Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia
Princess Frederica Charlotte of Prussia was the only daughter of Frederick William II of Prussia and his first wife Elisabeth Christine of Brunswick-Lüneburg. She was Duchess of York and Albany following her marriage to Prince Frederick, Duke of York, Frederica Charlotte was born in Charlottenburg, on 7 May 1767. She was the child of her parents, whose union was extremely unhappy due to their mutual infidelities. After several affairs with musicians and officers, Fredericas mother, the Crown Princess, she planned to escape from Prussia with her lover, but she was betrayed and captured, causing a public scandal. After a divorce was granted, Elisabeth Christine was placed under house arrest in the castle of Stettin. On 29 September 1791 at Charlottenburg Palace, she married Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, there was a second marriage ceremony at Buckingham House on 23 November. The new Duchess of York received a welcome in London. The marriage was, not a one, and by 1794, it had become apparent that the Duke.
The couple separated and the Duchess retired to Oatlands Park and their relationship after separation appears to have been amicable, but there was never any question of reconciliation. High-stakes gambling is reported to have taken place at Oatlands, Frederica kept many dogs and was apparently very devoted to monkeys Her father-in-law once remarked, Affection must rest on something, and where there are no children, animals are the object. At her death, her spouse is described as sincerely grieved and she died, on 6 August 1820, in Oatlands Park, Surrey, England and is commemorated by a monument, erected by the people of Weybridge, that stands on Monument Green, Weybridge
In 1790, she received a medal from the Society of Arts. Born in Birmingham in 1755, Mary Linwood moved to Leicester in 1764 with her family after her father and he died young and her mother opened a private boarding school for young ladies in Belgrave Gate. When her mother died Mary took over the school and continued it for 50 years, Mary made her first embroidered picture when she was thirteen years old, and by 1775 had established herself as a needlework artist. By the age of 31, Mary had attracted the attention of the royal family, for nearly seventy-five years Mary worked in worsted embroidery, producing a collection of over 100 pictures that specialised in full size copies of old masters. She opened an exhibition in the Hanover Square Rooms in 1798, Mary Linwoods copies of old master paintings in crewel wool, in which the irregular and sloping stitches resembled brushwork, achieved great fame from the time of her first London exhibition in 1787. She met most of the heads of Europe. She exhibited in Russia and Catherine the Great offered £40,000 for the collection while the Tsar offered her £3,000 for one example.
However, Mary refused as she wished her work to remain in England, on one occasion her copy of a painting by the Italian artist Salvator Rosa sold for more than the original. One of Marys own designs, the Judgement of Cain, took ten years to complete and her exhibition in Leicester Square, was the first art show to be illuminated by gaslight. The exhibition consisted of copies of paintings after such masters as Carlo Dolci, Ruisdael, Morland, Marys subjects included Lady Jane Grey and Napoleon, whose portrait was said to have been done from life. He conferred on Mary the Freedom of Paris in 1803, so successful was Mary Linwood that she was able to commission John Hoppner to paint the portrait on this page. By this time Hoppner was principal painter to the Prince of Wales, John Constables first commissioned work was to paint the background details in one of her works. Mary is said to have refused an offer of 3000 guineas for her version of Carlo Dolcis Salvator Mundi, the needle work pictures continued to be exhibited in Leicester square in London continuously for forty years.
And now, in letters on all the dead walls of this dead town, I read thy honoured name. The run-down building had been leased to Mary Linwood and associates at the turn of the century and it was subsequently rebuilt and refurbished from 1806 -1809 by architect Joseph Page. Linwood displayed her work in a gallery on the first floor from 1809 until her death in 1845. A legal dispute regarding the payment for renovations became a long battle. The House decided the case against Mary and her partners, who were ordered to pay Page, in 1865, Savile House was destroyed by fire
Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet, FRSE was a Scottish historical novelist and poet. Many of his works remain classics of both English-language literature and of Scottish literature, famous titles include Ivanhoe, Rob Roy, Old Mortality, The Lady of the Lake, The Heart of Midlothian and The Bride of Lammermoor. A prominent member of the Tory establishment in Edinburgh, Scott was an member of the Highland Society. He survived a bout of polio in 1773 that left him lame. To cure his lameness he was sent in 1773 to live in the rural Scottish Borders at his grandparents farm at Sandyknowe, adjacent to the ruin of Smailholm Tower. Here he was taught to read by his aunt Jenny, and learned from her the speech patterns and many of the tales and legends that characterised much of his work. In January 1775 he returned to Edinburgh, and that went with his aunt Jenny to take spa treatment at Bath in England. In the winter of 1776 he went back to Sandyknowe, with another attempt at a cure at Prestonpans during the following summer.
