Bury St Edmunds
Bury St Edmunds is a market town in Suffolk, England. Bury St Edmunds Abbey is near the town centre, Bury is the seat of the Diocese of St Edmundsbury and Ipswich, with the episcopal see at St Edmundsbury Cathedral. The town, originally called Beodericsworth, was built on a pattern by Abbot Baldwin around 1080. It is known for brewing and malting and for a British Sugar processing factory, the town is the cultural and retail centre for West Suffolk and tourism is a major part of the economy. They all derive from Proto-Germanic *burgs meaning fortress and this in turn derives from the Proto-Indo-European root *bhrgh meaning fortified elevation, with cognates including Welsh bera and Sanskrit bhrant-. There is thus no justification for the folk etymology stating that the Cathedral Town was so called because St Edmund was buried there, the second section of the name refers to Edmund King of the East Angles, who was killed by the Vikings in the year 869. He became venerated as a saint and a martyr, and his shrine made Bury St Edmunds an important place of pilgrimage, the formal name of both the borough and the diocese is St Edmundsbury.
Local residents often refer to Bury St Edmunds simply as Bury, Bury St Edmunds, supposed by some to have been the Villa Faustina of the Romans, was one of the royal towns of the Saxons. The town grew around Bury St Edmunds Abbey, a site of pilgrimage, by 925 the fame of St Edmund had spread far and wide, and the name of the town was changed to St Edmunds Bury. In 942 or 945 King Edmund had granted to the abbot and convent jurisdiction over the town, free from all secular services. Edward the Confessor made the lord of the franchise. Sweyn, in 1020, having destroyed the monastery and ejected the secular priests. Count Alan Rufus is said to have been interred at Bury St Edmunds Abbey in 1093, in the 12th and 13th centuries the head of the de Hastings family, who held the Lordship of the Manor of Ashill in Norfolk, was hereditary Steward of this abbey. On 18 March 1190, two days after the more well-known massacre of Jews at Clifford Tower in York, the people of Bury St Edmunds massacred 57 Jews.
Later that year, Abbot Samson successfully petitioned King Richard I for permission to evict the towns remaining Jewish inhabitants on the grounds that everything in the town. Belonged by right to St Edmund, either the Jews should be St Edmund’s men or they should be banished from the town and this expulsion predates the Edict of Expulsion by 100 years. In 1198, a burned the shrine of St Edmund, leading to the inspection of his corpse by Abbot Samson. The town is associated with Magna Carta, by various grants from the abbots, the town gradually attained the rank of a borough
Clare College, Cambridge
Clare College is a constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. The college was founded in 1326 as University Hall, making it the second-oldest surviving college of the University after Peterhouse and it was refounded in 1338 as Clare Hall by an endowment from Elizabeth de Clare. Clare is famous for its choir and for its gardens on the Backs. The current Master is Anthony Grabiner, Baron Grabiner, a British barrister, Clare is consistently one of the most popular Cambridge colleges amongst prospective applicants. As of 2016, it had an endowment of over £106m, the college was founded in 1326 by the universitys Chancellor, Richard Badew, and was originally named University Hall. Providing maintenance for only two fellows, it hit financial hardship. In 1338, the college was refounded as Clare Hall by an endowment from Elizabeth de Clare, a granddaughter of Edward I, the college was known as Clare Hall until 1856, when it changed its name to Clare College. Clares Old Court, a Grade I listed building, frames Kings College Chapel as the border of one of the most celebrated architectural vistas in England.
It was built between 1638 and 1715, with an interruption for the English Civil War. The colleges chapel was built in 1763 and designed by Sir James Burrough and its altarpiece is Annunciation by Cipriani. Clare has a bridge over the river which is the oldest of Cambridges current bridges. Fourteen stone balls decorate it, one of which has a missing section, a more likely explanation is that a wedge of stone cemented into the ball as part of a repair job became loose and fell out into the river. Clares bridge connects Old Court to Memorial Court, which was designed by Giles Gilbert Scott, a new court, Lerner Court, was opened in January 2008 and was designed by architects van Heyningen and Haward. Clare is known as a liberal and progressive college, in 1972 it became one of the three male Cambridge colleges that led the way in admitting female undergraduates. Clare continues in tradition and has won praise for the transparency of its admissions process. Clare is known as one of the most musical colleges in Cambridge and its choir has performed all over the world.
