Van Diemen's Land
Van Diemen's Land was the original name used by most Europeans for the island of Tasmania, part of Australia. The name was changed from Van Diemen's Land to Tasmania in 1856; the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman was the first European to land on the shores of Tasmania in 1642. Landing at Blackman Bay and having the Dutch flag flown at North Bay, Tasman named the island Anthoonij van Diemenslandt, in honour of Anthony van Diemen, the Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, who had sent Tasman on his voyage of discovery. Between 1772 and 1798, only the southeastern portion of the island was visited. Tasmania was not known to be an island until Matthew Flinders and George Bass circumnavigated it in the Norfolk in 1798–99. Around 1784–85, Henri Peyroux de la Coudrenière, an army officer serving in Spanish Louisiana, wrote a "memoir on the advantages to be gained for the Spanish crown by the settlement of Van Dieman's Land". After receiving no response from the Spanish government, Peyroux proposed it to the French government, as "Mémoire sur les avantages qui résulteraient d'une colonie puissante à la terre de Diémen".
In January 1793, a French expedition under the command of Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni d'Entrecasteaux anchored in Recherche Bay and a period of five weeks was spent in that area, carrying out explorations into both natural history and geography. In 1802 and 1803, the French expedition commanded by Nicolas Baudin explored D'Entrecasteaux Channel and Maria Island and carried out charting of Bass Strait (Baudin had been associated, like Peyroux, with the resettlement of the Acadians from French Canada. Sealers and whalers based themselves on Tasmania's islands from 1798 and in August 1803, New South Wales Governor Philip King sent Lieutenant John Bowen to establish a small military outpost on the eastern shore of the Derwent River to forestall any claims to the island arising from the activities of the French explorers. Major-General Ralph Darling was appointed Governor of New South Wales in 1825, in the same year he visited Hobart Town, on 3 December proclaimed the establishment of the independent colony, of which he became governor for three days.
The demonym for Van Diemen's Land was "Van Diemonian", though contemporaries used the spelling Vandemonian. In 1856, the colony was granted responsible self-government with its representative parliament, the name of the island and colony was changed to Tasmania on 1 January 1856. Main articles: Port Arthur, Convicts on the West Coast of TasmaniaFrom the 1800s to the 1853 abolition of penal transportation, Van Diemen's Land was the primary penal colony in Australia. Following the suspension of transportation to New South Wales, all transported convicts were sent to Van Diemen's Land. In total, some 73,000 convicts were transported to Van Diemen's Land, or about 40% of all convicts sent to Australia. Male convicts served their sentences as assigned labour to free settlers or in gangs assigned to public works. Only the most difficult convicts were sent to the Tasman Peninsula prison known as Port Arthur. Female convicts were sent to a female factory. There were five female factories in Van Diemen's Land.
Convicts completing their sentences or earning their ticket-of-leave promptly left Van Diemen's Land. Many settled in the new free colony of Victoria, to the dismay of the free settlers in towns such as Melbourne. On 6 August 1829, the brig Cyprus, a government-owned vessel used to transport goods and convicts, set sail from Hobart Town for Macquarie Harbour Penal Station on a routine voyage carrying supplies and convicts. While the ship was becalmed in Recherche Bay, convicts allowed on deck attacked their guards and took control of the brig; the mutineers marooned officers and convicts who did not join the mutiny without supplies. The convicts sailed the Cyprus to Canton, where they scuttled her and claimed to be castaways from another vessel. On the way, Cyprus visited Japan during the height of the period of severe Japanese restrictions on the entry of foreigners, the first Australian ship to do so. Tensions sometimes ran high between the settlers and the "Vandemonians" as they were termed during the Victorian gold rush when a flood of settlers from Van Diemen's Land rushed to the Victorian goldfields.
