Clifton College is a co-educational independent school in the suburb of Clifton in the city of Bristol in South West England, founded in 1862. In its early years it was notable for emphasising science rather than classics in the curriculum, for being less concerned with social elitism, e.g. by admitting day-boys on equal terms and providing a dedicated boarding house for Jewish boys, called Polacks. Having linked its General Studies classes with Badminton School, it admitted girls to the Sixth Form in 1987 and is now coeducational. Polacks house closed in 2005, it was at Clifton that the second-highest cricket score recorded was made by 13-year-old A. E. J. Collins in June 1899. Collins's 628 not out stood as the record score till January 2016 when Pranav Dhanawade, 15 years old, of Mumbai, scored 1009 in a school game. Collins was killed in World War I; the school was the headquarters of the US army in Britain for part of the Second World War. Clifton is one of the original 26 English public schools as defined by the Public Schools Yearbook of 1889.
The school takes boys and girls aged between 13 and 18. It has its own preparatory school, Clifton College Preparatory School, for children from 8 to 13 which adjoins the school and shares many of the same facilities. To distinguish it from the junior schools, Clifton College proper is referred to as the'Upper School'. There are around 720 children in the Upper School of. At the start of the 2004 – 2005 school year, a new boarding/day house for girls was opened. In 2005, the school was one of fifty of the country's leading private schools which were found guilty of running an illegal price-fixing cartel, exposed by The Times, which had allowed them to drive up fees for thousands of parents; each school was required to pay a nominal penalty of £10,000 and all agreed to make ex-gratia payments totalling three million pounds into a trust designed to benefit pupils who attended the schools during the period in respect of which fee information was shared. During World War II the heavy bombing of Bristol caused the students to be evacuated to Bude.
In February 1941 the buildings were used by the Royal Army Service Corps as an Officer Cadet Training Unit. In 1942 they were replaced by the United States Army who established it as the headquarters of V Corps and the First Army. Staff were involved in preparations for the Normandy landings under General Omar Bradley. After D-Day the college was taken over as headquarters of the Ninth Army under General William Hood Simpson. To enable rapid travel and communications between the headquarters and dispersed units extensive use was made of light aircraft for travel; some flights used Filton Airfield and others Whitchurch, however the majority were from the college's playing fields at Beggars Bush Field, between the college and Leigh Woods, turned into an airfield. Before 1987, Clifton was a boys-only school with three day-houses. In each of the current seven boarding Houses live the Housemaster or Housemistress and family, an Assistant and the Matron. In addition, each House has up to four non-residential Tutors.
Pupils wear ties with different coloured stripes according to their house membership. There are 12 houses in the Upper School of Clifton College, which have an order of precedence based on the date of their foundation. There are houses in Clifton College Preparatory School that are not listed below. Holland's house, a girls day house, was made in 2017 with colours white and navy. Several other houses have existed during the school's history. In WW2, while the school was evacuated to Bude, United House was created from pupils of houses placed in temporary abeyance. Dakyns' House and Brown's House were closed in 1993, Polack's House, which took Jewish boys only, was closed in 2005; these are listed below: In the decades after the school's foundation, with the exception of School House, the Houses were named after the Housemaster at the time, but in the late 19th century this pattern was abandoned, all Houses reverted to the name of their first Housemaster. This nomenclature convention was not however used for Hallward's House (founded in 2004 and named after a former Headmaster, Bertrand Hallward, nor for Worcester House.