In 1778, Scott returned to Edinburgh for private education to him for school. In October 1779 he began at the Royal High School of Edinburgh and he was now well able to walk and explore the city and the surrounding countryside. His reading included chivalric romances, poems and travel books and he was given private tuition by James Mitchell in arithmetic and writing, and learned from him the history of the Church of Scotland with emphasis on the Covenanters. Scott began studying classics at the University of Edinburgh in November 1783, at the age of 12, in March 1786 he began an apprenticeship in his fathers office to become a Writer to the Signet. While at the university Scott had become a friend of Adam Ferguson, Scott met the blind poet Thomas Blacklock, who lent him books and introduced him to James Macphersons Ossian cycle of poems. During the winter of 1786–87 the 15-year-old Scott saw Robert Burns at one of these salons, for what was to be their only meeting. When Burns noticed a print illustrating the poem The Justice of the Peace and asked who had written the poem, only Scott knew that it was by John Langhorne, and was thanked by Burns.
When it was decided that he would become a lawyer, he returned to the university to study law, first taking classes in Moral Philosophy, after completing his studies in law, he became a lawyer in Edinburgh. As a lawyers clerk he made his first visit to the Scottish Highlands directing an eviction and he was admitted to the Faculty of Advocates in 1792. He had an unsuccessful love suit with Williamina Belsches of Fettercairn, as a boy and young man, Scott was fascinated by the oral traditions of the Scottish Borders
Patience Lovell Wright was the first recognized American-born sculptor. She chiefly created wax figures of people and she loved to write poetry and was a painter. Patience Lovell was born at Oyster Bay, New York, into a Quaker farm family with a vegetarian diet, the family moved to Bordentown, New Jersey when Patience was four years old. At age 16 she left the home and moved to Philadelphia, where in 1748 she married Joseph Wright. For years she had amused herself and her children by molding faces out of putty, bread dough and she had an energetic wildness when she worked for she loved the work she did. By 1770, Patience and Rachel had become successful enough to open a house in Philadelphia. The Manhattan outpost, on Queen Street, was the successful of the two, but when fire ravaged the block in June 1771, all of Wright’s work was destroyed. After the fire on Manhattan Outpost she decided to relocate to London to pursue her trade there and she had acquired the public support of Benjamin Franklin through her acquaintance with his sister, Jane Mecom.
Armed with a letter of introduction from Franklin, she was accepted into London society, although her unorthodox comportment. She sculpted wax figures of both loyalist and patriots, according to some books, she became a spy for the cause, sending information overheard from her subjects on how the British were preparing for the war to America inside her wax figures. When Wright was constructing sculptures of Patriot sympathizers, she didnt want anyone who may inform the King to know, so if she had visitors while constructing an the sculptures she would hide the bust underneath her apron and try to distract her visitor by engaging in a conversation. Wrights sculpture of friend William Pitt still stands in Westminster Abbey Museum, other notable subjects she modeled included Lord Lyttelton, Thomas Penn, Admiral Richard Howe, and Charles James Fox. Some of Wrights supporters include Benjamin Franklin, Deborah Sampson, the King and Queen of England, after the War of Independence turned to open rebellion, Wrights trade decreased dramatically.
