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John Henry (folklore)

John Henry is an African American folk hero. He is said to have worked as a "steel-driving man"—a man tasked with hammering a steel drill into rock to make holes for explosives to blast the rock in constructing a railroad tunnel; the story of John Henry is told in a classic folk song, which exists in many versions, has been the subject of numerous stories, plays and novels. According to legend, John Henry's prowess as a steel-driver was measured in a race against a steam-powered rock drilling machine, a race that he won only to die in victory with hammer in hand as his heart gave out from stress. Various locations, including Big Bend Tunnel in West Virginia, Lewis Tunnel in Virginia, Coosa Mountain Tunnel in Alabama, have been suggested as the site of the contest; the historical accuracy of many of the aspects of the John Henry legend are subject to debate. Several locations have been put forth for the tunnel. Sociologist Guy B. Johnson investigated the legend of John Henry in the late 1920s.

He concluded that John Henry might have worked on the Chesapeake and Ohio Railway's Big Bend Tunnel but that "one can make out a case either for or against" it. That tunnel was built near Talcott, West Virginia, from 1870 to 1872, named for the big bend in the Greenbrier River nearby; some versions of the song refer to the location of John Henry's death as "The Big Bend Tunnel on the C. & O." In 1927, Johnson found one man who said he had seen it. This man, known as Neal Miller, told me in plain words how he had come to the tunnel with his father at 17, how he carried water and drills for the steel drivers, how he saw John Henry every day, all about the contest between John Henry and the steam drill. "When the agent for the steam drill company brought the drill here," said Mr. Miller, "John Henry wanted to drive against it, he took a lot of pride in his work and he hated to see a machine take the work of men like him. "Well, they decided to hold a test to get an idea of. The test went on all part of the next day.

"John Henry won. He wouldn't rest enough, he overdid, he took sick and died soon after that." Mr. Miller described the steam drill in detail. I made a sketch of it and when I looked up pictures of the early steam drills, I found his description correct. I asked people about Mr. Miller's reputation, they all said, "If Neal Miller said anything happened, it happened." When Johnson contacted Chief Engineer Johns of the C&O Railroad he wrote that "no steam drills were used in this tunnel." When asked about documentation from the period, Johns replied that "all such papers have been destroyed by fire."Talcott holds a yearly festival named for Henry, a statue and memorial plaque have been placed along West Virginia Route 3 south of Talcott as it crosses over the Big Bend tunnel. In the 2006 book Steel Drivin' Man: John Henry, the Untold Story of an American Legend, historian Scott Reynolds Nelson detailed his discovering documentation of a 19-year-old African-American man alternately referred to as John Henry, John W. Henry, or John William Henry in previously-unexplored prison records of the Virginia Penitentiary.

At the time, penitentiary inmates were hired out as laborers to various contractors, this John Henry was notated as having headed the first group of prisoners to be assigned tunnel work. Nelson discovered the C&O's tunneling records, which the company believed had been destroyed by fire. Henry, like many African Americans, might have come to Virginia to work on the clean-up of the battlefields after the Civil War. Arrested and tried for burglary, John Henry was in the first group of convicts released by the warden to work as leased labor on the C&O Railway. According to Nelson, objectionable conditions at the Virginia prison led the warden to believe that the prisoners, many of whom had been arrested on trivial charges, would be better clothed and fed if they were released as laborers to private contractors. In the C&O's tunneling records, Nelson found no evidence of a steam drill used in Big Bend Tunnel; the records Nelson found indicate that the contest took place 40 miles away at the Lewis Tunnel, between Talcott and Millboro, where prisoners did indeed work beside steam drills night and day.

Nelson argues that the verses of the ballad about John Henry being buried near "the white house," "in the sand," somewhere that locomotives roar, mean that Henry's body was buried in a ditch behind the so-called white house of the Virginia State Penitentiary, which photos from that time indicate was painted white, where numerous unmarked graves have been found. Prison records for John William Henry stopped in 1873, suggesting that he was kept on the record books until it was clear that he was not coming back and had died. Nelson stresses that John Henry would have been representative of the many hundreds of convict laborers who were killed in unknown circumstances tunneling through the mountains or who died shortly afterwards of silicosis from dust created by the drills and blasting. There is another tradition that John Henry's famous race took place not in Virginia or West Virginia, but rather near Dunnavant, Alabama. Professor Johnson in the late 1920s received letters saying that John Henry worked on the A.

