Goodison Park is a football stadium in Walton, England, home to Premier League club Everton since its completion in 1892. The stadium is in a residential area two miles from Liverpool city centre, it has an all-seated capacity of 39,572. Goodison Park has hosted more top-flight games than any other stadium in England as Everton have remained in the top tier of English football since 1954; the club has only been outside the top division for four seasons, having been relegated in 1930 and 1951. As well as hosting Everton games, the stadium has been the venue for an FA Cup Final and numerous international fixtures, including several in the 1966 World Cup. Everton played on an open pitch in the south-east corner of the newly laid out Stanley Park; the first official match took place in 1879. In 1882, a Mr J. Cruit donated land at Priory Road with the necessary facilities required for professional clubs. Cruit asked the club to leave his land after two years because the crowds became far too large and noisy.
Everton moved to a site where proper covered stands were built. Everton played at the Anfield ground from 1884 until 1892. During this time the club entered teams in the FA Cup, they became founding members of the Football League and won their first championship at the ground in 1890–91. Anfield's capacity grew to over 20,000 and the club hosted an international match between England and Ireland. During their time at Anfield, Everton became the first club to introduce goalnets to professional football. In the 1890s, a dispute about how the club was to be owned and run emerged with John Houlding, Anfield's majority owner and Everton's Chairman, at the forefront. Houlding and the club's committee disagreed about the full purchase of the land at Anfield from minor land owner Mr Orrell escalating into a principled disagreement of how the club was run. Two such disagreements included Houlding wanting Everton to sell only his brewery produce during an event and for the Everton players to use his public house The Sandon as changing room facilities.
The most famous of the disagreements concerns the level of increased rent Everton were asked to pay. In 1889, Everton paid £100 to Houlding in rent and by the 1889–90 season he was charging Everton £250. Everton stands; the dispute escalated to a rent of £370 per year being demanded. In the complicated lead up to the split in the club, the rent dispute is too simplistic to be singled out as the prime cause; the dispute was compounded by many minor disputed points. The flashpoint was a covenant in the contract of land purchase by Houlding from Orrell causing further and deep friction. A strip of land at the Anfield ground bordering the adjacent land owned by Mr Orrell, could be used to provide a right of way access road for Orrell's landlocked vacant site. In early 1891 the club erected a stand on this now proposed roadway, overlapping Orrell's land, unbeknown to the Everton F. C. Committee. In August 1891 Orrell announced intentions of developing his land next to the football ground and building an access road on the land owned by Houlding and occupied by Everton F.
C. Everton F. C. stated they knew nothing of the covenant, Houlding stated. This situation created great distrust and friction between Houlding and the Everton F. C. Committee; the rift and distrust between the committee and Houlding was on three levels, Houlding's personal business intentions and morally. The club faced a dilemma of having to destroy the new revenue generating stand or compensate Orrell. Houlding's way around the problem was to propose a limited company with floatation of the club enabling the club to purchase Houlding's and Orrell's land outright, hoping to raise £12,000. Previous attempts to raise money from the community had failed miserably; this would have meant. The Everton Committee accepted Houlding's proposal in principle, yet voted against it at a meeting. After much negotiating and brinkmanship on both sides Everton vacated Anfield, leaving Houlding with an empty stadium and no one to play in it; as a consequence, Houlding formed his own football club, Liverpool, to take up residence at the stadium.
The clubs themselves have differing versions of events of. Houlding explained why this situation arose in a match programme against Cliftonville in April 1893, he pointed out. If the club had gone bust he would have lost it all. Despite making no profit in this respect, the issue that upset the members at Everton most was his plan to sell Anfield and the land adjoining, with Houlding himself profiting, he felt. Houlding, as the ambitious businessman he was, saw a great future for the club, he wanted the club to have its own home ground and wanted them to buy land so the club could expand in due course. Most of the Everton FC board members failed to share his forward thinking and lacked confidence, they wanted instead a long term rent deal on all the land, but for this to be acceptable to Houlding, he wanted a rent at a price considered too high for the Club. The members reacted to that by "offering" Houlding less rent. Houlding unsurprisingly refused to accept this stating that he did not want to be dictated: "I cannot understand why a gentleman that has done so much for the club and its members should be given such treatment".