Complaints from Victorians about released convicts from Van Diemen's Land re-offending in Victoria was one of the contributing reasons for the eventual abolition of transportation to Van Diemen's Land in 1853. Anthony Trollope used the term Vandemonian: "They are united in their declaration that the cessation of the coming of convicts has been their ruin."In 1856, Van Diemen's Land was renamed Tasmania. This removed the unsavoury criminal connotations with the name Van Diemen's Land, while honouring Abel Tasman, the first European to find the island; the last penal settlement in Tasmania at Port Arthur closed in 1877. The critically acclaimed award-winning film The Last Confession of Alexander Pearce tells the true story of Alexander Pearce through his final confession to fellow Irishman and colonial priest Philip Conolly; the film was nominated for a Rose d'Or, an Irish Film and Television Award, an Australian Film Institute Award and won an IF Award in 2009. The ABC telemovie The Outlaw Michael Howe is set in Van Diemen's Land and tells the story of bushranger Michael Howe's convict-led rebellion.
U2's 1988 album Rattle and Hum has a song called "Van Diemen's Land" with lead vocals sung by The Edge. Tom Russell sets Van Diemen's Land as the ship's destination in his song "Isaac L
Forth River (Tasmania)
The Forth River is a perennial river located in northwest Tasmania, Australia. The lower part of the river features Lake Barrington, a major venue for competitive rowing, it is the location of the village of Forth. The river is a part of the Mersey-Forth power project, which includes seven hydroelectric power stations. Three hydroelectric power stations have been built on the Forth River itself, including Cethana Power Station; the catchment for the river is 1,126 square kilometres. List of rivers of Tasmania
Werribee is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 32 km south-west of Melbourne's Central Business District, located within the City of Wyndham local government area. Werribee recorded a population of 40,345 at the 2016 Census. Werribee is situated on the Werribee River halfway between Melbourne and Geelong, on the Princes Highway, it is the administrative centre of the City of Wyndham Local Government Area and is the City's most populous centre. Werribee is part of the Greater Melbourne metropolitan area and is included in the capital's population statistical division. Since the 1990s the suburb has experienced rapid suburban growth into surrounding greenfield land, becoming a commuter town in the Melbourne-Geelong growth corridor. Due to this urban sprawl Wyndham and its suburbs have merged into the Melbourne conurbation, it was established as an agricultural settlement in the 1850s named Wyndham and was renamed Werribee in 1904. The suburb is best known for its major tourist attractions, which include the former estate of wealthy pastoralist Thomas Chirnside, known as Werribee Park, the Victoria State Rose Garden, the Werribee Park National Equestrian Centre and the Werribee Open Range Zoo.
The name "Werribee" originated from the Victorian Aboriginal name for the Werribee River, Wirribi-yaluk in Wathawurrung and Boonwurrung, wirribi meaning "backbone" or "spine". It is thought that this name was given as the shape of the Werribee River valley and the landscape look like a backbone. Early leasing of pastures was led by members of John Batman's Port Phillip Association. A rural township began in the early 1850s; this village was named Wyndham. The name derived from a suggestion by the owner of a local village inn, Elliott Armstrong, who sought to honour Scottish soldier Sir Henry Wyndham; the Post Office opened on 12 January 1858 as Wyndham and was renamed Werribee in 1904. However, its adjacent river was called the Werribee River, the town's name was changed to Werribee in 1884, the Shire Council at that time was renamed Werribee in 1909. Werribee at this time was popular for development. Thomas Chirnside, a person famous in this area today, was attracted to the open plain's suitability for agricultural uses.
By 1863 he controlled more than 280 square kilometres around Werribee. Chirnside bought other smaller holdings of land at this time; the town grew helped by a railway line from Melbourne to Geelong, with a station at Werribee in 1857. The Shire was huge, extending from the inner suburbs of Melbourne to Little River to the northward town of Melton and covering 715 square kilometres. Thomas Chirnside committed suicide in 1887, he was found dead in the laundry at Werribee Park with a shotgun lying beside him. His brother Andrew died three years and the property was now divided between Andrew's two sons. A new mansion was built, called "The Manor". In 1881 a quarter of the Shire's population lived in the Werribee Township. There were hotels there, as well as recreational venues such as the Werribee Racecourse as well as the Mechanics' Institute. From 1923 to 1973, Chirnside's property was the site of Corpus Christi College, the seminary of the Catholic Church for Victoria and Tasmania. Werribee's central business district is located along Watton Street.