Her name, seen often in London newspapers, is no more after 1776. Her access to British royalty became restricted, especially after she scolded the king and queen after the battles of Lexington. By 1780 she was out of work, so she relocated to Paris and she made another bust of Franklin, and tried to work her way into Parisian society, but was largely unsuccessful. She returned to London in 1782 and began writing to American notables including George Washington and Thomas Jefferson, no evidence exists that they returned her correspondence. By 1785 she had determined to return to New Jersey, however, as she was making preparations to travel, she suffered a bad fall, and broke her leg
East India Company
The company ruled the beginnings of the British Empire in India. The company received a Royal Charter from Queen Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600, wealthy merchants and aristocrats owned the Companys shares. Initially the government owned no shares and had only indirect control, during its first century of operation the focus of the Company was trade, not the building of an empire in India. The company eventually came to rule large areas of India with its own armies, exercising military power. Despite frequent government intervention, the company had recurring problems with its finances, the official government machinery of British India had assumed its governmental functions and absorbed its armies. Soon after the defeat of the Spanish Armada in 1588, London merchants presented a petition to Queen Elizabeth I for permission to sail to the Indian Ocean, one of them, Edward Bonventure, sailed around Cape Comorin to the Malay Peninsula and returned to England in 1594. In 1596, three ships sailed east, these were all lost at sea.
Two days later, on 24 September, the Adventurers reconvened and resolved to apply to the Queen for support of the project, the Adventurers convened again a year later. For a period of fifteen years the charter awarded the newly formed company a monopoly on trade with all countries east of the Cape of Good Hope and west of the Straits of Magellan. Anybody who traded in breach of the charter without a licence from the Company was liable to forfeiture of their ships and cargo, the governance of the company was in the hands of one governor and 24 directors or committees, who made up the Court of Directors. They, in turn, reported to the Court of Proprietors, ten committees reported to the Court of Directors. According to tradition, business was transacted at the Nags Head Inn, opposite St Botolphs church in Bishopsgate. Sir James Lancaster commanded the first East India Company voyage in 1601, in March 1604 Sir Henry Middleton commanded the second voyage. Early in 1608 Alexander Sharpeigh was appointed captain of the Companys Ascension, thereafter two ships and Union sailed from Woolwich on 14 March 1607–8.
Initially, the company struggled in the trade because of the competition from the already well-established Dutch East India Company. The company opened a factory in Bantam on the first voyage, the factory in Bantam was closed in 1683. During this time belonging to the company arriving in India docked at Surat. In the next two years, the company established its first factory in south India in the town of Machilipatnam on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany
The Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany KG GMB GCH, a member of the House of Hanover, was the second son and child of King George III, King of Great Britain and Ireland and Elector of Hanover. However, he died before his brother, Prince Frederick Augustus, or the Duke of York as he became in life, belonged to the House of Hanover. He was born on 16 August 1763, at St. Jamess Palace and his father was the reigning British monarch, King George III. On 27 February 1764, when Prince Frederick was six months old and he received this title because his father, as Elector of Hanover, was entitled to select every other holder of this. He was invested as Knight of the Most Honourable Order of the Bath on 30 December 1767, George III decided that his second son would pursue an army career and had him gazetted colonel on 4 November 1780. From 1781 to 1787, Prince Frederick lived in Hanover, where he studied at the University of Göttingen and he was appointed colonel of the 2nd Horse Grenadier Guards on 26 March 1782 before being promoted to major-general on 20 November 1782.
Promoted to lieutenant general on 27 October 1784, he was appointed colonel of the Coldstream Guards on 28 October 1784 and he was created Duke of York and Albany and Earl of Ulster on 27 November 1784 and became a member of the Privy Council. He retained the bishopric of Osnabrück until 1803, when, in the course of the preceding the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire. On 26 May 1789 he took part in a duel with Colonel Charles Lennox, who had insulted him, Lennox missed, on 12 April 1793 Frederick was promoted to full general. That year, he was sent to Flanders in command of the British contingent of Coburgs army destined for the invasion of France and his command fought in the Flanders Campaign under extremely trying conditions. He won several engagements, such as the Siege of Valenciennes in July 1793. In the 1794 campaign he was successful at the Battle of Willems in May but was defeated at the Battle of Tourcoing that month, the British army was evacuated through Bremen in April 1795.