During their spell at Anfield, John Houlding decided to charge the Club rent based on the increase o
The Loyal Orange Institution, more known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal order based in Northern Ireland. It has lodges in the Republic of Ireland, a Grand Orange Lodge in the Scottish Lowlands and other lodges throughout the Commonwealth, as well as in the United States and Togo; the Orange Order was founded in County Armagh in 1795, during a period of Protestant–Catholic sectarian conflict, as a Masonic-style fraternity sworn to maintain the Protestant Ascendancy. It is headed by the Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland, established in 1798, its name is a tribute to the Dutch-born Protestant king William of Orange, who defeated the army of Catholic king James II in the Williamite–Jacobite War. Its members are referred to as Orangemen; the order is best known for its yearly marches, the biggest of which are held around 12 July. The Orange Order is a conservative British unionist organisation with links to Ulster loyalism, it campaigned against Scottish independence in 2014. The Order sees itself as defending Protestant civil and religious liberties, whilst critics accuse the Order of being sectarian and supremacist.
As a strict Protestant society, it does not accept non-Protestants as members unless they convert and adhere to the principles of Orangeism, nor does it accept Protestants married to Catholics. Although most Orange marches are without incident, marches through Catholic and Irish nationalist neighbourhoods are controversial and have led to violence; the Orange Institution commemorates the civil and religious privileges conferred on Protestants by William of Orange, the Dutch prince who became King of England and Ireland in the Glorious Revolution of 1688. In particular, the Institution remembers the victories of William III and his forces in Ireland in the early 1690s the Battle of the Boyne. Since the 1690s commemorations—state-sponsored and those held by the lower classes—had been held throughout Ireland celebrating key dates in the Williamite War such as the Battle of Aughrim, Battle of the Boyne, Siege of Derry and the second Siege of Limerick; these followed a tradition started in Elizabethan England of celebrating key events in the Protestant calendar.
By the 1740s there were organisations holding parades in Dublin such as the Boyne Club and the Protestant Society, both seen as forerunners to the Orange Order. Throughout the 1780s, sectarian tension had been building in County Armagh due to the relaxation of the Penal Laws. Here the number of Protestants and Catholics were of equal number, competition between them to rent patches of land near markets was fierce. Drunken brawls between rival gangs had by 1786 become sectarian; these gangs reorganised as the Protestant Peep o' Day Boys and the Catholic Defenders, with the next decade in County Armagh marked by fierce sectarian conflict between both groups, which escalated and spread into neighbouring counties. In September 1795, at a crossroads known as "The Diamond" near Loughgall and Protestant Peep o' Day Boys gathered to fight each other; this initial stand-off ended without battle when the priest that accompanied the Defenders persuaded them to seek a truce, after a group called the "Bleary Boys" came from County Down to reinforce the Peep o' Day Boys.
When a contingent of Defenders from County Tyrone arrived on 21 September, they were "determined to fight". The Peep o' Day Boys regrouped and opened fire on the Defenders. According to William Blacker, the battle was short and the Defenders suffered "not less than thirty" deaths. After the battle had ended, the Peep o' Days marched into Loughgall, in the house of James Sloan they founded the Orange Order, to be a Protestant defence association made up of lodges; the principal pledge of these lodges was to defend "the King and his heirs so long as he or they support the Protestant Ascendancy". At the start the Orange Order was a "parallel organisation" to the Defenders in that it was a secret oath-bound society that used passwords and signs. One of the few landed gentry that joined the Orange Order at the outset, William Blacker, was unhappy with some of the outcomes of the Battle of the Diamond, he says that a determination was expressed to "driving from this quarter of the county the entire of its Roman Catholic population", with notices posted warning them "to Hell or Connaught".