Werribee is surrounded by several residential suburbs: Wyndham Vale to the north-west, Hoppers Crossing and Tarneit to the north and Williams Landing to the north-east, Point Cook to the east. The market gardens and well-known tourist precinct are found in Werribee South, on the other side of the Maltby Bypass; the area's major regional shopping centre, the Pacific Werribee Shopping Centre is located just across the suburb boundary in Hoppers Crossing. Werribee's town centre and its Civic Centre are located adjacent to the Princes Highway, known locally as Synnot Street. Major local arterial roads Derrimut Road and Old Geelong Road connect the highway to the City of Wyndham's north, as does Cherry Street. Ballan Road is the major arterial to Wyndham's north-west; the CBD links with the Princes Freeway via Duncans Road to the south-east, via Geelong Road to the south west. The Princes Freeway circumvents the township via a section, known as the Maltby Bypass, which opened in June 1961. There are two major railway stations in the area – Werribee railway station and Hoppers Crossing railway station to the north-east, both part of the Melbourne metropolitan network.
Werribee Station is the terminus of the Werribee line. V/Line services to and from Geelong ceased in mid 2015 due to the completion of the Regional Fast Rail Project which sees trains diverted out towards Wyndham Vale. A disused station exists on the line near Werribee Racecourse, which at times has had calls to be reopened. Additionally, tracks have been left spread apart for a future station near Derrimut Road. Further suburban stations to the north and west have been constructed on a new line as part of the Regional Rail Link to be joined with the regional rail network. An extensive bus network links Werribee with neighbouring suburbs, with major bus interchanges at Werribee station, Pacific Werribee and Hoppers Crossing station. Wyndham City Council is one of the highest spending councils when it comes to bicycle infrastructure, thus Werribee is well served with bike paths and bike lanes. Major trails include: The Federation T
River Derwent (Tasmania)
The Derwent River is a river located in Tasmania, Australia. It is known by the palawa kani name timtumili minanya; the river rises in the state's Central Highlands at Lake St Clair, descends more than 700 metres over a distance of more than 200 kilometres, flowing through Hobart, the state's capital city, before emptying into Storm Bay and flowing into the Tasman Sea. The banks of the Derwent occupied by Tasmanian Aborigines. European settlers farmed the area and during the 20th century many dams were built on its tributaries for the generation of hydro-electricity. Agriculture, hydropower generation and fish hatcheries dominate catchment land use; the Derwent is an important source of water for irrigation and water supply. Most of Hobart's water supply is taken from the lower Derwent River. Nearly 40% of Tasmania's population lives around the estuary's margins and the Derwent is used for recreation, recreational fishing, marine transportation and industry, it was named after the River Derwent, Cumbria, by British Commodore John Hayes who explored it in 1793.
The name is Brythonic Celtic for "valley thick with oaks". John Hayes placed the name "River Derwent" only in the upper part of the river. Matthew Flinders placed the name "Derwent River" on all of the river; the Derwent River valley was inhabited by the Mouheneener people for at least 8,000 years before British settlement. Evidence of their occupation is found in many middens along the banks of the river. In 1793, John Hayes named it after the River Derwent, which runs past his birthplace of Bridekirk, Cumberland; when first explored by Europeans, the lower parts of the valley were clad in thick she-oak forests, remnants of which remain in various parts of the lower foreshore. There was a thriving whaling industry until the 1840s when the industry declined due to over-exploitation. Formed by the confluence of the Narcissus and Cuvier rivers within Lake St Clair, the Derwent flows southeast over a distance of 187 kilometres to New Norfolk and the estuary portion extends a further 52 kilometres out to the Tasman Sea.
Flows average in range from 50 to 140 cubic metres per second and the mean annual flow is 90 cubic metres per second. The large estuary forms the Port of the City of Hobart – claimed to be the deepest sheltered harbour in the Southern Hemisphere; the largest vessel to travel the Derwent is the 113,000-tonne, 61-metre high, ocean liner Diamond Princess, which made her first visit in January 2006. At points in its lower reaches the river is nearly 3 kilometres wide, as such is the widest river in Tasmania; until the construction of several hydro-electric dams between 1934 and 1968, the river was prone to flooding. Now there are more than twenty dams and reservoirs used for the generation of hydro-electricity on the Derwent and its tributaries, including the Clyde, Jordan, Ouse and Styx rivers. Seven lakes have been formed by damming the Derwent and the Nive rivers for hydroelectric purposes and include the Meadowbank, Repulse, Wayatinah and King William lakes or lagoons; the Upper Derwent is affected by agricultural run-off from land clearing and forestry.