When Dakyns' House and Brown's House were merged in September 1993, the original suggestion was to name the new establishment "Dakyns-Brown's House", but following a suggestion from a pupil, the name "Moberly's House" was chosen, commemorating the only teacher, involved in both of the antecedent establishments. The college buildings were designed by the architect Charles Hansom. Only the former was built and a small extra short wing was added in 1866 – this is what now contains the Marshal's office and the new staircase into Big School, it has been designated by English Heritage as a grade II listed building. Hansom was called back in the 1870s and asked to design what is now the Percival Library and the open-cloister classrooms; this project
Masterpiece, magnum opus or chef-d’œuvre in modern use is a creation, given much critical praise one, considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, profundity, or workmanship. A "masterpiece" was a work of a high standard produced to obtain membership of a guild or academy in various areas of the visual arts and crafts; the form masterstik is recorded in English or Scots in a set of Aberdeen guild regulations dated to 1579, whereas "masterpiece" is first found in 1605 outside a guild context, in a Ben Jonson play. "Masterprize" was another early variant in English. In English, the term became used in a variety of contexts for an exceptionally good piece of creative work, was "in early use applied to man as the'masterpiece' of God or Nature"; the term masterpiece referred to a piece of work produced by an apprentice or journeyman aspiring to become a master craftsman in the old European guild system. His fitness to qualify for guild membership was judged by the masterpiece, if he was successful, the piece was retained by the guild.
Great care was therefore taken to produce a fine piece in whatever the craft was, whether confectionery, goldsmithing, leatherworking, or many other trades. In London, in the 17th century, the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, for instance, required an apprentice to produce a masterpiece under their supervision at a "workhouse" in Goldsmiths' Hall; the workhouse had been set up as part of a tightening of standards after the company became concerned that the level of skill of goldsmithing was being diluted. The wardens of the company had complained in 1607 that the "true practise of the Art & Mystery of Goldsmithry is not only grown into great decays but dispersed into many parts, so as now few workmen are able to finish & perfect a piece of plate singularly with all the garnishings & parts thereof without the help of many & several hands...". The same goldsmithing organization still requires the production of a masterpiece but it is no longer produced under supervision. In Nuremberg, between 1531 and 1572, apprentices who wished to become master goldsmith were required to produce columbine cups, dice for a steel seal, gold rings set with precious stones before they could be admitted to the goldsmiths' guild.
If they failed to be admitted they could continue to work for other goldsmiths but not as a master themselves. In some guilds, apprentices were not allowed to marry. In its original meaning the term was restricted to tangible objects, but in some cases, where guilds covered the creators of intangible products, the same system was used; the best-known example today is Richard Wagner's opera Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg, where much of the plot is concerned with the hero's composition and performance of a "masterpiece" song, to allow him to become a meistersinger in the Nuremberg guild. This follows the surviving rulebook of the guild; the practice of producing a masterpiece has continued in some modern academies of art, where the general term for such works is now reception piece. The Royal Academy in London uses the term "diploma work" and it has acquired a fine collection of diploma works received as a condition of membership. In modern use, a masterpiece is a creation in any area of the arts, given much critical praise one, considered the greatest work of a person's career or to a work of outstanding creativity, profundity, or workmanship.
For example, the novel David Copperfield is considered by many as a masterpiece written by author Charles Dickens. Artistic merit Classic Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity Painting the Century: 101 Portrait Masterpieces 1900–2000 Virtual Collection of Masterpieces Western canon Masterpieces at the Louvre
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
University of Cambridge
The University of Cambridge is a collegiate public research university in Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a Royal Charter by King Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and the world's fourth-oldest surviving university; the university grew out of an association of scholars who left the University of Oxford after a dispute with the townspeople. The two'ancient universities' share many common features and are referred to jointly as'Oxbridge'; the history and influence of the University of Cambridge has made it one of the most prestigious universities in the world. Cambridge is formed from a variety of institutions which include 31 constituent Colleges and over 100 academic departments organised into six schools. Cambridge University Press, a department of the university, is the world's oldest publishing house and the second-largest university press in the world; the university operates eight cultural and scientific museums, including the Fitzwilliam Museum, as well as a botanic garden.
Cambridge's libraries hold a total of around 15 million books, eight million of which are in Cambridge University Library, a legal deposit library. In the fiscal year ending 31 July 2018, the university had a total income of £1.965 billion, of which £515.5 million was from research grants and contracts. In the financial year ending 2017, the central university and colleges had combined net assets of around £11.8 billion, the largest of any university in the country. However, the true extent of Cambridge's wealth is much higher as many colleges hold their historic main sites, which date as far back as the 13th century, at depreceated valuations. Furthermore, many of the wealthiest colleges do not account for “heritage assets” such as works of art, libraries or artefacts, whose value many college accounts describe as “immaterial”; the university is linked with the development of the high-tech business cluster known as'Silicon Fen'. It is a member of numerous associations and forms part of the'golden triangle' of English universities and Cambridge University Health Partners, an academic health science centre.