Other people were warned by notices not to inform on local Orangemen or "I will Blow your Soul to the Low hils of Hell And Burn the House you are in". Within two months, 7,000 Catholics had been driven out of County Armagh. According to Lord Gosford, the governor of Armagh: It is no secret that a persecution is now raging in this country... the only crime is... profession of the Roman Catholic faith. Lawless banditti have constituted themselves judges... and the sentence they have denounced... is nothing less than a confiscation of all property, an immediate banishment. A former Grand Master of the Order called William Blacker, a former County Grand Master of Belfast, Robert Hugh Wallace have questioned this statement, saying whoever the Governor believed were the "lawless banditti", they could not have been Orangemen as there were no lodges in existence at the time of his speech. According to historian Jim Smyth:Later apologists rather implausibly deny any connection between the Peep-o'-Day Boys and the first Orangemen or less plausibly, between the Orangemen and the mass wrecking of Catholic cottages in Armagh in the months following'the Diamond' – all of them, acknowledge the movement's lower class origins.
The Order's three main founders were James Wils
Everton is a district in Liverpool, in Merseyside, a Liverpool City Council ward. In Lancashire, at the 2001 Census the population was recorded as 7,398, increasing to 14,782 at the 2011 Census; the name Everton is derived from the Saxon word eofor. Everton is an inner-city area located just north of Liverpool city centre, with Vauxhall to the west, Kirkdale to the north, Anfield to the north-east; the Liverpool entrance to the Kingsway Tunnel is located near the boundaries of this area. Everton consists of more modern terraced homes, is statistically one of the most deprived areas of the city. Everton is an ancient settlement and, like Liverpool, was one of the six unnamed berewicks of West Derby; until the late 18th century Everton was a small rural parish of Walton-on-the-Hill, but the rise in wealth of nearby Liverpool pushed its wealthier merchants towards Everton and further afield to live. By the early 19th century Liverpool's demand for housing saw. Much of the land in Everton was once owned by the local Hodson family.
Along with neighbouring Vauxhall, Everton housed a large Irish population. Sectarianism was one negative consequence of religious differences with tensions between Catholics and Protestants existing well into the 20th century. St Domingo Road in Everton was the intended site for the building of the Metropolitan Cathedral, but this was abandoned owing to financial constraints; the cathedral was located in the city centre near to the southern edge of Everton. Urban clearance during the 1960s and 1970s, followed by the creation of Everton Park, changed the face of the area and some parts have never recovered; the population has plummeted by over 100,000 since the 1960s. The landscape of Everton is now non-urban with the loss of so many people and many hundreds of buildings.'Project Jennifer' is a scheme to breathe new life into rundown parts of Everton centred on Great Homer Street including a revamped'Greaty' market. However the project has suffered numerous setbacks; the NSPCC Hargreaves Centre was opened in May 2007 on the site of the former indoor market.
William Connolly, soldier Thomas de Quincey, 19th century author Bill Dean, Liverpool actor Gordon Elliot, Australian journalist and talk-show host William Gawin Herdman and painter Paul Aloysius Kenna, cavalry officer and VC recipient Paul McCartney, musician George Mahon, an Everton F. C. founding father Prince Rupert of the Rhine, soldier Robert Tressell, author Robb Wilton, English comedian and actorThe book Her Benny by Silas Hocking was set in Everton and dealt with child poverty in the early 1900s. Everton Lock-Up Everton Road drill hall, TA Centre used by the 9th Kings during the Second Boer War and the First World War Everton water tower, listed building St George's Church, Everton Everton Library The football club Everton F. C. is named after the area. The district is the location of a building on the club's crest, Everton Lock-Up, known locally as Prince Rupert's Tower. Barker and Dobson, a local sweet manufacturer, introduced'Everton Mints' to honour Everton Football Club. Everton F.