The Lower Derwent suffers from high levels of heavy metal contamination in sediments. The Tasmanian Government-backed Derwent Estuary Program has commented that the levels of mercury, lead and cadmium in the river exceed national guidelines. In 2015 the program recommended against consuming shellfish and cautioned against consuming fish in general. Nutrient levels in the Derwent between 2010 and 2015 increased in the upper estuary where there had been algal blooms. A large proportion of the heavy metal contamination has come from major industries that discharge into the river including the former Electrolytic Zinc and now Nyrstar smelter at Lutana established in 1916, a paper mill at Boyer which opened in 1941; the Derwent adjoins or flows through the Pittwater–Orielton Lagoon, Interlaken Lakeside Reserve and Goulds Lagoon, all wetlands of significance protected under the Ramsar Convention. In recent years, southern right whales started making appearance in the river during months in winter and spring when their migration takes place.
Some females started using calm waters of the river as a safe ground for giving birth to their calves and would stay over following weeks after disappearance of 200 years due to being wiped out by intense whaling activities. In the winter months of 2014, humpback whales and a minke whale have been recorded feeding in the Derwent River for the first time since the whaling days of the 1800s. Several bridges connect the western shore to the eastern shore of Hobart – in the greater Hobart area, these include the five lane Tasman Bridge, near the CBD, just north of the port; until 1964 the Derwent was crossed by the unique Hobart Bridge, a floating concrete structure just upstream from where the Tasman Bridge now stands. Travelling further north from the Bridgewater crossing, the next crossing point is New Norfolk Bridge north of the point where the Derwent reverts from seawater to fresh water, Bushy Park, Upper Meadowbank Lake, Lake Repulse Road and the most northerly crossing is at Derwent Bridge, before the river reaches its source of Lake St Clair.
At the Derwent Brid
Sir Philip Oakley Fysh was an Australian politician, Premier of Tasmania and a member of the first federal ministry. Fysh was born in Highbury, the son of John Fysh and his wife Charlotte, he was educated at the Denmark Hill school in Islington. At 13 years of age, Fysh commenced work in a London stockbroker's office he obtained a position in the office of a shipping firm, L. Stevenson & Sons, with Australian connexions. Fysh migrated to Tasmania in 1859, becoming a leading hop-grower and orchardist. A Protectionist, Fysh was a member of the Tasmanian Legislative Council from 1866–69, 1870–73, 1884–90, of the Tasmanian House of Assembly 1873–78 and 1894–99. Fysh became Premier and Chief Secretary of Tasmania in 1877, serving until 1878 and returning to the positions in 1887, serving to 1892, he was again elected to the assembly and was treasurer in Braddon's ministry from April 1894 to December 1898, when he was appointed Agent-General for Tasmania at London. Fysh took an important part in the federal movement in Tasmania.
He was a representative of his colony at the 1891 and 1897 conventions, was a member of the Australian delegation that watched the passing of the federal bill through the Imperial Parliament. Fysh was elected to the Australian House of Representatives in 1901 as a member for Division of Tasmania and was minister without portfolio until 1903. After Tasmania was split into five electoral divisions in 1903, Fysh was elected for the Division of Denison, based on Hobart, he was Postmaster-General 1903–04. He retired in 1910. Fysh was created a Knight Commander of the Order of St Michael and St George in January 1896, he died in December 1919, aged 84. He was survived by four daughters. Fysh's wife, Esther Kentish Willis, was the daughter of William, a straw-hat manufacturer of Luton, father of the judge and M. P. William Willis; the Canberra suburb of Fyshwick was named after him. Barton Ministry Parliamentary Library profile Serle, Percival. "Fysh, Philip". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
Retrieved 29 October 2008. Quentin Beresford,'Fysh, Sir Philip Oakley', Australian Dictionary of Biography, Volume 8, MUP, 1981, pp 602–603
Royal Society of Tasmania
The Royal Society of Tasmania was formed in 1843. It was the first Royal Society outside the United Kingdom, its mission is the advancement of knowledge; the work of the Royal Society of Tasmania includes: Promoting Tasmanian historical and technological knowledge for the benefit of Tasmanians, Fostering Tasmanian public engagement and participation in the quest for objective knowledge, Recognising excellence in academia and supporting Tasmanian academic excellence, Providing objective advice for policy relating to Tasmanian issues. The Patron of the Society is Her Excellency, the Honourable Kate Warner AM, Governor of Tasmania; the Society was founded on 14 October 1843 at a meeting convened by Sir John Eardley-Wilmot, Lieutenant Governor, as the Botanical and Horticultural Society of Van Diemen’s Land. Its original aim was to ‘develop the physical character of the Island and illustrate its natural history and productions’. Established under its own Act of the Tasmanian Parliament, the Society is permitted it to create its own By-Laws.