Many Clare students play instruments, and the music society, Clare College Music Society, is well known. Like most Cambridge colleges, Clare allows students to have a piano in their college rooms, as well as popular jazz and comedy nights, Clare is renowned for Clare Ents, a student night held every Friday in term time
Marquess of Bristol
Marquess of Bristol is a title in the Peerage of the United Kingdom held by the Hervey family since 1826. The Marquesss subsidiary titles are, Earl of Bristol, Earl Jermyn, of Horningsheath in the County of Suffolk, and Baron Hervey, of Ickworth in the County of Suffolk. The Barony of Hervey is in the Peerage of England, the Earldom of Bristol in the Peerage of Great Britain, Earl Jermyn is used as courtesy title by the Marquesss eldest son and heir. The Marquess of Bristol holds the office of Hereditary High Steward of the Liberty of St. Edmund, the present holder of these titles is Frederick Hervey, the 8th Marquess and 12th Earl of Bristol. The Hervey family has often been considered unconventional, the 18th century phrase When God created the human race, he made men and Herveys is attributed variously to French philosopher Voltaire and to Lady Mary Wortley Montagu. It has been read as a reference to the second Lord Herveys noted originality and eccentricity, according to the Dictionary of National Biography the Hervey family have been described as active and brave, but reckless and over- confident.
Dr Johnson thought them good company, If you will call a dog Hervey, he said and this family descends from Sir Thomas Hervey. He was Member of Parliament for Bury St Edmunds from 1679 to 1690, the first to follow in his footsteps was his son John Hervey. The 1st Earl of Bristol died in 1751 and his two eldest sons having died before him, he was succeeded in turn by three of his grandsons – all brothers and sons of the 1st Earls younger son John. An early ancestor of Sir Thomas Hervey was John Hervey of Bedfordshire and his descendant was Thomas Hervey, who was the first Hervey to live at Ickworth, Suffolk. The 2nd Earl held political office as Lord-Lieutenant of Ireland and Lord Privy Seal and he was succeeded as 3rd Earl by his younger brother, who was a vice-admiral in the Royal Navy and served as Chief Secretary for Ireland from 1766 to 1767. He died without issue and was succeeded by the next younger brother. Known as the Earl-Bishop, the fourth Earl served as Bishop of Cloyne from 1767 to 1768, although an efficient clergyman, varying estimates have been found of his character.
In 1795, he began expanding his ancestral home, thus creating Ickworth House in its modern form, the house was still unfinished when he died in 1803 and was completed by his successor. In 1799 he became the fifth Baron Howard de Walden when the abeyance of this peerage was terminated, Lord Bristol married Elizabeth and heir of Sir Charles Davers, 5th Baronet, and great-granddaughter of Thomas Jermyn, 2nd Baron Jermyn. His second son, John Augustus Hervey, Lord Hervey, was a captain in the Royal Navy and his daughter the Hon. Elizabeth Catherine Caroline Hervey married Charles Ellis, first Baron Seaford. Their son Charles succeeded as sixth Baron Howard of Walden on the death of his great-grandfather, Lord Bristol, upon the 4th Earls death, the Bristol title passed to his third but eldest surviving son Frederick, who thereby became the 5th Earl. He was a politician and served under Henry Addington as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs from 1801 to 1803
The crisis facing the king came to a head in 1688, with the birth of the kings son, James Francis Edward Stuart, on 10 June. This changed the line of succession by displacing the heiress presumptive with young James Francis Edward as heir apparent. The establishment of a Roman Catholic dynasty in the kingdoms now seemed likely, stadtholder William, the de facto head of state of the Dutch United Provinces, feared a Catholic Anglo–French alliance and had already been planning a military intervention in England. After consolidating political and financial support, William crossed the North Sea and English Channel with an invasion fleet in November 1688. After only two minor clashes between the two opposing armies in England, and anti-Catholic riots in several towns, Jamess regime collapsed, this was followed by the protracted Williamite War in Ireland and Dundees rising in Scotland. In Englands distant American colonies, the led to the collapse of the Dominion of New England. By threatening to withdraw his troops, William in February 1689 convinced a newly chosen Convention Parliament to make him, the Revolution permanently ended any chance of Catholicism becoming re-established in England.