C. has never played in the area. Its first three homes were located including Stanley Park. In addition, Everton Cemetery is not located in Everton, it lies further north-east in the district of Fazakerley; the football club Liverpool F. C. was founded as'Everton Football Club and Athletic Ground Company, Ltd', or'Everton Athletic', on 26 January 1892, as a consequence of the Everton F. C. split that resulted in Everton F. C.'s move to Goodison Park in 1892. The former Evertonians who founded'Everton Athletic' to play at Anfield renamed the club'Liverpool F. C.' on 3 June 1892. Beacon Church of England Primary Campion Catholic High School Notre Dame Catholic College Our Lady Immaculate Catholic Primary Whitefield Primary School Liverpool City Council, Ward Profile: Everton Liverpool Record Office Online Catalogue for Everton Liverpool Street Gallery - Liverpool 3 Liverpool Street Gallery - Liverpool 5 Liverpool Street Gallery - Liverpool 6 Evening images from Everton Brow photo of Congregational chapel, Netherfield Road, Everton
George Mahon (Everton F.C. chairman)
George Mahon was a founding father and former chairman of Everton Football Club. George Mahon was born in Liverpool, England, on 7 July 1853, he was baptised at St. Anne Richmond Church of England Liverpool on 14 August 1853, his parents, Robert Mahon and Harriet Bates, were Irish. The Mahons came to Liverpool from Dublin, where Robert and his father were shoemakers; the family moved back to Dublin when George was about three years old and they lived in Ireland for nearly a decade. They lived in Wicklow Street later in Pitt Street. In 1858 Robert was elected to the Office of Beadle of Dawson Street, his election was supported by his brother-in-law, Edward Bates, sexton of the church at the time. Robert's duties were to attend to the churchwardens, look after deserted children, provide coffins for the poor and other parochial business; the Mahons returned to Liverpool in the mid 1860s and after working as a shoemaker, Robert got a job as a book keeper. His son George went into a similar profession and became a senior partner in Roose, Mahon & Howorth, a leading accountancy firm.
In 1875 George Mahon married Margaret Fyfe at St. Peter's Church, Sackville Street, Everton; the marriage record shows that at the time of his marriage George was working as a cashier and living at 108 Field Street in Everton. Although the Mahon family had links to the established church, the family's burial practices and chapel attendance in Liverpool suggest that they were Nonconformists. By 1879 George Mahon was attending the Great Homer Street Wesleyan Chapel in Everton where he provided musical accompaniment to the choir playing an American organ. Mahon delivered a lecture entitled "An Hour with Nature's Little Things" for the Anfield Wesleyan Literary Society in their chapel's lecture hall on 18 March 1887; the lecture was illustrated through the medium of a lantern microscope showing insects and pond life and was much appreciated by a large audience. In 1887 Mahon stood as a candidate in the St. Simon and St. Jude's Ward and was elected to the Walton Local Board, he was elected chairman of the board.
Mahon was a member of Walton Liberal Association and supported the Liberal Party's campaign to grant Home Rule for Ireland. He reorganized the district body after the defection of Liberal Unionists who were opposed to Gladstone's proposed solution to the Irish Question. George Mahon was a key figure in the history of a football team formed at another Everton chapel. Reverend Ben Swift Chambers, minister of St. Domingo Methodist New Connexion Chapel, encouraged young members of his congregation to play cricket. Members took up football to provide a team sport for them to play during winter. Formed in 1878 as St. Domingo FC, named after the location of the chapel on the corner of Breckfield Road North and St. Domingo Vale, the football team was renamed Everton in 1879 after the district of Everton. Mahon became involved with the team after watching them play Preston North End in May 1886. Due to the rising rental costs of Everton's home ground Anfield, Mahon was key to the decision to move to Mere Green, which became known as Goodison Park.
At a Special General Meeting convened in the college on Shaw Street on 25 January 1892, Mahon talked about the need for a new ground. A heckler shouted, "Yer can't find one!" and Mahon famously responded, "I've got one in my pocket." Mahon became the club's chairman in 1892 and was responsible for overseeing Everton's move from Anfield to Goodison Park and the creation of Everton Football Club Company Ltd. He remained a board member after resigning from the post of chairman in 1895 and returned as chairman before retiring from the position in May 1908. George Mahon website
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients. The degrees of Freemasonry retain the three grades of medieval craft guilds, those of Apprentice, Journeyman or fellow, Master Mason; the candidate of these three degrees is progressively taught the meanings of the symbols of Freemasonry, entrusted with grips and words to signify to other members that he has been so initiated. The initiations are part allegorical morality part lecture; the three degrees are offered by Craft Freemasonry. Members of these organisations are known as Masons. There are additional degrees, which vary with locality and jurisdiction, are administered by their own bodies; the basic, local organisational unit of Freemasonry is the Lodge. The Lodges are supervised and governed at the regional level by a Grand Lodge or Grand Orient.