After his return to Britain, his father George III promoted him to the rank of field marshal on 18 February 1795, on 3 April 1795, George appointed him effective Commander-in-Chief in succession to Lord Amherst although the title was not confirmed until three years later. He was colonel of the 60th Regiment of Foot from 19 August 1797 and his second field command was with the army sent for the Anglo-Russian invasion of Holland in August 1799. On 7 September 1799, he was given the title of Captain-General. Sir Ralph Abercromby and Admiral Sir Charles Mitchell, in charge of the vanguard, had succeeded in capturing some Dutch warships in Den Helder. However, following the Dukes arrival with the body of the army. On 17 October 1799, the Duke signed the Convention of Alkmaar,1799 saw Fort Frederick in South Africa named after him
Whitechapel is a district in the East End of London, England, in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Because the area is close to the London Docklands and east of the city, it has been a place for immigrants. The area was the centre of the London Jewish community in the 19th and early 20th century, in the latter half of the 20th century, Whitechapel became a significant settlement for the British Bangladeshi community, particularly on Whitechapel Road and Brick Lane. Whitechapels heart is Whitechapel High Street, extending further east as Whitechapel Road, the churchs earliest known rector was Hugh de Fulbourne in 1329. Around 1338, it became the church of Whitechapel, for unknown reasons. The church was destroyed through enemy action in World War II and its location, Whitechapel High Street and Whitechapel Road are now part of the A11 road, anciently the initial part of the Roman road between the City of London and Colchester, exiting the city at Aldgate. In times, travellers to and from London on this route were accommodated at the coaching inns which lined Whitechapel High Street.
By the late 16th century, the suburb of Whitechapel and the area had started becoming the other half of London. Located east of Aldgate, outside the City Walls and beyond official controls, it attracted the less fragrant activities of the city, particularly tanneries, breweries and slaughterhouses. In 1680, the Rector of Whitechapel, the Rev. Ralph Davenant, William Booth began his Christian Revival Society, preaching the gospel in a tent, erected in the Friends Burial Ground, Thomas Street, Whitechapel, in 1865. Others joined his Christian Mission, and on 7 August 1878 the Salvation Army was formed at a meeting held at 272 Whitechapel Road, a statue commemorates both his mission and his work in helping the poor. In the Victorian era the population of poor English country stock was swelled by immigrants from all over. Writing of the period 1883–1884, Yiddish theatre actor Jacob Adler wrote, The further we penetrated into this Whitechapel, never in Russia, never in the worst slums of New York, were we to see such poverty as in the London of the 1880s.
This endemic poverty drove women to prostitution. In October 1888 the Metropolitan Police estimated that there were 1,200 prostitutes of very low class resident in Whitechapel, reference is specifically made to them in Charles Booths Life and Labour of the People in London, specially to dwellings called Blackwall Buildings belonging to Blackwall Railway. Such prostitutes were numbered amongst the 11 Whitechapel murders, some of which were committed by the serial killer known as Jack the Ripper. Riis had recently documented the astoundingly bad conditions in large swaths of the city of the United States. London, a socialist, thought it worthwhile to explore conditions in the city of the nation that had invented modern capitalism
Sir Thomas Lawrence PRA FRS was a leading English portrait painter and the fourth president of the Royal Academy. He was born in Bristol and began drawing in Devizes, where his father was an innkeeper, at the age of ten, having moved to Bath, he was supporting his family with his pastel portraits. At eighteen he went to London and soon established his reputation as a painter in oils, receiving his first royal commission. He stayed at the top of his profession until his death, aged 60, self-taught, he was a brilliant draughtsman and known for his gift of capturing a likeness, as well as his virtuoso handling of paint. He became an associate of the Royal Academy in 1791, a member in 1794. Lawrences love affairs were not happy and, in spite of his success, at his death, Lawrence was the most fashionable portrait painter in Europe. His reputation waned during Victorian times, but has since been partially restored, Thomas Lawrence was born at 6 Redcross Street, the youngest surviving child of Thomas Lawrence, a supervisor of excise, and Lucy Read, the daughter of a clergyman.
The couple had 16 children but only five survived infancy, Lawrences brother Andrew became a clergyman, William had a career in the army, sisters Lucy and Anne married a solicitor and a clergyman. Soon after Thomas was born his father decided to become an innkeeper and took over the White Lion Inn and next-door American Coffee House in Broad Street, Bristol. It was during the familys stay at the Black Bear Inn that Lawrence senior began to make use of his sons precocious talents for drawing and reciting poetry. Visitors would be greeted with the words Gentlemen, heres my son – will you have him recite from the poets, among those who listened to a recitation from Tom, or Tommy as he was called, was the actor David Garrick. Lawrences formal schooling was limited to two years at The Fort, a school in Bristol, when he was aged six to eight, and he became accomplished in dancing, fencing and billiards. But once again Lawrence senior failed as a landlord and, in 1779, he was declared bankrupt, from now on, Lawrence was to support his parents with the money he earned from his portraits.