The Revolution led to limited tolerance for Nonconformist Protestants, although it would be some time before they had political rights. Internationally, the Revolution was related to the War of the Grand Alliance on mainland Europe and it has been seen as the last successful invasion of England. It ended all attempts by England in the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th century to subdue the Dutch Republic by military force, the expression Glorious Revolution was first used by John Hampden in late 1689, and is an expression that is still used by the British Parliament. The Glorious Revolution is termed the Bloodless Revolution, albeit inaccurately. Jamess greatest political problem was his Catholicism, which left him alienated from both parties in England. The low church Whigs had failed in their attempt to pass the Exclusion Bill to exclude James from the throne between 1679 and 1681, and Jamess supporters were the high church Anglican Tories. In Scotland, his supporters in the Parliament of Scotland stepped up attempts to force the Covenanters to renounce their faith, when James inherited the English throne in 1685, he had much support in the Loyal Parliament, which was composed mostly of Tories.
His Catholicism was of concern to many, but the fact that he had no son, Jamess attempt to relax the Penal Laws alienated his natural supporters, because the Tories viewed this as tantamount to disestablishment of the Church of England. The majority of Irish people backed James II for this reason, by allying himself with the Catholics and Nonconformists, James hoped to build a coalition that would advance Catholic emancipation. In May 1686, James decided to obtain from the English courts of the law a ruling that affirmed his power to dispense with Acts of Parliament. He dismissed judges who disagreed with him on this matter as well as the Solicitor General Heneage Finch, eleven out of the twelve judges ruled in favour of dispensing power
Virtual International Authority File
The Virtual International Authority File is an international authority file. It is a joint project of national libraries and operated by the Online Computer Library Center. The project was initiated by the US Library of Congress, the German National Library, the National Library of France joined the project on October 5,2007. The project transitions to a service of the OCLC on April 4,2012, the aim is to link the national authority files to a single virtual authority file. In this file, identical records from the different data sets are linked together, a VIAF record receives a standard data number, contains the primary see and see records from the original records, and refers to the original authority records. The data are available online and are available for research and data exchange. Reciprocal updating uses the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting protocol, the file numbers are being added to Wikipedia biographical articles and are incorporated into Wikidata. VIAFs clustering algorithm is run every month, as more data are added from participating libraries, clusters of authority records may coalesce or split, leading to some fluctuation in the VIAF identifier of certain authority records
Johan Joseph Zoffany, RA was a German neoclassical painter, active mainly in England. His works appear in many prominent British National galleries such as the National Gallery and his name is sometimes spelled Zoffani or Zauffelij. Of Bohemian origin, Johan Zoffany was born in Frankfurt on 13 March 1733 and he undertook an initial period of study in a sculptors workshop in Ellwangen in the 1740s and at Regensburg with the artist Martin Speer. In 1750, he travelled to Rome, entering the studio of Agostino Masucci, in autumn 1760 he arrived in England, initially finding work with the clockmaker Stephen Rimbault, painting vignettes for his clocks. He was popular with the Austrian Imperial family and in 1776 was created Baron by the Empress Maria Theresa, Johan Zoffany was a Freemason and was initiated into the Craft on 19 December 1763 at The Old Kings Lodge No 28. He was a master of what has called the theatrical conversation piece. Zoffany has been described by one critic as the real creator, in the part of his life, Zoffany was especially known for producing huge paintings with large casts of people and works of art, all readily recognizable by their contemporaries.
Though Zoffany made several visits to continental Europe and India in his lifetime, he remained in Britain and he is buried in the churchyard of St Annes Church, Kew. The painter Thomas Gainsborough was, by that artists own request, in the comic opera The Pirates of Penzance, by Gilbert and Sullivan, the Major-General brags of being able to distinguish works by Raphael from works by Gerard Dou and Zoffany. Zoffany lived in Lucknow for a time, during his return to England, the survivors held a lottery in which the loser was eaten. William Dalrymple thus describes Zoffany as having been the first and last Royal Academician to have become a cannibal. Despite the high profile the artist enjoyed in his day, as painter in London and Vienna, Zoffany has, until very recently. In 1920 Lady Victoria Manners and Dr. G. C. Williamson published John Zoffany, R. A. his life and works. 1735–1810 – the first in-depth study of the artist and his work, privately printed, presumably at some cost and this was followed by Johan Zoffany, 1733–1810, Mary Websters short but authoritative illustrated guide for the exhibition at the National Portrait Gallery, London.
