Joyous Entry of 1356
The Joyous Entry of 1356 is the charter of liberties granted to the burghers of the Duchy of Brabant by the newly-ascended Duchess Joanna and her husband Duke Wenceslaus. The document is dated 3 January 1356, it is seen as the equivalent of the Magna Carta for the Low Countries. In 1354, Duke John III summoned representatives of the cities of the duchy to Leuven to announce the marriage of his oldest daughter and heiress Joanna to Wenceslaus I, Duke of Luxembourg, offered them liberal concessions so as to secure their assent to the change of dynasty. John's death in 1355 sparked a succession crisis. In January 1356, Wenceslaus and Joanna signed the charter, drawn up and solemnly swore to uphold its provisions. Louis II, Count of Flanders, had married Joanna's younger sister Margaret and claimed Brabant in her right. Louis invaded Brabant and seized Brussels. By August 1356, the Brabantian document was a dead letter in practice, owing to the military occupation of Brabant by Louis. During the night of 24 October 1356, a group of Brabantian patriots led by Everard't Serclaes scaled the city walls and drove the Flemings from the city.
This enabled Joanna and Wenceslaus to make their joyous entry into Brussels, giving the document its name. The charter had not been new. A custom of "landcharters" originating in Brabant during the previous century, had produced the Charter of Kortenberg, granted by John II in 1312 and considered a Babantian Constitution, or the "Walloon Charter" of 1314; the six specific freedoms or "privileges" detailed powers granted to the church, the towns and some nobles, by means of which Duchess Joanna and Duke Wenceslaus could collect taxes. With the instrument, the dukes of Brabant undertook to maintain the indivisibility of the duchy, not to wage war, make treaties, or impose taxes without the consent of their subjects, as represented by the municipalities. All members of the duke's council were to be native-born Brabanters. On 5 April, Wenceslaus' half-brother Charles IV became Holy Roman Emperor; the following February, when Charles and Wenceslaus, representatives of the Brabantian towns all met at Maastricht: to satisfy the Luxembourg dynasty it was denigrated by all parties its chapter vii, which stipulated that the Duchess Joanna, if childless, should be succeeded by her natural heirs, her sisters.
Thus, it was by abrogation of the Joyous Entry of 1356 that the Habsburgs inherited Brabant. The defeat of Wenceslaus in 1371 was a victory for the towns over the feudal nobility, in supporting Joanna's grandnephew Anthony of Burgundy as duke, the towns wrung from him a new constitution or Inauguration Charter. What remained of the Joyous Entry charter would be referred to for centuries; the Joyous Entry of 1356 has been viewed an equivalent to the rechtsstaat in the Low Countries or the Magna Carta's establishment of a rule of law for England, the only other medieval document with claims to comprising a written basis of governance, in the other early successful example of a nation-state. In common with Magna Carta, its functioning significance was exaggerated by the Romantic historians of the 19th century. Annually the Dukes of Brabant pledged to adhere to the text in the document by making a ceremonial entry into the main cities of Brabant. In the midst of the Eighty Years' War in the Low Countries, a book was published with the Latin title Laetus introitus, with the view of reminding Philip II and his military commanders of the constitutional restraints of the Blijde Inkomst and giving heart to the insurgents in Brabant.
The ill-advised attempt of the 18th century Austrian Emperor Joseph II in his reforming zeal to abrogate the Joyous Entry caused a revolt in Brabant, before which he had to yield. This Joyous Entry charter was declared null and void when the Revolutionary French forces took possession of the Austrian Netherlands in 1794, it became one of the elements that formed the Belgian Constitution of 1831. Golden Bull of 1356 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Joyeuse Entrée". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15. Cambridge University Press. P. 529. Michiel Kaptein, 2001. "De Blijde Inkomst"
England is a country, part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to Scotland to the north-northwest; the Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south; the country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight. The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but takes its name from the Angles, a Germanic tribe deriving its name from the Anglia peninsula, who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in the 10th century, since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world; the English language, the Anglican Church, English law – the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world – developed in England, the country's parliamentary system of government has been adopted by other nations.