G. S. Railway's Cruzee or Curzey Mountain Tunnel in 1882, a third letter saying it was at Oak Mountain in 1887, but he discounted these reports after the A. G. S. told him. Retired chemistry professor and folklorist John Garst, of the University of Georgia, has argued that the contest happened at the Coosa

The Conscious Mind

The Conscious Mind: In Search of a Fundamental Theory is a 1996 book by David Chalmers, an Australian philosopher specializing in the area of philosophy of mind. Chalmers presents the major arguments against materialist theories of consciousness, advances his own dualistic theory of consciousness based on "Shannon information partitions", he refers to his alternate view as naturalistic dualism. The Conscious Mind has been reviewed journals such as Foundations of Physics, Psychological Medicine, The Journal of Mind and Behavior, Australian Review of Books; the book was described by The Sunday Times as "one of the best science books of the year."

La serenata

La serenata is a one-act opera by Ruperto Chapí for libretto by José Estremera. It was first performed on 5 November 1881 at the Teatro Apolo in Madrid; the libretto for La serenata was composed by José Estremera, a constant collaborator of Chapí, with whom he staged the Música clásica the previous year. It is in verse; the argument is based on a play by La Xacarilla. The opera is a result of a new attempt to create a full-composed national opera in Spain, to end the prevalence of zarzuela present at that moment, it is composed in a Rossinian style, reminding of works by Paisiello and Cimarosa. The genre of the composition presented a difficulty. Chapí himself acknowledged its modest character, he explained the problem thus. La serenata doesn't contain mighty passions, it couldn't be called a comic opera, because an opéra comique is the French analogue of Spanish zarzuela. Estremera's subtitle was operetta, an inappropriate label, because an operetta has to contain spoken parts, which are not present here.

It could be named a lyric comedy. La serenata was performed on 5 November at the season opening of the Teatro Apolo, it formed the second part of that night, while the first one consisted of the overture to Chapí's Roger de Flor and an opera ¡Tierra! by Antonio Llanos. The orchestra was conducted by Chapí, it didn't gain much success. After its failure Chapí rejected his attemptes in the opera genre dedicating himself to zarzuelas foe many years. La serenata was performed at the Teatro de Zarzuela together with the 2-act Marina. After Chapí was engaged by the Teatro Eslava, he arranged the score for smaller orchestral forces; the opera is in two tableaux. The first tableau presents a view of the harbour with the house of Camacho on the foreground; the opening chorus of passengers thanks the corregidor for ending their quarantine: now they can proceed to the town. A young man Ventura is on this ship, is given a pass; the crowd disperses, leaving him alone to tell his story: he went to the sea to find glory and riches, but met only storms and pirates.

Now he comes back, without a penny, looks forward to seeing his beloved one. The night approaches; some muffled persons appear and sing a mysterious serenade about a hunter trying in vain to catch an eagl. The door of the neighbour house opens, they go in. Ventura tries to fall asleep on a stone bench, but another company steps in and the situation repeats. Tortured by hunger, he decides to sing this song too; the host of the house, Camacho and leads him inwards. In the second tableau the action takes place in a room inside of Camacho's house; the host tells his daughter Rita. She refuses this. Camacho does not continue the conversation; when he leaves, Rita wishes the lover were here. Straight after this enters Ventura, the one she loves, they are full of joy to see each other. Camacho comes in, he is about to beat Ventura. Camacho gives him a burse of money. Ventura suggests to count the money. Instead, Camacho gives him another burse because he had cheated with the distribution of it. Before he sends Rita away, she appoints Ventura a date at ten sharp.

The room gets filled by the chorus of contrabandists praising the valour. During the farewell dinner Camacho recommends Ventura to his friends as a captain of a ship that will take them away from Cádiz and the corregidor, this night at ten sharp. Somebody asks Ventura to make a toast, he sings two couplets about enjoying the delights of life; the chorus catches up his words. After this, the serenade is heard from the outside. Everybody rises intending to go to the boat, Ventura manages to hide in an adjoint room. A man knocks at the door, it is corregidor: Camacho invited him to give information about the contrabandists. The chorus leaves through a secret door, the host presents the corregidor with a document; the magistrate triumphs believing. Camacho's plan worked out well: while his friends are safe in the sea, he is clear of any suspicion; the clock strikes ten, Ventura comes out of another room. The corregidor asks, it, Camacho answers he had never seen him before. Ventura hopes to relief himself from this situation with the serenade, that used to help him twice.