There is no worldwide Grand Lodge that supervises all of Freemasonry. Modern Freemasonry broadly consists of two main recognition groups. Regular Freemasonry insists that a volume of scripture is open in a working lodge, that every member profess belief in a Supreme Being, that no women are admitted, that the discussion of religion and politics is banned. Continental Freemasonry is now the general term for the jurisdictions which have removed some, or all, of these restrictions; the Masonic lodge is the basic organisational unit of Freemasonry. The Lodge meets to conduct the usual formal business of any small organisation. In addition to business, the meeting may perform a ceremony to confer a Masonic degree or receive a lecture, on some aspect of Masonic history or ritual. At the conclusion of the meeting, the Lodge might adjourn for a formal dinner, or festive board, sometimes involving toasting and song; the bulk of Masonic ritual consists of degree ceremonies. Candidates for Freemasonry are progressively initiated into Freemasonry, first in the degree of Entered Apprentice.
Some time in a separate ceremony, they will be passed to the degree of Fellowcraft, they will be raised to the degree of Master Mason. In all of these ceremonies, the candidate is entrusted with passwords and grips peculiar to his new rank. Another ceremony is officers of the Lodge. In some jurisdictions Installed Master is valued as a separate rank, with its own secrets to distinguish its members. In other jurisdictions, the grade is not recognised, no inner ceremony conveys new secrets during the installation of a new Master of the Lodge. Most Lodges have some sort of social calendar, allowing Masons and their partners to meet in a less ritualised environment. Coupled with these events is the obligation placed on every Mason to contribute to charity; this occurs at both Grand Lodge level. Masonic charities contribute to many fields, such as disaster relief; these private local Lodges form the backbone of Freemasonry, a Freemason will have been initiated into one of these. There exist specialist Lodges where Masons meet to celebrate events, such as sport or Masonic research.
The rank of Master Mason entitles a Freemason to explore Masonry further through other degrees, administered separately from the Craft, or "Blue Lodge" degrees described here, but having a similar format to their meetings. There is little consistency in Freemasonry; because each Masonic jurisdiction is independent, each sets its own procedures. The wording of the ritual, the number of officers present, the layout of the meeting room, etc. varies from jurisdiction to jurisdiction. The officers of the Lodge are appointed annually; every Masonic Lodge has two Wardens, a secretary and a treasurer. There is a Tyler, or outer guard, always present outside the door of a working Lodge. Other offices vary between jurisdictions; each Masonic Lodge exists and operates according to a set of ancient principles known as the Landmarks of Freemasonry. These principles have thus far eluded any universally accepted definition. Candidates for Freemasonry will have met most active members of the Lodge they are joining before they are initiated.
The process varies between jurisdictions, but the candidate will have been introduced by a friend at a Lodge social function, or at some form of open evening in the Lodge. In modern times, interested people track down a local Lodge through the Internet; the onus is on candidates to ask to join. Once the initial inquiry is made, an interview follows to determine the candidate's suitability. If the candidate decides to proceed from here, the Lodge ballots on the application before he can be accepted; the absolute minimum requirement of any body of Freemasons is that the candidate must be free, considered to be of good character. There is an age requirement, varying between Grand Lodges, capable of being overridden by a dispensation from the Grand Lodge; the underlying assumption is that the candidate should
Everton Football Club is a football club in Liverpool, that competes in the Premier League, the top flight of English football. The club have competed in the top division for a record 116 seasons, missing the top division only four times since The Football League was created in 1888. Everton have won 15 major trophies: the League Championship nine times, the FA Cup five times and the UEFA Cup Winners Cup once. Formed in 1878, Everton were founding members of The Football League in 1888 and won their first League Championship two seasons later. Following four League Championship and two FA Cup wins, Everton experienced a lull in the immediate post World War Two period, until a revival in the 1960s, which saw the club win two League Championships and an FA Cup; the mid-1980s represented their most recent period of sustained success, with two League Championships, an FA Cup, the 1985 European Cup Winners' Cup. The club's most recent major trophy was the 1995 FA Cup; the club's supporters are known as Evertonians.