The Industrial Revolution began in 18th-century England, transforming its society into the world's first industrialised nation. England's terrain is chiefly low hills and plains in central and southern England. However, there is upland and mountainous terrain in the west; the capital is London, which has the largest metropolitan area in both the United Kingdom and the European Union. England's population of over 55 million comprises 84% of the population of the United Kingdom concentrated around London, the South East, conurbations in the Midlands, the North West, the North East, Yorkshire, which each developed as major industrial regions during the 19th century; the Kingdom of England – which after 1535 included Wales – ceased being a separate sovereign state on 1 May 1707, when the Acts of Union put into effect the terms agreed in the Treaty of Union the previous year, resulting in a political union with the Kingdom of Scotland to create the Kingdom of Great Britain. In 1801, Great Britain was united with the Kingdom of Ireland to become the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
In 1922 the Irish Free State seceded from the United Kingdom, leading to the latter being renamed the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. The name "England" is derived from the Old English name Englaland, which means "land of the Angles"; the Angles were one of the Germanic tribes that settled in Great Britain during the Early Middle Ages. The Angles came from the Anglia peninsula in the Bay of Kiel area of the Baltic Sea; the earliest recorded use of the term, as "Engla londe", is in the late-ninth-century translation into Old English of Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People. The term was used in a different sense to the modern one, meaning "the land inhabited by the English", it included English people in what is now south-east Scotland but was part of the English kingdom of Northumbria; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle recorded that the Domesday Book of 1086 covered the whole of England, meaning the English kingdom, but a few years the Chronicle stated that King Malcolm III went "out of Scotlande into Lothian in Englaland", thus using it in the more ancient sense.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, its modern spelling was first used in 1538. The earliest attested reference to the Angles occurs in the 1st-century work by Tacitus, Germania, in which the Latin word Anglii is used; the etymology of the tribal name itself is disputed by scholars. How and why a term derived from the name of a tribe, less significant than others, such as the Saxons, came to be used for the entire country and its people is not known, but it seems this is related to the custom of calling the Germanic people in Britain Angli Saxones or English Saxons to distinguish them from continental Saxons of Old Saxony between the Weser and Eider rivers in Northern Germany. In Scottish Gaelic, another language which developed on the island of Great Britain, the Saxon tribe gave their name to the word for England. An alternative name for England is Albion; the name Albion referred to the entire island of Great Britain. The nominally earliest record of the name appears in the Aristotelian Corpus the 4th-century BC De Mundo: "Beyond the Pillars of Hercules is the ocean that flows round the earth.
In it are two large islands called Britannia. But modern scholarly consensus ascribes De Mundo not to Aristotle but to Pseudo-Aristotle, i.e. it was written in the Graeco-Roman period or afterwards. The word Albion or insula Albionum has two possible origins, it either derives from a cognate of the Latin albus meaning white, a reference to the white cliffs of Dover or from the phrase the "island of the Albiones" in the now lost Massaliote Periplus, attested through Avienus' Ora Maritima to which the former served as a source. Albion is now applied to England in a more poetic capacity. Another romantic name for England is Loegria, related to the Welsh word for England and made popular by its use in Arthurian legend; the earliest known evidence of human presence in the area now known as England was that of Homo antecessor, dating to approximate
Saint-Quentin is a commune in the Aisne department in Hauts-de-France in northern France. It has been identified as the Augusta Veromanduorum of antiquity, it is named after Saint Quentin, said to have been martyred there in the 3rd century. Saint-Quentin is a sub-prefecture of Aisne. Although Saint-Quentin is by far the largest city in Aisne, the capital is the third-largest city, Laon; the mayor of Saint-Quentin is a member of the centre-right LR Party. The city was founded by the Romans, in the Augustean period, to replace the oppidum of Vermand as the capital of Viromandui, it received the name of Augusta Viromanduorum, Augusta of the Viromandui, in honor of the Emperor Augustus. The site is that of a ford across the River Somme. During the late Roman period, it is possible that the civitas capital was transferred back to Vermand. During the early Middle Ages, a major monastery, now the Basilica of Saint-Quentin, based on pilgrimage to the tomb of Quentin, a Roman Christian who came to evangelize the region and was martyred in Augusta, giving rise to a new town, named after him.