But this time it turns a disaster: the corregidor recognizes the contrabandists' signal and orders two alguaciles to bring some soldiers to take Ventura to the prison. The latter understands nothing, but after the corregidor tells him about the contradandists, he shows the pass given to him by the same magistrate some hours before; the soldiers come with a crowd of people. Ventura forces Camacho to tell everyone he is Rita's fiancé, threatening him with the story of this night he is able to tell the corregidor; the magistrate puts the hands of the young together. The opera consists of 12 scenes; the notable music numbers are the prelude, the zortziko of Ventura, the chorus's serenade, the two-partite air sung by Rita, the trio. Preludio Tableau I: Scene 1. Chorus Scene 2 and zortziko Scene 3. Chorus Scene 4 Tableau II

Vapor pressures of the elements (data page)

Values are given in terms of temperature necessary to reach the specified pressure. Valid results within the quoted ranges from most equations are included in the table for comparison. A conversion factor is included into the original first coefficients of the equations to provide the pressure in pascals. Ref. SMI uses temperature scale ITS-48. No conversion was done; the temperature at standard pressure should be equal to the normal boiling point, but due to the considerable spread does not have to match values reported elsewhere. Log refers to log CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th Edition. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, 2003. Indicates extrapolated values beyond the region of experimental data, subject to greater uncertainty. Indicates values calculated from ideal gas thermodynamic functions. Indicates the substance is solid at this temperature; as quoted from these sources: a - Lide, D. R. and Kehiaian, H. V. CRC Handbook of Thermophysical and Thermochemical Data, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1994.

B - Stull, D. in American Institute of Physics Handbook, Third Edition, Gray, D. E. Ed. McGraw Hill, New York, 1972. C - Hultgren, R. Desai, P. D. Hawkins, D. T. Gleiser, M. Kelley, K. K. and Wagman, D. D. Selected Values of Thermodynamic Properties of the Elements, American Society for Metals, Metals Park, OH, 1973. D - TRCVP, Vapor Pressure Database, Version 2.2P, Thermodynamic Research Center, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. E - Barin, I. Thermochemical Data of Pure Substances, VCH Publishers, New York, 1993. F - Ohse, R. W. Handbook of Thermodynamic and Transport Properties of Alkali Metals, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1994. G - Gschneidner, K. A. in CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 77th Edition, p. 4-112, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 1996. H - Leider, H. R. Krikorian, O. H. and Young, D. A. Carbon, 11, 555, 1973. I - Wagner, W. and de Reuck, K. M. International Thermodynamic Tables of the Fluid State, No. 9. Oxygen, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1987. J - Marsh, K.

N. Editor, Recommended Reference Materials for the Realization of Physicochemical Properties, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Oxford, 1987. K - Alcock, C. B. Itkin, V. P. and Horrigan, M. K. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 23, 309, 1984. L - Stewart, R. B. and Jacobsen, R. T. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 18, 639, 1989. M - Sifner, O. and Klomfar, J. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 23, 63, 1994. David R. Lide, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 84th Edition, online version. CRC Press. Boca Raton, Florida, 2003. Coefficients from this source: Alcock, C. B. Itkin, V. P. and Horrigan, M. K. Canadian Metallurgical Quarterly, 23, 309. National Physical Laboratory and Laby Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants. Retrieved Jan 2006. W. E. Forsythe, Smithsonian Physical Tables 9th ed. online version. Table 363, Evaporation of Metals The equations are described as reproducing the observed pressures to a satisfactory degree of approximation. From these sources: a - K. K. Kelley, Bur. Mines Bull. 383. B - R. W. Ditchburn, J. C. Gilmour, Rev. Mod.

Phys. vol. 13, p. 310. C - Brewer, The thermodynamic and physical properties of the elements, Report for the Manhattan Project. D - T. J. Killian, Phys. Rev. vol. 27, p. 578. E - J. B. Taylor, I. Langmuir, Phys. Rev. vol. 51, p. 753. F - A. L. Marshall, R. W. Dornte, F. J. Norton, Amer. Chem. Soc. vol. 59, p. 1161. G - R. Schumann, A. B. Garret, J. Am. Chem. Soc. vol. 66, p. 442,. 67, p. 2279. H - E. Rudberg, Phys. Rev. vol. 46, p. 763. I - J. A. M. Van Liempt, Rec. Trav. Chem. d. Pays-Bas, vol. 55, p. 468. J - E. Rudberg, J. Lempert, J. Chem. Phys. vol. 3, p. 627. K - Int. National Critical Tables, vol. 3, p. 306. L - E. Baur, R. Bruner, Hev. Chim. Acta, vol. 17, p. 958. M - J. S. Anderson, J. Chem. Soc. vol. 141. N - A. L. Reimann, C. K. Grant, Phil. Mag. vol. 22, p. 34. O - D. B. Langmuir, L. Malter, Phys. Rev. vol. 55, p. 748. P - M. D. Fiske, Phys. Rev. vol. 61, p. 513. Q - H. L. Johnston, A. L. Marshall, J. Am. Chem. Soc. vol. 62, p. 1382. R - H. A. Jones, I. Langmuir, G. M. J. Mackay, Phys. Rev. vol. 30, p. 201. S - H. A. Jones, I. Langmuir, Gen. Electric Rev. vol.