In its early years, the Society was responsible for much of the work in founding the Royal Tasmanian Botanical Gardens, began building up substantial collections of both art and natural history specimens, all housed in The Royal Society of Tasmania Museum. These collections became the basis of the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery in 1885, when the Society gave them to the Government; the Society built up a substantial Library. In September 1930 a new library was opened which held more than 20,000 pamphlets; the society’s coat of arms, carved in wood by local artist Nellie Payne was presented at this time. A branch of the Society was formed in Launceston in 1853, it lapsed but has continued since then. In 1934 the ornithologist Jane Ada Fletcher became the first woman to give a lecture before other members. Drawing its inspiration from the illustrious original Royal Society founded in London in 1660, the Royal Society of Tasmania is the oldest royal society outside the United Kingdom, having had a continuing existence since 1843.
Earlier bodies include the 1837 formation of the Tasmanian Society of Natural History by Sir John Franklin assisted by Ronald Campbell Gunn. Queen Victoria became Patron of the Botanical and Horticultural Society of Van Diemen’s Land in 1844 and the name was changed to The Royal Society of Tasmania of Van Diemen’s Land for Horticulture and the Advancement of Science. Under the current Act of Parliament, passed in 1911, the name was shortened to The Royal Society of Tasmania. On the event of the sesquicentenary of the Society in 1993 it produced the volume Walk to the West to publish James Backhouse Walker's diary of a walk in 1887, including William Piguenit's paintings from that journey. In 2017 the Society's membership numbered about 350 from throughout Tasmania and beyond, meeting in Hobart and Launceston; the Society is administered by ex officio members. The membership of the Royal Society of Tasmania is open to all; the priorities of the Society are addressed through lecture programmes, panel discussions, excursions, publications including the peer reviewed annual journal Papers and Proceedings of the Royal Society of Tasmania, a library.
Eminent scholars are recognised through various bursaries. The Society is based in the Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery, Hobart; the Society’s library collection is now based within the University of Tasmania Morris Miller Library, Sandy Bay Campus. The Northern Chapter is based at Launceston. Prior to her death Truganini had pleaded to colonial authorities for a respectful burial, requested that her ashes be scattered in the D'Entrecasteaux Channel, she feared that her body would be dissected and analyzed for scientific purposes as Aboriginal Tasmanian Wiliam Lenne's body had been. Despite her wishes, within two years, her skeleton was exhumed by the Royal Society of Tasmania and placed on display. History of the Royal Society of Tasmania, with portraits of the President and Secretary. Hobart: The Society, Ferguson no. 15176. Walker, James Backhouse. Early Tasmania: papers read before the Royal Society of Tasmania during the years 1888 to 1899. Hobart: John Vail, Government Printer, 1914. Official website Royal Society of Tasmania at Tasmanian Online Communities Electronic version of the minutes of the first meeting of "The Society", Van Diemens Land 1841
Bishopsbourne is a farming community in northern Tasmania, Australia. It has a population of only 78, it has a church and recreation ground. Nearby towns include Carrick and Longford. All the houses and farms are located on Bishopsbourne Road and there are a few back roads. Bishopsbourne Post Office opened on 31 December 1846 and closed in 1976. There has been increased activity of development in recent years, though none of it has been commercial. Bishopsbourne has a Cricket team that play been in the local competition for about 70 years