From the 9th century, Saint-Quentin was the capital of Vermandois County. From the 10th century, the counts of Vermandois were powerful; the city grew rapidly: the "bourgeois" organized themselves and obtained, in the second half of the 12th century, a municipal charter which guaranteed their commune a large degree of autonomy. At the beginning of the 13th century, Saint-Quentin entered the royal domain. At that time, it was a thriving city, based on its wool textile industry, it was a centre of commerce boosted by its position on the border of the kingdom of France, between the Champagne fairs and the cities of Flanders: it had an important annual fair. It benefited from its location in the heart of a rich agricultural region. From the 14th century, Saint-Quentin suffered from this strategic position: it endured the French-English wars. In the 15th century, the city was disputed between the dukes of Burgundy. Ravaged by the plague on several occasions, its population decreased, while its economy was in crisis: its fair was irrelevant, agricultural production diminished.
The declining textile industry turned to the production of flax canvas. Meanwhile, the city faced major expenses to maintain armed troops. Between the end of the 15th century and the mid-17th century, this strategic position was the cause of frequent misfortune. In 1557, a siege by the Spanish army ended with the looting of the city and its desertion for two years. Given back to France in 1559, it underwent intense fortification work: the medieval wall was protected by many new advanced fortifications, redesigned several times. Two districts were razed to make way for them. In the mid-17th century, the city escaped the sieges, but suffered the horrors of wars ravaging the Picardy region, accompanied by the plague and famine. In the second half of the 17th century, the conquests of Louis XIV took St Quentin away from the border, it lost much of its strategic role. At the end of the 16th century, its textile production specialized in fine flax canvas; this brought prosperity in the 18th century, when these textiles were exported across Europe and the Americas.
During the First French Empire, difficulties in the export market brought an economic decline. At the request of the municipality, Napoleon ordered the razing of the fortifications, to allow the city to grow beyond its old boundaries. In 1814-1815, Saint-Quentin without any damage. In the 19th century, St Quentin developed into a thriving industrial city, thanks to entrepreneurs on the lookout for new technologies. Textiles and mechanical products were foremost among a wide variety of products. In 1870, during the Franco-Prussian War, the population repelled the Prussians on October 8, but the city fell during the second offensive; that hopeless but heroic action had national repercussions: Saint-Quentin was decorated with the Legion of Honour. In 1871, on January 19, the French army was defeated near the town; the First World War hit St Quentin hard. In September 1914, the city was overrun, it endured a harsh occupation. From 1916, it lay at the heart of the war zone, because the Germans had integrated it into the Hindenburg Line.
After the evacuation of the population in March, the town was systematically looted and industrial equipment removed or destroyed. The fighting destroyed it: 80% of buildings were damaged. Despite national support, the reconstruction process was long, the city struggled to regain its pre-1914 dynamism; the 1911 population of 55,000 was achieved again only in the mid-1950s, in the context of general economic expansion. This prosperity continued until the mid-1970s, when the French textile industry began to suffer through competition from developing countries. La basilique hôtel de ville XIX°: l'hôtel de ville of Saint-Quentin, was built in 1509, in a gothic style, 173 sculptures. L'hôtel de ville of Saint-Quentin is famous for its peal of 37 bells. Ce monument abrite une superbe salle des mariages (plafond polychrome et cheminée de type renais
Tervuren is a municipality in the province of Flemish Brabant, in Flanders, Belgium. The municipality comprises the villages of Duisburg, Tervuren and Moorsel. On January 1, 2006, Tervuren had a total population of 20,636; the total area is 32.92 km², which gives it a population density of 627 inhabitants per km². The official language of Tervuren is Dutch. Local minorities consist of French speakers and nationals of many countries of the European Union, the USA, Canada; the reason for this diverse mix of nationalities is the presence of expatriate workers and their families working in and around Brussels either for the European Union, NATO or for multinational corporations. The British School of Brussels has been located in Tervuren since 1970. Tervuren is one of the richest municipalities in Belgium, it is linked to Brussels by a large processional avenue, built by king Leopold II for the Universal Exhibition of 1897. This interweaves with a combined commuter tramline; until 1959, Tervuren was served by an electric railway, whose disused terminus opposite the Royal Museum for Central Africa is now a pub named the Spoorloos Station.