The family settled at 2 Alfred Street in Bath, and the young Lawrence established himself as a portraitist in pastels, the oval portraits, for which he was soon charging three guineas, were about 12 inches by 10 inches, and usually portrayed a half-length. His sitters included the Duchess of Devonshire, Sarah Siddons, Sir Henry Harpur, Warren Hastings, sometime before his eighteenth birthday in 1787 Lawrence arrived in London, taking lodgings in Leicester Square, near to Joshua Reynolds studio. He was introduced to Reynolds, who advised him to study nature, Lawrence set up a studio at 41 Jermyn Street and installed his parents in a house in Greek Street. In the Royal Academy exhibition of 1788 Lawrence was represented by five portraits in pastels and one in oils, a medium he quickly mastered. Between 1787 and his death in 1830 he would miss two of the annual exhibitions, once,1809, in protest about the way his paintings had been displayed and once, in 1819
Sir George Beaumont, 7th Baronet
Sir George Howland Beaumont, 7th Baronet was a British art patron and amateur painter. He played a part in the creation of Londons National Gallery by making the first bequest of paintings to that institution. Beaumont was educated at Eton College, where he was taught drawing by the landscape painter Alexander Cozens. The first paintings to enter Beaumonts collection were by artists he knew, on his return he began to assemble a collection of Old Master paintings despite his relatively modest means. In 1785 Lady Beaumont inherited the lease of 34 Grosvenor Square and this circle expanded when Beaumont became Tory MP for Beer Alston in Devon from 1790 to 1796, but his enthusiasm for politics was short-lived and he soon returned to his artistic pursuits. A picture gallery was added to the house in 1792 to accommodate their growing art collection, the Beaumonts went on frequent sketching tours of the Lake District and of North Wales, necessitated by Sir Georges having caught a fever during his Grand Tour.
For their Welsh excursions they rented Benarth, a house near Conwy, Coleorton was to become Beaumonts main place of residence, and was rebuilt to a design by George Dance the Younger from 1804 to 1808. A friend of the Lake Poets, with whom he considered himself a kindred spirit, Beaumont lent out the farm of the estate to William Wordsworth and his family in the winter of 1806. They were briefly joined there by Samuel Taylor Coleridge, but Beaumont was unable to establish the same rapport with this poet as with Wordsworth, despite his openness for romantic poetry, Beaumont was less receptive of new developments in painting. A staunch defender of the ethos of Sir Joshua Reynolds, he was one of J. M. W. Turners most vehement critics. This oppressive stance on matters of taste was to him the epithet of supreme Dictator on Works of Art from his old friend Thomas Hearne. Nonetheless, Beaumont did welcome some sympathetic artists, including the young John Constable, the most famous fruit of Beaumonts patronage is the Constables painting of the cenotaph erected to Reynolds in the grounds at Coleorton.
The publication in 1815–16 of a series of satirical Catalogues Raisonnés, probably by Robert Smirke, ridiculed Beaumont for his conservatism, after which he retired from public life to Coleorton. A visit to Italy in 1821 in which he met Antonio Canova restored his morale, and while there he bought the Taddei Tondo by Michelangelo and this last stay in Italy convinced him of the need to educate British taste by establishing a public gallery of Old Masters. Angersteins collection came up for sale in 1824 and Parliament, spurred on by Beaumonts offer, the National Gallery opened to the public in May 1824 in Angersteins former house on Pall Mall, and Beaumonts paintings entered its collection the following year. After suffering an illness, Sir George Beaumont died in Coleorton Hall on 7 February 1827. He was buried in Coleorton church, some paintings by his own hand have entered the New Walk Museum and Art Gallery in Leicester, while the rest remain in the Beaumont family collection. His title was inherited by his cousin George Howland Willoughby Beaumont, D.
