathematician and surgeon. He was born at Raygill in Garsdale, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, Dawson published The Doctrine of Philosophical Necessity Briefly Invalidated in 1781, arguing against Joseph Priestleys doctrine of Philosophical Necessity, but his main skill was in Mathematics. He was a tutor to many undergraduates at the University of Cambridge where his pupils included twelve Senior Wranglers between 1781 and 1807. Although he published little original work, he was skilled in correcting errors in the work of others and he is notable as a mentor of Adam Sedgwick, James Inman, George Butler and many other public figures of the nineteenth century. But the profession on which Dawson embarked was that of a surgeon, in this he was influenced by Henry Bracken, the eminent Lancaster surgeon, with whom he worked as an assistant and pupil. For a year, back in Sedbergh, he practised as a surgeon and then, with his savings of £100 stitched in his clothing, walked to Edinburgh to study medicine.
Returning to Sedbergh with a diploma, he made his practice the best in the dales and soon enjoyed security. On 3 March 1767 he married Ann Thirnbeck of Middleton, near Sedbergh, the one daughter of the marriage, born on 15 January 1768, was to be an important companion to Dawson in his years, following the death of his wife in 1812. Between 1781 and 1794, at least seven, possibly eight, of the fourteen senior wranglers at Cambridge had been taught by him, among those whose medical interests took them to Edinburgh rather than Cambridge were Robert Willan, Thomas Garnett, and George Birkbeck. Dawson maintained his active engagement in mathematics into his seventies, but from 1812, with his memory and physical strength failing, he took no further pupils. His earliest and most substantial publication was his Four Propositions, which appeared anonymously in 1769 in an edition that was destroyed by fire. By comparison with Four Propositions his other publications were slight. In a similar spirit he wrote against Joseph Priestleys The Doctrine of Philosophical Necessity, the impact that Dawson had on those who knew him was heightened by a commanding physical presence well conveyed in the portraits that survive of him. M.
Peacock, and an engraving by W. W. Barney, the other, a watercolour painted by William Westall in 1817 of a sombre and very elderly Dawson, went to private hands. Hughes, The Life and Letters of the Reverend Adam Sedgwick, Cambridge University Press,1890, Dawson & Sedgwick Dawson at Sedbergh Dawson at Google books Dawson & Haygarth Dawson bio
Sedbergh is a small town and civil parish in Cumbria, England. Historically part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, it lies about 10 miles east of Kendal, the town sits just within the Yorkshire Dales National Park. Sedbergh is at the foot of the Howgill Fells on the bank of the River Rawthey which joins the River Lune about 2 miles below the town. Sedbergh has a main street lined with shops. From all angles, the hills rising behind the houses can be seen, until the coming of the Ingleton Branch Line in 1861, these remote places were reachable only by walking over some fairly steep hills. The railway to Sedbergh was closed in 1965, george Fox, a founder of the Religious Society of Friends, spoke in St. Andrews Church and on nearby Firbank Fell during his travels in the North of England in 1652. Briggflatts Meeting House was built in 1675 and it is the namesake of Basil Buntings long poem Briggflatts. Sedbergh School is a boarding school in the town, while Settlebeck School is the main state-funded secondary school for the town.
Sedberghs parish church dedicated to St Andrew dates from the 12th century, there is at least one house in the village dating from the 14th century, and there are the remains of a motte and bailey castle believed to date from Saxon times. Sedberghs main industries for many years were farming and the production of woollen garments, wool was taken to mills where it was turned into yarn from which people in their homes knitted clothing, including hats and socks. The garments were sold by merchants to, among other places. This trade has long since disappeared and it is remembered at Farfield Mill, just outside the town, where there is an exhibition of weaving equipment, and workshops for a number of artists and crafts workers. The town was served by Sedbergh railway station from 1861 to 1954, the parish falls in the electoral ward of Sedbergh and Kirkby Lonsdale. This covers both towns and surrounding areas with a population taken at the 2011 Census of 6,369. It is now possible that the turnover of small to medium manufacturing, other major sources of income are farming and tourism.
For many years, and especially since the outbreak of 2001. In 2015 the town was accepted as a Walkers are Welcome town, the town golf club is located at Catholes-Abbott Holme. A monthly booklet Sedbergh and District Lookaround provides details of events and other activities in the town and lists organisations, bus timetables and it is available at local shops for a suggested donation of £1
Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh
Fellowship of the Royal Society of Edinburgh is an award granted to individuals that the Royal Society of Edinburgh judges to be eminently distinguished in their subject. Around 50 new fellows are elected each year in March, as of 2016 there are around 1650 Fellows, including 71 Honorary Fellows and 76 Corresponding Fellows. Fellows are entitled to use the post-nominal letters FRSE, examples of fellows include Peter Higgs and Jocelyn Bell Burnell. Previous fellows have included Melvin Calvin and Benjamin Franklin, see the Category, Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh for more examples