For centuries people thought that Tervuren was the same place as "Fura", where Saint Hubert died in 727 AD. There is, however, no historical proof of this, recent scholarship locates "Fura" in Voeren/Fourons, between Maastricht and Liège. A document dating from 1213 AD proves the presence of Henry I, Duke of Brabant in a wooden fortification; this evolved into the castle of Tervuren, the residence of the dukes of Brabant in the 14th and 15th centuries. The castle was demolished in 1782 under Joseph II. Tram 44, which travels between Brussels and Tervuren exists because of Leopold II's desire to bring visitors from around the world to his 1897 exhibition of the Congo Free State; the Royal Museum for Central Africa is an natural history museum. It focuses on the Congo, Belgium's former colony. However, some aspects extend to the whole of the Congo River basin, Middle Africa, East Africa and West Africa, it was at first intended purely as a colonial museum, but after 1960 it became more focused on ethnography and anthropology.
Like in most museums, there is both a public exhibit department. Despite its name, not all research pertains to Africa. For example, there is research going on into the archaeozoology of Sagalassos; some researchers have strong ties with the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences. The museum is surrounded by gardens, with the biggest giant redwood in Flanders, a large park with lakes. St Hubert Chapel is located at the west end of the park. Tervuren Library is situated at Vandersandestraat 15, it contains around 43,300 printed documents, 886 DVDs. The Gemeentelijke Basisschool Tervuren has a primary school; the Heilig Hartcollege Tervuren has a primary school as well. It has a grammar school; the Koninklijke Atheneum Tervuren is a grammar school. There is the GITO, a secondary technical school; the British School of Brussels has been located in Tervuren since 1970. There are several alternative schools including the Kristoffel Steiner School; the Steiner method of teaching is subsidised by the Government and follows the curriculum from the Federation of Steiner Schools in Flanders.
Tervuren is twinned with Dachau and Kloster Lehnin. Prince Laurent of Belgium Ward Lernout Official Tervuren official website arboretum-tervuren.be, Arboretum of Tervuren - This web site lets you discover one of the jewels of the green crown of Brussels: The Geographic Arboretum of Tervuren. Some pictures of The Tervuren park
Guelders or Gueldres is a historical county duchy of the Holy Roman Empire, located in the Low Countries. The duchy was named after the town of Geldern in present-day Germany. Though the present province of Gelderland in the Netherlands occupies most of the area, the former duchy comprised parts of the present Dutch province of Limburg as well as those territories in the present-day German state of North Rhine-Westphalia that were acquired by Prussia in 1713. Four parts of the duchy had their own centres, as they were separated by rivers: the quarter of Roermond called Upper Quarter or Upper Guelders – upstream on both sides of the Maas, comprising the town of Geldern as well as Erkelenz, Nieuwstadt and Straelen; the county emerged about 1096, when Gerard III of Wassenberg was first documented as "Count of Guelders". It was located on the territory of Lower Lorraine, in the area of Geldern and Roermond, with its main stronghold at Montfort. Count Gerard's son Gerard II in 1127 acquired the County of Zutphen in northern Hamaland by marriage.