In December 2009, the first full biography was published, Johan Zoffany, Artist, in 2011 Mary Webster published her long-awaited monograph on the artist, Johan Zoffany 1733–1810. A2014 book by David Wilson describes Zoffany’s relationship with Robert Sayer, in this way he helped to secure Zoffany’s international reputation. Sayer and the artist became longstanding friends as well as business associates, in 1781 Zoffany painted Robert Sayer in an important ‘conversation piece’. The Sayer Family of Richmond depicts Robert Sayer, his son, from his first marriage, on Sayer’s death in 1794 the house was to become the residence of a future king of Great Britain
Parliament of England
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England. Over the centuries, the English Parliament progressively limited the power of the English monarchy which arguably culminated in the English Civil War, the Act of Union 1707 merged the English Parliament with the Parliament of Scotland to form the Parliament of Great Britain. When the Parliament of Ireland was abolished in 1801, its members were merged into what was now called the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Under a monarchical system of government, monarchs usually must consult, early kings of England had no standing army or police, and so depended on the support of powerful subjects. The monarchy had agents in every part of the country, under the feudal system that evolved in England following the Norman Conquest of 1066, the laws of the Crown could not have been upheld without the support of the nobility and the clergy. The former had economic and military bases of their own through major ownership of land. The Church was virtually a law unto itself in this period as it had its own system of law courts.
In order to seek consultation and consent from the nobility and the clergy on major decisions. A typical Great Council would consist of archbishops, abbots and earls, when this system of consultation and consent broke down, it often became impossible for government to function effectively. The most prominent instances of prior to the reign of Henry III are the disagreements between Thomas Becket and Henry II and between King John and the barons. Becket, who served as Archbishop of Canterbury between 1162 and 1170, was murdered following a long running dispute with Henry II over the jurisdiction of the Church. John, who was king from 1199 to 1216, aroused such hostility from many leading noblemen that they forced him to agree to Magna Carta in 1215, johns refusal to adhere to this charter led to civil war. The Great Council evolved into the Parliament of England, the term itself came into use during the early 13th century, deriving from the Latin and French words for discussion and speaking.
The word first appears in documents in the 1230s. As a result of the work by historians G. O. Sayles and H. G. Richardson, during the 13th and 14th centuries, the kings began to call Knights of the Shire to meet when the monarch saw it as necessary. A notable example of this was in 1254 when sheriffs of counties were instructed to send Knights of the Shire to parliament to advise the king on finance, parliaments were mostly summoned when the king needed to raise money through taxes. Following the Magna Carta this became a convention and this was due in no small part to the fact that King John died in 1216 and was succeeded by his young son Henry III. Leading peers and clergy governed on Henrys behalf until he came of age, among other things, they made sure that Magna Carta would be reaffirmed by the young king
House of Lords
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, referred to ceremonially as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. Like the House of Commons, it meets in the Palace of Westminster, the full name of the house is, The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled. Unlike the elected House of Commons, all members of the House of Lords are appointed, the membership of the House of Lords is drawn from the peerage and is made up of Lords Spiritual and Lords Temporal. The Lords Spiritual are 26 bishops in the established Church of England, of the Lords Temporal, the majority are life peers who are appointed by the monarch on the advice of the Prime Minister, or on the advice of the House of Lords Appointments Commission. However, they include some hereditary peers including four dukes. Very few of these are female since most hereditary peerages can only be inherited by men, while the House of Commons has a defined 650-seat membership, the number of members in the House of Lords is not fixed.