Blayney Brown, Sir George, Grove Dictionary of Art
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington
His defeat of Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo in 1815 put him in the top rank of Britains military heroes. Wellesley was born in Dublin, belonging to the Protestant Ascendancy in Ireland and he was commissioned as an ensign in the British Army in 1787, serving in Ireland as aide-de-camp to two successive Lords Lieutenant of Ireland. He was elected as a Member of Parliament in the Irish House of Commons and he was a colonel by 1796, and saw action in the Netherlands and in India, where he fought in the Fourth Anglo-Mysore War at the Battle of Seringapatam. He was appointed governor of Seringapatam and Mysore in 1799 and, as a newly appointed major-general, following Napoleons exile in 1814, he served as the ambassador to France and was granted a dukedom. During the Hundred Days in 1815, he commanded the army which defeated Napoleon at Waterloo. Wellesleys battle record is exemplary, he participated in some 60 battles during the course of his military career. Wellington is famous for his defensive style of warfare, resulting in several victories against numerically superior forces while minimising his own losses.
He is regarded as one of the greatest defensive commanders of all time, after ending his active military career, Wellington returned to politics. He was twice British prime minister as part of the Tory party, from 1828 to 1830 and he oversaw the passage of the Catholic Relief Act 1829, but opposed the Reform Act 1832. He continued as one of the figures in the House of Lords until his retirement. As such, he belonged to the Protestant Ascendancy and his biographers mostly follow the contemporary newspaper evidence in saying that he was born 1 May 1769, the day that he was baptised. He was most likely born at his parents townhouse,24 Upper Merrion Street, but his mother Anne, Countess of Mornington, recalled in 1815 that he had been born at 6 Merrion Street, Dublin. He spent most of his childhood at his familys two homes, the first a house in Dublin and the second Dangan Castle,3 miles north of Summerhill on the Trim Road in County Meath. In 1781, Arthurs father died and his eldest brother Richard inherited his fathers earldom and he went to the diocesan school in Trim when at Dangan, Mr Whytes Academy when in Dublin, and Browns School in Chelsea when in London.
He enrolled at Eton, where he studied from 1781 to 1784, Eton had no playing fields at the time. In 1785, a lack of success at Eton, combined with a shortage of funds due to his fathers death, forced the young Wellesley. Until his early twenties, Arthur showed little sign of distinction and his mother grew concerned at his idleness, stating. A year later, Arthur enrolled in the French Royal Academy of Equitation in Angers, where he progressed significantly, becoming a good horseman and learning French, upon returning to England in late 1786, he astonished his mother with his improvement
A figure drawing is a drawing of the human form in any of its various shapes and postures using any of the drawing media. The term can refer to the act of producing such a drawing. The degree of representation may range from detailed, anatomically correct renderings to loose. A life drawing is a drawing of the figure from observation of a live model. A figure drawing may be a work of art or a figure study done in preparation for a more finished work such as a painting. Figure drawing is arguably the most difficult subject an artist commonly encounters, the human figure is one of the most enduring themes in the visual arts, and the human figure can be the basis of portraiture, sculpture, medical illustration, and other fields. Artists take a variety of approaches to drawing the human figure and they may draw from live models or from photographs, from skeletal models, or from memory and imagination. Most instruction focuses on the use of models in life drawing courses, in developing the image, some artists focus on the shapes created by the interplay of light and dark values on the surfaces of the body.
For those working without visual reference, proportions commonly recommended in figure drawing are and this can be illustrated to students in the classroom using paper plates to visually demonstrate the length of their bodies. An ideal figure, used for an impression of nobility or grace, is drawn at 8 heads tall, a heroic figure used in the depiction of gods and superheroes is eight-and-a-half heads tall. Most of the length comes from a bigger chest and longer legs. Note that these proportions are most useful for a standing model, poses which introduce foreshortening of various body parts will cause them to differ. The French Salon in the 19th century recommended the use of Conté crayons, erasure was not permitted, the artist was expected to describe the figure in light strokes before making darker, more visible marks. A popular modern technique is the use of a stick, prepared from special vines. The charcoal adheres loosely to the paper, allowing very easy erasure, harder compressed charcoal can produce a more deliberate and precise effect, and graduated tones can be produced by smudging with the fingers or with a cylindrical paper tool called a stump.
Graphite pencil is used for figure drawing. For this purpose artists pencils are sold in formulations, ranging from 9B to 1B. Like charcoal, it can be erased and manipulated using a stump, the artist will often start with graphite pencil to sketch or outline the drawing, the final line work is done with a pen or brush, with permanent ink