In the 12th and 13th century, Guelders expanded downstream along the sides of the Maas, IJssel rivers and claimed the succession in the Duchy of Limburg, until it lost the 1288 Battle of Worringen against Berg and Brabant. Guelders was at war with its neighbours, not only with Brabant, but with the County of Holland and the Bishopric of Utrecht. However, its territory grew not only because of its success in warfare, but because it thrived in times of peace. For example, the larger part of the Veluwe and the city of Nijmegen were given as collateral to Guelders by their cash-strapped rulers. On separate occasions, in return for loans from the treasury of Guelders, the bishop of Utrecht granted the taxation and administration of the Veluwe, William II ― Count of both Holland and Zeeland, and, elected anti-king of the Holy Roman Empire ― granted the same rights over Nijmegen. In 1339 Count Reginald II of Guelders, of the House of Wassenberg, was elevated to the rank of Duke by Emperor Louis IV of Wittelsbach.
After the Wassenberg line became extinct in 1371 following the deaths of Reginald II's childless sons Edward II and Reginald III, the ensuing Guelders War of Succession saw William I of Jülich emerge victorious. William was confirmed in the inheritance of Guelders in 1379, from 1393 onwards held both duchies in personal union. In 1423 Guelders passed to the House of Egmond, which gained recognition of its title from Emperor Sigismund of Luxembourg, but was unable to escape the political strife and internecine conflict that had so plagued the preceding House of Jülich-Hengebach, more the pressure brought to bear by the expansionist rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy; the first Egmond Duke, suffered the rebellion of his son Adolf and was imprisoned by the latter in 1465. Adolf, who had enjoyed the support of Burgundian Duke Philip III and of the four major cities of Guelders during his rebellion, was unwilling to strike a compromise with his father when this was demanded by Philip's successor, Duke Charles the Bold.
Charles had Duke Adolf captured and imprisoned in 1471 and reinstated Arnold on the throne of the Duchy of Guelders. Charles bought the reversion from Duke Arnold, against the will of the towns and the law of the land, pledged his duchy to Charles for 300,000 Rhenish florins; the bargain was completed in 1472–73, upon Arnold's death in 1473, Duke Charles added Guelders to the "Low Countries" portion of his Valois Duchy of Burgundy. Upon Charles' defeat and death at the Battle of Nancy in January 1477, Duke Adolf was released from prison by the Flemish, but died the same year at the head of a Flemish army besieging Tournai, after the States of Guelders had recognized him once more as Duke. Subsequently, Guelders was ruled by Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor Maximilian I, husband of Charles the Bold's daughter and heir, Mary; the last independent Duke of Guelders was Adolf's son Charles of Egmond, raised at the Burgundian court of Charles the Bold and fought for the House of Habsburg in battles against the armies of Charles VIII of France, until being captured in the Battle of Béthune during the War of the Public Weal.
In 1492, the citizens of Guelders, who had become disenchanted with the rule of Maximilian, ransomed Charles and recognized him as their Duke. Charles, now backed by France, fought Maximilian's grandson Charles of Habsburg in the Guelders Wars and expanded his realm further north, to incorporate what is now the Province of Overijssel, he was not a man of war, but a skilled diplomat, was therefore able to keep his independence. He bequeathed the duchy to Duke William the Rich of Jülich-Cleves-Berg. Following in the footsteps of Charles of
Brussels the Brussels-Capital Region, is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, the capital of Belgium. The Brussels-Capital Region is located in the central portion of the country and is a part of both the French Community of Belgium and the Flemish Community, but is separate from the Flemish Region and the Walloon Region. Brussels is the most densely populated and the richest region in Belgium in terms of GDP per capita, it covers 161 km2, a small area compared to the two other regions, has a population of 1.2 million. The metropolitan area of Brussels counts over 2.1 million people, which makes it the largest in Belgium. It is part of a large conurbation extending towards Ghent, Antwerp and Walloon Brabant, home to over 5 million people. Brussels grew from a small rural settlement on the river Senne to become an important city-region in Europe. Since the end of the Second World War, it has been a major centre for international politics and the home of numerous international organisations, politicians and civil servants.