There are currently 805 sitting Lords, the House of Lords is the only upper house of any bicameral parliament to be larger than its respective lower house. The House of Lords scrutinises bills that have approved by the House of Commons. It regularly reviews and amends Bills from the Commons, while it is unable to prevent Bills passing into law, except in certain limited circumstances, it can delay Bills and force the Commons to reconsider their decisions. In this capacity, the House of Lords acts as a check on the House of Commons that is independent from the electoral process, Bills can be introduced into either the House of Lords or the House of Commons. Members of the Lords may take on roles as government ministers, the House of Lords has its own support services, separate from the Commons, including the House of Lords Library. The Queens Speech is delivered in the House of Lords during the State Opening of Parliament, the House has a Church of England role, in that Church Measures must be tabled within the House by the Lords Spiritual.
This new parliament was, in effect, the continuation of the Parliament of England with the addition of 45 MPs and 16 Peers to represent Scotland, the Parliament of England developed from the Magnum Concilium, the Great Council that advised the King during medieval times. This royal council came to be composed of ecclesiastics, the first English Parliament is often considered to be the Model Parliament, which included archbishops, abbots, earls and representatives of the shires and boroughs of it. The power of Parliament grew slowly, fluctuating as the strength of the monarchy grew or declined, for example, during much of the reign of Edward II, the nobility was supreme, the Crown weak, and the shire and borough representatives entirely powerless. In 1569, the authority of Parliament was for the first time recognised not simply by custom or royal charter, further developments occurred during the reign of Edward IIs successor, Edward III. It was during this Kings reign that Parliament clearly separated into two chambers, the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
The authority of Parliament continued to grow, during the fifteenth century
Johnson was a devout Anglican and committed Tory, and is described by the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography as arguably the most distinguished man of letters in English history. He is the subject of perhaps the most famous biography in English literature, born in Lichfield, Johnson attended Pembroke College, Oxford for just over a year, before his lack of funds forced him to leave. After working as a teacher, he moved to London, where he began to write for The Gentlemans Magazine and his early works include the biography Life of Mr Richard Savage, the poems London and The Vanity of Human Wishes, and the play Irene. After nine years of work, Johnsons A Dictionary of the English Language was published in 1755 and it had a far-reaching effect on Modern English and has been described as one of the greatest single achievements of scholarship. This work brought Johnson popularity and success, until the completion of the Oxford English Dictionary 150 years later, Johnsons was viewed as the pre-eminent British dictionary.
His works included essays, an annotated edition of The Plays of William Shakespeare. In 1763, he befriended James Boswell, with whom he travelled to Scotland. Towards the end of his life, he produced the massive and influential Lives of the Most Eminent English Poets, Johnson was a tall and robust man. His odd gestures and tics were disconcerting to some on first meeting him, after a series of illnesses, he died on the evening of 13 December 1784, and was buried in Westminster Abbey. Born on 18 September 1709, to Michael Johnson, a bookseller and he did not cry and, with doubts surrounding the newborns health, his aunt exclaimed that she would not have picked such a poor creature up in the street. Since it was feared that the baby die, the vicar of St Marys was summoned to perform a baptism. Two godfathers were chosen, Samuel Swynfen, a physician and graduate of Pembroke College and Richard Wakefield, a lawyer, Johnsons health improved and he was put to wet-nurse with Joan Marklew. He soon contracted scrofula, known at time as the Kings Evil because it was thought royalty could cure it.
Sir John Floyer, former physician to King Charles II, recommended that the young Johnson should receive the royal touch, the ritual was ineffective, and an operation was performed that left him with permanent scars across his face and body. Johnson demonstrated signs of intelligence as a child, and his parents, to his disgust. His education began at the age of three, and was provided by his mother, who had him memorise and recite passages from the Book of Common Prayer. When Samuel turned four, he was sent to a nearby school, a year later, Johnson went to Lichfield Grammar School, where he excelled in Latin. During this time, Johnson started to exhibit the tics that would influence how people viewed him in his years
Felton Hervey was an aristocratic English politician from Bury St Edmunds in Suffolk, and a member of the British royal household. He took his son and daughter on a tour of Italy where he met Johann Zoffany. Hervey was born in 1712, he was the son of John Hervey. His mother, Elizabeth Felton, was the daughter and heir of Sir Thomas Felton, 4th Baronet and he was the second child to be called Felton, as an elder brother who had lived only a few weeks had been given that name. His elder brothers brief life and death are recorded in a painting conserved in the Rotunda, Ickworth House. He was educated at Bury St Edmunds Grammar School and expelled from Eton College, Hervey was Queen Carolines equerry from 1736-7, but he was dismissed for misconduct. However, from 1737 to 1756 he was the groom of the bedchamber to her child, Prince William. In 1754 Hervey stood for the House of Commons against the naval officer Augustus Hervey to whom he was related having quarrelled with Lord Bristol and he became one of the Members of Parliament for Bury St Edmunds in Surrey.