Everton have a rivalry with neighbours Liverpool, the two sides contest the Merseyside derby. The club has been based at Goodison Park in Walton, since 1892, after moving from Anfield following a row over its rent; the club's home colours are royal blue shirts with white socks. Everton were founded as St Domingo FC in 1878 so that members of the congregation of St Domingo Methodist New Connexion Chapel in Breckfield Road North, Everton could play sport year round – cricket was played in summer; the club's first game was a 1–0 victory over Everton Church Club. The club was renamed Everton in November 1879 after the local area, as people outside the congregation wished to participate; the club was a founding member of the Football League in 1888–89 and won their first League Championship title in the 1890–91 season. Everton won the FA Cup for the first time in 1906 and the League Championship again in 1914–15; the outbreak of the First World War in 1914 interrupted the football programme while Everton were champions, something that would again occur in 1939.
It was not until 1927. In 1925 the club signed Dixie Dean from Tranmere Rovers. In 1927–28, Dean set the record for top-flight league goals in a single season with 60 goals in 39 league games, a record that still stands, he helped. However, Everton were relegated to the Second Division two years during internal turmoil at the club; the club rebounded and was promoted at the first attempt, while scoring a record number of goals in the Second Division. On return to the top flight in 1931–32, Everton wasted no time in reaffirming their status and won a fourth League Championship at the first opportunity. Everton won their second FA Cup in 1933 with a 3–0 win against Manchester City in the final; the era ended in 1938–39 with a fifth League Championship. The outbreak of the Second World War again saw the suspension of league football, when official competition resumed in 1946, the Everton team had been split up and paled in comparison to the pre-war team. Everton were relegated for the second time in 1950–51 and did not earn promotion until 1953–54, when they finished as runners-up in their third season in the Second Division.
The club have been a top-flight presence since. Everton's second successful era started when Harry Catterick was made manager in 1961. In 1962–63, his second season in charge, Everton won the League Championship. In 1966 the club won the FA Cup with a 3–2 win over Sheffield Wednesday. Everton again reached the final in 1968, but this time were unable to overcome West Bromwich Albion at Wembley. Two seasons in 1969–70, Everton won the League Championship, finishing nine points clear of nearest rivals Leeds United. During this period, Everton were the first English club to achieve five consecutive years in European competitions – covering the seasons from 1961–62 to 1966–67. However, the success did not last. Harry Catterick retired, but his successors failed to win any silverware for the remainder of the 1970s despite finishing fourth in 1974–75 under manager Billy Bingham, third in 1977–78 and fourth the following season under manager Gordon Lee. Lee was sacked in 1981. Howard Kendall guided Everton to their most successful era.
Domestically, Everton won the FA Cup in 1984 and two League Championships in 1984–85 and 1986–87. In Europe, the club won its first, so far only, European trophy by securing the European Cup Winners' Cup in 1985; the European success came after first beating University College Dublin, Inter Bratislava and Fortuna Sittard. Everton defeated German giants Bayern Munich 3–1 in the semi-finals, despite trailing at half time, recorded the same scoreline over Austrian club Rapid Vienna in the final. Having won both the League and Cup Winners' Cup in 1985, Everton came close to winning a treble, but lost to Manchester United in the FA Cup final; the following season, 1985–86, Everton were runners-up to neighbours Liverpool in both the League and the FA Cup, but did recapture the League Championship in 1986–87. After the Heysel Stadium disaster and the subsequent ban of all English clubs from continental football, Everton lost the chance to compete for more European trophies. A large proportion of the title-winning side was broken up following the ban.