As of 2018, Cambridge is the top-ranked university in the United Kingdom according to all major league tables. As of September 2017, Cambridge is ranked the world's second best university by the Times Higher Education World University Rankings, is ranked 3rd worldwide by Academic Ranking of World Universities, 6th by QS, 7th by US News. According to the Times Higher Education ranking, no other institution in the world ranks in the top 10 for as many subjects; the university has educated many notable alumni, including eminent mathematicians, politicians, philosophers, writers and foreign Heads of State. As of March 2019, 118 Nobel Laureates, 11 Fields Medalists, 7 Turing Award winners and 15 British Prime Ministers have been affiliated with Cambridge as students, faculty or research staff. By the late 12th century, the Cambridge area had a scholarly and ecclesiastical reputation, due to monks from the nearby bishopric church of Ely. However, it was an incident at Oxford, most to have led to the establishment of the university: two Oxford scholars were hanged by the town authorities for the death of a woman, without consulting the ecclesiastical authorities, who would take precedence in such a case, but were at that time in conflict with King John.
The University of Oxford went into suspension in protest, most scholars moved to cities such as Paris and Cambridge. After the University of Oxford reformed several years enough scholars remained in Cambridge to form the nucleus of the new university. In order to claim precedence, it is common for Cambridge to trace its founding to the 1231 charter from King Henry III granting it the right to discipline its own members and an exemption from some taxes. A bull in 1233 from Pope Gregory IX gave graduates from Cambridge the right to teach "everywhere in Christendom". After Cambridge was described as a studium generale in a letter from Pope Nicholas IV in 1290, confirmed as such in a bull by Pope John XXII in 1318, it became common for researchers from other European medieval universities to visit Cambridge to study or to give lecture courses; the colleges at the University of Cambridge were an incidental feature of the system. No college is as old as the university itself; the colleges were endowed fellowships of scholars.
There were institutions without endowments, called hostels. The hostels were absorbed by the colleges over the centuries, but they have left some traces, such as the name of Garret Hostel Lane. Hugh Balsham, Bishop of Ely, founded Peterhouse, Cambridge's first college, in 1284. Many colleges were founded during the 14th and 15th centuries, but colleges continued to be established until modern times, although there was a gap of 204 years between the founding of Sidney Sussex in 1596 and that of Downing in 1800; the most established college is Robinson, built in the late 1970s. However, Homerton College only achieved full university college status in March 2010, making it the newest full college. In medieval times, many colleges were founded so that their members would pray for the souls of the founders, were associated with chapels or abbeys; the colleges' focus changed in 1536 with the Dissolution of the Monasteries. King Henry VIII ordered the university to disband its Faculty of Canon Law and to stop teaching "scholastic philosophy".
In response, colleges changed
Lionel Charles Robbins, Baron Robbins, was a British economist, prominent member of the economics department at the London School of Economics. He is known for his leadership at LSE, his proposed definition of economics, for his instrumental efforts in shifting Anglo-Saxon economics from its Marshallian direction, he is famous for the quote, "Humans want what they can't have." Robbins was born in west of London, the son of Rowland Richard and Rosa Marion Robbins. His father was a farmer and was a member of Middlesex county council. Robbins' sister Caroline was a noted Professor of History. Robbins was educated at Southall county school, his university education began at University College London, but was interrupted by the First World War. He served in the Royal Field Artillery as an officer between 1916 and 1918, when he was wounded and returned home, he became interested in guild socialism and resumed his studies at the London School of Economics, where he studied with Harold Laski, Edwin Cannan and Hugh Dalton.