Hervey said that he was expecting a position by the Whig Prime Minister Henry Pelham, in 1756 Hervey resigned his position with the Duke of Cumberland citing the problems of travelling several times a year. Hervey was successful in being appointed to the sinecure post of Remembrancer to the Exchequer and he shared this post unusually with his son, who continued with the post after his fathers death. Hervey had married Dorothy, daughter of Solomon Ashley, of Westminster, MP and widow of Charles Pitfield of Hoxley, and together they had a son and three daughters. In September 1772 Hervey was in Florence with his uncle Colonel William Hervey, Hervey was portrayed among the virtuosi in the foreground of Johann Zoffanys painting Tribuna of the Uffizi. Hervey had an audience with the Pope in 1773 and died shortly after returning from Italy and he never saw the completed Zoffany painting, as it was not finished until 1777. In 1775 an auction was organised by Christies at his home in Bury St Edmunds of his considerable art collection.
Herveys son Lieutenant Felton Lionel Hervey, who had worked for the exchequer with him, was left the manor in Bury St Edmunds and his son committed suicide in a London gunsmiths
Writ of acceleration
The procedure of writs of acceleration was introduced by King Edward IV in the mid 15th century. It was a rare occurrence, and only 98 writs of acceleration were issued in over 400 years. He was summoned in his fathers barony of Baron Cecil of Essendon. The procedure of writs of acceleration was abolished through the House of Lords Act 1999, the heir apparent was not always summoned in his courtesy title, almost every person summoned to Parliament by virtue of a writ of acceleration was summoned in one of his father’s baronies. For example, William Cavendish, Marquess of Hartington, heir apparent of William Cavendish, an heir apparent receiving such a writ took the precedence within the House of Lords owing to the title accelerated. For example, when Viscount Cranborne was accelerated to the barony of Cecil, if an accelerated baron dies before his father, the barony passes to his heirs if any, else to his father. His son, the Earls grandson, was granted a writ of attendance to the Lords in the barony, Acceleration can affect the numbering of holders of peerages.
Suppose the first Earl Z and Baron X has two sons, and that the first son receives the barony by acceleration and dies childless before his father and his brother will eventually become second Earl Z but third Baron X. Two issues of writs of acceleration may be especially noted, in 1628 James Stanley, Lord Strange, heir apparent of William Stanley, 6th Earl of Derby, was summoned to the House of Lords in the ancient Barony of Strange, a title assumed by his father. However, the House of Lords decided that the sixth Earl’s assumption of the Barony of Strange had been erroneous, consequently, it was deemed that there were now two Baronies of Strange, the original one created in 1299 and the new one, created accidentally in 1628. Another noteworthy writ of acceleration was issued in 1717 to Charles Paulet, Marquess of Winchester, heir apparent of Charles Paulet and he was meant to be summoned in his fathers junior title of Baron St John of Basing, but was mistakenly summoned as Baron Pawlett of Basing.
This inadvertently created a new peerage, the Barony of Pawlett of Basing became extinct on his death, while the Dukedom was passed on to his younger brother, the fourth Duke. When it had decided that the eldest son of a peer should become a member of the House of Lords. For example, in 1832 Edward Smith-Stanley, Lord Stanley and heir apparent of Edward Smith-Stanley, 12th Earl of Derby, was given a new peerage as Baron Stanley, two years he succeeded his father in the Earldom. Eldest sons of peers who had not received a writ of acceleration or a new peerage were eligible to stand for election to the House of Commons. It was far more common for eldest sons of peers to sit in the House of Commons, before the 20th century, it was generally very easy for such men to find a constituency willing to elect them if they had any inclination for politics. Format for Writs in Acceleration and of Summons