Kendall himself moved to Athletic Bilbao after the 1987 title triumph and was succeeded by assistant Colin Harvey. Harvey took Everton to the 1989 FA Cup Fi
Association football, more known as football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spherical ball between two teams of eleven players. It is played by 250 million players in over 200 countries and dependencies, making it the world's most popular sport; the game is played on a rectangular field called a pitch with a goal at each end. The object of the game is to score by moving the ball beyond the goal line into the opposing goal. Association football is one of a family of football codes, which emerged from various ball games played worldwide since antiquity; the modern game traces its origins to 1863 when the Laws of the Game were codified in England by The Football Association. Players are not allowed to touch the ball with hands or arms while it is in play, except for the goalkeepers within the penalty area. Other players use their feet to strike or pass the ball, but may use any other part of their body except the hands and the arms; the team that scores most goals by the end of the match wins.
If the score is level at the end of the game, either a draw is declared or the game goes into extra time or a penalty shootout depending on the format of the competition. Association football is governed internationally by the International Federation of Association Football, which organises World Cups for both men and women every four years; the rules of association football were codified in England by the Football Association in 1863 and the name association football was coined to distinguish the game from the other forms of football played at the time rugby football. The first written "reference to the inflated ball used in the game" was in the mid-14th century: "Þe heued fro þe body went, Als it were a foteballe"; the Online Etymology Dictionary states that the "rules of the game" were made in 1848, before the "split off in 1863". The term soccer comes from a slang or jocular abbreviation of the word "association", with the suffix "-er" appended to it; the word soccer was first recorded in 1889 in the earlier form of socca.
Within the English-speaking world, association football is now called "football" in the United Kingdom and "soccer" in Canada and the United States. People in countries where other codes of football are prevalent may use either term, although national associations in Australia and New Zealand now use "football" for the formal name. According to FIFA, the Chinese competitive game cuju is the earliest form of football for which there is evidence. Cuju players could use any part of the body apart from hands and the intent was kicking a ball through an opening into a net, it was remarkably similar to modern football. During the Han Dynasty, cuju games were standardised and rules were established. Phaininda and episkyros were Greek ball games. An image of an episkyros player depicted in low relief on a vase at the National Archaeological Museum of Athens appears on the UEFA European Championship Cup. Athenaeus, writing in 228 AD, referenced the Roman ball game harpastum. Phaininda and harpastum were played involving hands and violence.
They all appear to have resembled rugby football and volleyball more than what is recognizable as modern football. As with pre-codified "mob football", the antecedent of all modern football codes, these three games involved more handling the ball than kicking. Other games included kemari in chuk-guk in Korea. Association football in itself does not have a classical history. Notwithstanding any similarities to other ball games played around the world FIFA has recognised that no historical connection exists with any game played in antiquity outside Europe; the modern rules of association football are based on the mid-19th century efforts to standardise the varying forms of football played in the public schools of England. The history of football in England dates back to at least the eighth century AD; the Cambridge Rules, first drawn up at Cambridge University in 1848, were influential in the development of subsequent codes, including association football. The Cambridge Rules were written at Trinity College, Cambridge, at a meeting attended by representatives from Eton, Rugby and Shrewsbury schools.
They were not universally adopted. During the 1850s, many clubs unconnected to schools or universities were formed throughout the English-speaking world, to play various forms of football; some came up with their own distinct codes of rules, most notably the Sheffield Football Club, formed by former public school pupils in 1857, which led to formation of a Sheffield FA in 1867. In 1862, John Charles Thring of Uppingham School devised an influential set of rules; these ongoing efforts contributed to the formation of The Football Association in 1863, which first met on the morning of 26 October 1863 at the Freemasons' Tavern in Great Queen Street, London. The only school to be represented on this occasion was Charterhouse; the Freemason's Tavern was the setting for five more meetings between October and December, which produced the first comprehensive set of rules. At the final meeting, the first FA treasurer, the representative from Blackheath, withdrew his club from the FA over the removal of two draft rules at the previous meeting: the first allowed for running with the ball in hand.
Other English rugby clubs followed this lead and did not join the FA and instead in 1871 formed the Rugby Football Union. The eleven remaining clubs, under