30, p. 354

Invisible Avenger

Invisible Avenger is a 1958 film noir crime film directed by James Wong Howe, Ben Parker and John Sledge. The film is a compilation of two episodes of a 1957 Republic Pictures television pilot for The Shadow; the episodes, one directed by cinematographer James Wong Howe, were put together and released as a theatrical feature. The film was rereleased in 1962 under the title Bourbon Street Shadows by the Louisiana-based MPA films; the episodes were shot on location in New Orleans. Pablo Ramirez is an expatriate from the Caribbean nation of Santa Cruz, under control of a military dictator called the Generalissimo. From New Orleans, Ramirez plots his return to Santa Cruz. To assist in this and to protect him from the Santa Cruz secret police who are in New Orleans he seeks the help of Lamont Cranston through a mutual friend, jazz trumpeter Tony Alcade. In the midst of a telephone call to Cranston, Tony is murdered by the secret police. Cranston and his metaphysical mentor Jogendra come to New Orleans to bring Tony's murderers to justice and freedom to Santa Cruz.

Though no one knows the identity of the crime fighting trouble shooter The Shadow who has telepathic powers, everyone knows that he can be contacted for help through Lamont Cranston. As Cranston protects Pablo from secret police assassination and kidnapping attempts, the Generalissimo broadcasts the execution of Pablo's twin brother, shown on television in the United States in a scheme to draw Pablo into the open. Richard Derr as Lamont Cranston/The Shadow Mark Daniels as Jogendra Helen Westcott as Tara O'Neill Jack Doner as Billy Sanchez Jeanne Neher as Felicia Ramirez Steve Dano as Tony Alcalde Dan Mullin as Pablo Ramirez / Victor Ramirez Leo Bruno as Ramon "Rocco" Martinez Lee Edwardsas The Colonel Sam Page as Charlie, airport thug The Invisible Avenger on IMDb Invisible Avenger is available for free download at the Internet Archive

David Bates (politician)

David E. Bates was an American politician and a Republican member of the Rhode Island Senate representing District 32 since January 2007. Bates served consecutively from January 1993 until January 2007 in the District 9 and District 44 seats. Bates earned his BA degree from the University of Massachusetts Amherst. 2012 Bates was unopposed for both the September 11, 2012 Republican Primary and the November 6, 2012 General election, winning with 9,926 votes. 1992 Initially in District 44, Bates won the September 15, 1992 Republican Primary and won the November 3, 1992 General election with 5,657 votes against Democratic nominee Peter Orlando. 1994 Bates was unopposed for both the September 13, 1994 Republican Primary and the November 8, 1994 General election, winning with 6,507 votes. 1996 Bates was unopposed for the September 10, 1996 Republican Primary, winning with 464 votes, won the November 5, 1996 General election with 4,475 votes against Cool Moose Party candidate Matthew Piccerelli. 1998 Bates was unopposed for both the September 15, 1998 Republican Primary and the November 3, 1998 General election, winning with 5,617 votes.

2000 Bates was unopposed for both the September 12, 2000 Republican Primary and the November 7, 2000 General election, winning with 7,263 votes. 2002 Redistricted to District 9, with incumbent Democratic Senator Charles Walton redistricted to District 2, Bates was unopposed for both the September 10, 2002 Republican Primary, winning with 1,161 votes, the November 5, 2002 General election, winning with 7,791 votes. 2004 Bates was unopposed for the September 14, 2004 Republican Primary and won the November 2, 2004 General election with 7,025 votes against Democratic nominee E. Jenny Flanagan. 2006 Redistricted to District 32, with incumbent Senator Stephen Alves redistricted to District 9, Bates and returning 2004 Democratic challenger E. Jenny Flanagan were both unopposed for their September 12, 2006 primaries, setting up a rematch. 2008 Bates was unopposed for the September 9, 2008 Republican Primary and won the November 4, 2008 General election with 6,989 votes against Democratic nominee Lawrence Signore.

2010 Bates was unopposed for the September 23, 2010 Republican Primary, winning with 584 votes, won the November 2, 2010 General election with 5,930 votes against Democratic nominee Jim Hasenfus. Official page at the Rhode Island General Assembly Profile at Vote Smart David Bates at Ballotpedia David E. Bates at the National Institute on Money in State Politics