Brussels is the de facto capital of the European Union, as it hosts a number of principal EU institutions, including its administrative-legislative, executive-political, legislative branches and its name is sometimes used metonymically to describe the EU and its institutions. The secretariat of the Benelux and headquarters of NATO are located in Brussels; as the economic capital of Belgium and one of the top financial centres of Western Europe with Euronext Brussels, it is classified as an Alpha global city. Brussels is a hub for rail and air traffic, sometimes earning the moniker "Crossroads of Europe"; the Brussels Metro is the only rapid transit system in Belgium. In addition, both its airport and railway stations are the busiest in the country. Dutch-speaking, Brussels saw a language shift to French from the late 19th century; the Brussels-Capital Region is bilingual in French and Dutch though French is now the de facto main language with over 90% of the population speaking it. Brussels is increasingly becoming multilingual.
English is spoken as a second language by nearly a third of the population and a large number of migrants and expatriates speak other languages. Brussels is known for its cuisine and gastronomy, as well as its historical and architectural landmarks. Main attractions include its historic Grand Place, Manneken Pis and cultural institutions such as La Monnaie and the Museums of Art and History; because of its long tradition of Belgian comics, Brussels is hailed as a capital of the comic strip. The most common theory of the origin of the name Brussels is that it derives from the Old Dutch Bruocsella, Broekzele or Broeksel, meaning "marsh" and "home" or "home in the marsh". Saint Vindicianus, the bishop of Cambrai, made the first recorded reference to the place Brosella in 695, when it was still a hamlet; the names of all the municipalities in the Brussels-Capital Region are of Dutch origin, except for Evere, Celtic. In French, Bruxelles is pronounced and in Dutch, Brussel is pronounced. Inhabitants of Brussels are known in French in Dutch as Brusselaars.
In the Brabantian dialect of Brussels, they are called Brusseleirs. The written x noted the group. In the Belgian French pronunciation as well as in Dutch, the k disappeared and z became s, as reflected in the current Dutch spelling, whereas in the more conservative French form, the spelling remained; the pronunciation in French only dates from the 18th century, but this modification did not affect the traditional Brussels' usage. In France, the pronunciations and are heard, but are rather rare in Belgium. See also: History of Brussels The history of Brussels is linked to that of Western Europe. Traces of human settlement go back to the Stone Age, with vestiges and place-names related to the civilisation of megaliths and standing stones. During late antiquity, the region was home to Roman occupation, as attested by archaeological evidence discovered near the centre. Following the decline of the Western Roman Empire, it was incorporated into the Frankish Empire; the origin of the settlement, to become Brussels lies in Saint Gaugericus' construction of a chapel on an island in the river Senne around 580.
The official founding of Brussels is situated around 979, when Duke Charles of Lower Lotharingia transferred the relics of Saint Gudula from Moorsel to the Saint Gaugericus chapel. Charles would construct the first permanent fortification in the city, doing so on that same island. Lambert I of Leuven, Count of Leuven, gained the County of Brussels around 1000, by marrying Charles' daughter; because of its location on the shores of the Senne, on an important trade route between Bruges and Ghent, Cologne, Brussels became a commercial centre specialised in the textile trade. The town grew quite and extended towards the upper town, where there was a smaller risk of floods; as it grew to a population of around 30,000, the surrounding marshes were drained to allow for further expansion. Around
Louis II, Count of Flanders
Louis II of Flanders known as Louis of Male, a member of the House of Dampierre, was Count of Flanders and Rethel from 1346 as well as Count of Artois and Burgundy from 1382 until his death. The son of Louis I of Flanders and Margaret I of Burgundy, daughter of king Philip V of France, he was baptised by Bishop Pierre Roger of Arras, the Pope Clement VI. His father arranged his marriage with Margaret of Brabant, daughter of Duke John III, in the course of the rapprochement to the Imperial Duchy of Brabant; when his father was killed at the Battle of Crécy against the troops of King Edward III of England in 1346, he inherited the French counties of Flanders and Rethel. In the Anglo-French conflict, the Flanders guilds, depending on the English wool trade, forced Louis to recognize King Edward III as his overlord and arranged an engagement to the daughter of the English king, Isabella. Louis managed to avoid this by fleeing to the court of King Philip VI of France. In 1347 he married Margaret of Brabant.