Robbins is famous for his definition of economics: "Economics is the science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses."A follower of William Stanley Jevons and Philip Wicksteed, he was influenced by the Continental European economists: Léon Walras, Vilfredo Pareto, Eugen von Böhm-Bawerk, Friedrich von Wieser and Knut Wicksell. Robbins succeeded Allyn Young in the chair of the London School of Economics in 1929. Among his first appointments was Friedrich A. Hayek, who bred a new generation of English-speaking "continentals" such as John Hicks, Nicholas Kaldor, Abba Lerner and Tibor Scitovsky. Frank Knight was an American influence on Robbins. Robbins was familiar with the work of economists in Continental Europe. Robbins became involved in the socialist calculation debate on the side of Ludwig von Mises and Friedrich Hayek, against Abba Lerner, Fred Taylor, Oscar Lange. Robbins was opposed to Keynes's General Theory, his 1934 treatise on the Great Depression is an analysis of that period.
Robbins saw his London School of Economics as a bulwark against Cambridge, whether it was populated by Marshallians or Keynesians. However, he was to accept the need for government intervention. Robbins' 1966 Chichele lecture on the accumulation of capital and work on Smithian economics, The Theory of Economic Policy in English Classical Political Economy, have been described as imprecise. Although the ascendancy of the London School of Economics is foremost among Robbins' legacies, he was a free market economist, greatly responsible for the modern British university system—having advocated in the Robbins Report its massive expansion in the 1960s, he became the first Chancellor of the new University of Stirling in 1968. He advocated massive government support for the arts, in addition to universities. In the latter part of his life, Robbins turned to the history of economic thought, publishing various classic studies on English doctrinal history. Robbins' L. S. E. Lectures, as he gave them in 1980, have been published posthumously.
Robbins was appointed a Companion of the Order of the Bath in the 1944 Birthday Honours. On 16 June 1959 he was created a life peer as Baron Robbins, of Clare Market in the City of Westminster. Robbins received an Honorary Doctorate from Heriot-Watt University in 1967. In the 1968 New Year Honours Lord Robbins was appointed a Companion of Honour; the Lionel Robbins Building at the London School of Economics is named after him. Robbins' early essays were combative in spirit, stressing the metal economicbeyond what Anglo-Saxon economics had been used to, he wrote a famous 1932 essay on economic methodology. His work on costs brought Wieser's "alternative cost" theorem of supply to England, his critique of the Marshallian theory of the representative firm, his critique of the Pigovian, influenced the end of the Marshallian empire. In his Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science, Adam Smith made his Continental credentials clear, he redefined the scope of economics to be "the science which studies human behavior as a relationship between ends and scarce means which have alternative uses", a definition, still used today.
He has undoubtedly left an impressive legacy in the theory of economic science, the history of economic thought. "Principles Of Economics", 1923, "Economics" "Dynamics of Capitalism", 1926, Economica. "The Optimum Theory of Population", 1927, in Gregory and Dalton, London Essays in Economics. "The Representative Firm", 1928, EJ. "On a Certain Ambiguity in the Conception of Stationary Equilibrium", 1930, EJ. Essay on the Nature and Significance of Economic Science, 1932. Download "Remarks on the Relationship between Economics and Psychology", 1934, Manchester School. "Remarks on Some Aspects of the Theory of Costs", 1934, EJ. The Great Depression, 1934. Scroll to chapter-preview links. "The Place of Jevons in the History of Economic Thought", 1936, Manchester School. Economic Planning and International Order, 1937. Macmillan, London. "Interpersonal Comparisons of Utility: A Comment", 1938, EJ. The Economic Causes of War, 1939. Download The Economic Problem in Peace and War, 1947; the Theory of Economic Policy in English Classical Political Economy, 1952.
Robert Torrens and the Evolution of Classical Economics, 1958. Politics and Economics, 1963; the University in the Modern World, 1966. The Theory of Economic Development in the History of Economic Thought, 1
The Cotswolds is an area in south central England comprising the Cotswold Hills, a range of rolling hills that rise from the meadows of the upper Thames to an escarpment, known as the Cotswold Edge, above the Severn Valley and Evesham Vale. The area is defined by the bedrock of Jurassic limestone that creates a type of grassland habitat rare in the UK and, quarried for the golden-coloured Cotswold stone, it contains unique features derived from the use of this mineral. Designated as an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty in 1966, the Cotswolds covers 787 square miles and is the second largest protected landscape in England and the largest AONB, its boundaries are 25 miles across and 90 miles long, stretching south-west from just south of Stratford-upon-Avon to just south of Bath. It lies across the boundaries of several English counties; the highest point of the region is Cleeve Hill at 1,083 ft, just east of Cheltenham. The hills give their name to the Cotswold local-government district, formed on 1 April 1974, which administers over half of the area.