While the Black Death devastated the county and after Louis came to terms with the English king and in 1349 he could return to Flanders to succeed his father. In 1350 he gained credence by refusing to pay homage to the new Valois king John II of France; when his father-in-law Duke John III died without male heirs in 1355, he assumed the title of a Duke of Brabant and moved into the neighbouring duchy, but was unable to wrest it from his sister-in-law Duchess Joanna. Though Louis managed to defeat the Brabantian forces in the Battle of Scheut near Anderlecht and capture the cities of Mechelen, Brussels and Leuven, but he was unable to prevail against Joanna, backed by her husband Duke Wenceslaus I of Luxembourg and his mighty brother Emperor Charles IV. By the 1357 Peace of Ath he at least gained the rule over the small Lordship of Mechelen and the thriving city of Antwerp. Louis tried to govern as a Realpolitiker and continued a policy of neutrality, which kept him in favor with both France and England during the continued conflicts of the Hundred Years' War, initiating a period of stability and relative affluence in Flanders.
With regards to his internal policy, his main aim was to prevent the formation of a broad coalition against him, as happened against his father. Except for his last years, he was successful in preventing this. In 1357 Count Louis II married his seven-year-old daughter Margaret to the minor Duke Philip I of Burgundy, who died from plague four years later. Sole heiress of her father's territories, she was a coveted bride courted by both Edmund of Langley, son of King Edward III of England, Philip the Bold, son of King John II of France and Duke of Burgundy since 1363. After several years of tough bargaining, Count Louis II gave his consent to Philip and his brother King Charles V, in return he received the lordships of Romance Flanders and a payment of 200,000 livre tournois; the marriage of Margaret and Philip was celebrated at Saint Bavo Cathedral in Ghent on 19 June 1369. Though a capable ruler, Louis' lavish lifestyle burdened his county's finances and caused increasing disturbances; however in his latter years he managed to get the support of the Bruges citizens against revolting Ghent.
The latter years of his rule were marked by civil strife. In 1379, he obtained aid from his son-in-law, Duke Philip II of Burgundy, to put down another Ghent revolt; the Flemings again rose in 1382 under Philip van Artevelde and expelled Count Louis from Flanders after the Battle of Beverhoutsveld. The citizens of Ghent continued to resist until after his death in 1384, his mother Margaret had died two years leaving him the County of Artois and the Imperial Free County of Burgundy. In 1347, he married daughter of John III, Duke of Brabant, they had three children: Peter Charles Margaret III, Countess of Flanders married 1)Philip I, Duke of Burgundy d.1361, 2)Philip the BoldHe left several illegitimate sons, three of whom were killed at the Battle of Nicopolis. Without any surviving sons, on his death, his extensive possessions in the Low Countries were inherited by his daughter Margaret; the main line of the House of Dampierre only counts of Flanders, had through a clever marriage policy managed to inherit the counties of Nevers and Rethel.
Through Louis' mother, a daughter of King Philip V of France, the counties of Artois and Burgundy were added to this. Louis II arranged the marriage of his daughter and heir, Margret, to the duke of Burgundy, Philip the Bold, leading to the subsequent union of Flanders and Burgundy; this provided the core of the Burgundian Netherlands dominions ruled by the House of Valois-Burgundy, which were, together with the Duchy of Burgundy proper, to provide them with a power base to challenge the rule of their cousins, the Valois kings of France in the 15th century. Blockmans, Wim. Peters, Edward, ed; the Promised Lands: The Low Countries Under Burgundian Rule, 1369-1530. Translated by Fackelman, Elizabeth. University of Pennsylvania Press. Bubenicek, Michelle. Quand les femmes gouvernent: droit et politique au XIVe siècle:Yolande de Flandre, Droit et politique au XIV siecle. Ecole des Chartes. Henneman, John Bell. Royal Taxation in Fourteenth-Century France: The Development of War Financing, 1322-