Most of the District is in the county of Gloucestershire. The main town is Cirencester and the Cotswold District Council offices are located in that community; the population of the 450-square-mile District was about 83,000 in 2011. The much larger area referred to as the Cotswolds encompasses nearly 800 square miles, over five counties: Gloucestershire, Warwickshire and Worcestershire; the population of the Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty was 139,000 in 2016. There is evidence of Neolithic settlement from burial chambers on Cotswold Edge, there are remains of Bronze and Iron Age forts; the Romans built villas, such as at Chedworth, settlements such as Gloucester, paved the Celtic path known as Fosse Way. During the Middle Ages, thanks to the breed of sheep known as the Cotswold Lion, the Cotswolds became prosperous from the wool trade with the continent, with much of the money made from wool directed towards the building of churches; the most successful era for the wool trade was 1250–1350.
The area still preserves numerous large, handsome Cotswold Stone "wool churches". The affluent area in the 21st century has attracted wealthy Londoners and others who own second homes there or have chosen to retire to the Cotswolds; the name Cotswold is popularly attributed the meaning "sheep enclosure in rolling hillsides", incorporating the term, meaning hills. Compare the Weald from the Saxon/German word Wald meaning'forest'. However, the English Place-Name Society has for many years accepted that the term Cotswold is derived from Codesuualt of the 12th century or other variations on this form, the etymology of, given,'Cod's-wold', which is'Cod's high open land'. Cod was interpreted as an Old English personal name, which may be recognised in further names: Cutsdean and Codesbyrig, some of which date back to the eighth century AD, it has subsequently been noticed that "Cod" could derive philologically from a Brittonic female cognate "Cuda", a hypothetical mother goddess in Celtic mythology postulated to have been worshipped in the Cotswold region.
The spine of the Cotswolds runs southwest to northeast through six counties Gloucestershire, west Oxfordshire and south western Warwickshire. The northern and western edges of the Cotswolds are marked by steep escarpments down to the Severn valley and the Warwickshire Avon; this feature, known as the Cotswold escarpment, or sometimes the Cotswold Edge, is a result of the uplifting of the limestone layer, exposing its broken edge. This is a cuesta, in geological terms; the dip slope is to the southeast. On the eastern boundary lies the city of Oxford and on the west is Stroud. To the southeast, the upper reaches of the Thames Valley and towns such as Lechlade and Fairford are considered to mark the limit of this region. To the south the Cotswolds, with the characteristic uplift of the Cotswold Edge, reach beyond Bath, towns such as Chipping Sodbury and Marshfield share elements of Cotswold character; the area is characterised by attractive small towns and villages built of the underlying Cotswold stone.
This limestone is rich in fossils of fossilised sea urchins. Cotswold towns include Bourton-on-the-Water, Burford, Chipping Norton, Dursley, Moreton-in-Marsh, Northleach, Stow-on-the-Wold, Stroud and Winchcombe. Bath, Cirencester, Gloucester and Swindon are larger urban centres that border on, or are surrounded by, the Cotswold AONB; the town of Chipping Campden is notable for being the home of the Arts and Crafts movement, founded by William Morris at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries. William Morris lived in Broadway Tower, a folly, now part of a country park. Chipping Campden is known for the annual Cotswold Olimpick Games, a celebration of sports and games dating back to the early 17th century; the nearly 800 square miles of the Cotswolds 80% farmlands, contains over 3,000 miles of footpaths and bridleways. There are 4,000 miles of historic stone walls. A 2017 report on employment within the Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty, stated that the main sources of income were real estate, rentin