Ferdinand the Holy Prince
Ferdinand the Holy Prince, sometimes called the "Saint Prince" or the "Constant Prince", was an infante of the Kingdom of Portugal. He was the youngest of the "Illustrious Generation" of 15th-century Portuguese princes of the House of Aviz and lay administrator of the Knightly Order of Aviz. In 1437, Ferdinand participated in the disastrous Siege of Tangier led by his older brother Henry the Navigator. In the aftermath, Ferdinand was handed over to the Marinid rulers of Morocco as a hostage for the surrender of Ceuta in accordance with the terms of a treaty negotiated between the rulers of Portugal and Morocco by Henry. At first, Ferdinand was held in relative comfort as a noble hostage in Asilah, but when it became apparent that the Portuguese authorities had no intention of giving up Ceuta, Ferdinand's status was downgraded, he was transferred to a prison in Fez, where he was subjected to much harsher incarceration conditions by his jailers. Negotiations for his release continued intermittently for years, but they came to naught, Ferdinand died in captivity in Fez on 5 June 1443.
A popular cult developed in Portugal around the figure of "the Holy Prince" encouraged by the House of Aviz. Ferdinand remains a "popular saint" by Portuguese tradition, neither beatified nor canonized by the Roman Catholic Church. Ferdinand was the sixth and youngest son of King John I of Portugal and his wife Philippa of Lancaster. Ferdinand and his brothers Edward of Portugal, Peter of Coimbra, Henry the Navigator and John of Reguengos, plus sister Isabella of Burgundy and half-brother Afonso of Barcelos, constitute what Portuguese historians have traditionally labelled the'illustrious generation'. Ferdinand was born in Santarém on 29 September 1402, the feast day of St. Michael, a saint to whom he would remain affectionately attached, he would remain a sickly child throughout much of his youth. Sheltered because of his illnesses, Ferdinand had a quiet and pious upbringing, a favorite of his English mother, from whom he acquired a preference for the Sarum Rite of Salisbury in the religious liturgy of masses he attended.
Ferdinand was too young to participate in the 1415 Battle of Ceuta led by his father, John I, in which his older brothers distinguished themselves and were knighted. As the youngest of many sons, Ferdinand did not obtain a substantial endowment from his father, only the Lordship of Salvaterra de Magos and a lifetime grant of Atouguia in 1429. In 1434, after the death of his father John I and the administrator João Rodrigues de Sequeira, Ferdinand was appointed lay administrator of the Knightly Order of Aviz by his brother King Edward of Portugal. Ferdinand was offered the titular office of cardinal by Pope Eugene IV, but turned it down. Despite his piety, Ferdinand had no intention of pursuing a clerical career. In 1436, dissatisfied with his meager domains, Ferdinand asked his brother King Edward for permission to go abroad to seek his fortune in the service of a foreign king. Ferdinand's request prompted the reluctant Edward to endorse a plan, long promoted by his brother Henry the Navigator, to launch a new Portuguese campaign of conquest against Marinid Morocco.
As a bachelor, Ferdinand made out a will naming Edward's second son, the Infante Ferdinand as his heir before departing. In August 1437, the Portuguese expeditionary force, under the leadership of Henry the Navigator, set out to seize Tangier. Ferdinand brought his household and Aviz knights with him, choosing as his personal banner an emblazoned image of the Archangel St. Michael; the Tangier campaign proved to be a disastrous fiasco. Henry impetuously launched a series of assaults on the walls of Tangier with no success, while allowing his siege camp to be encircled by a Moroccan army rushed north by the Wattasid strongman Abu Zakariya Yahya al-Wattasi, governor of the Marinid palace of Fez; the Portuguese besiegers, now besieged and unable to break out, were starved into submission. To preserve his army from destruction, Henry the Navigator signed a treaty in October 1437 with the Moroccan commanders, it called for the restoration of Ceuta in return for allowing to his army to withdraw intact.
By the terms of the treaty, Henry handed his younger brother Ferdinand over to the Moroccans as a hostage for the delivery of Ceuta. It was reported that Henry volunteered to go as hostage instead of Ferdinand, but that his war council forbade it. Ferdinand was formally a hostage of the Marinid governor of Tangier and Asilah. Ferdinand was allowed to bring along a private entourage of eleven household servants into captivity with him; this included his secretary Frei João Álvares. Álvares was entrusted with Ferdinand's money purse, estimated to be carrying some 6,000 reals for expenses. They were joined by an additional set of four Portuguese noble hostages identified as
John, Constable of Portugal
Infante John, Constable of Portugal was a Portuguese infante of the House of Aviz, Constable of Portugal and master of the Portuguese Order of St. James. In Portugal, he is referred to as the O Infante Condestável. Infante John was the son of his wife Philippa of Lancaster. John and his brothers Edward, Peter and Ferdinand, sister Isabella and half-brother Afonso, constitute what Portuguese historians have traditionally labelled the'illustrious generation' With his brothers, Infante John participated in the conquest of Ceuta and was knighted by his father in the aftermath, he was invested as the 1st Lord of Reguengos de Monsaraz and Belas shortly after. In October 1418, at the king's request, Pope Martin V approved the appointment of Infante John as the 10th Master of the Order of St. James of the Sword, bringing the old military order into the hands of the royal family; that same year and his brother Henry the Navigator led a relief fleet to Ceuta and helped lift the Siege of Ceuta. After the death of Nuno Álvares Pereira in 1431, Infante John was appointed the 3rd Constable of Portugal.
As a result, John is characterised by the appellation O Infante Condestável. After King John I's death in 1433, John's eldest brother ascended the throne as king Edward of Portugal. In 1437, Infante John joined another brother Peter, Duke of Coimbra, in arguing against a projected Portuguese expedition to seize Tangier that led to the Battle of Tangier; the campaign ended in disaster. After the Tangier fiasco, John urged the ratification of a treaty with Marinid Morocco that called for the relinquishment of Ceuta in exchange for his captive brother Ferdinand the Holy Prince; the Cortes refused, Ferdinand was left to die in captivity. King Edward died in September 1438, leaving a young son to ascend the throne as king Afonso V of Portugal under the regency of his widow Eleanor of Aragon; this was an unpopular arrangement among the common people of the country, who feared Eleanor would be a puppet of the high nobility who sought to recover the political privileges they lost during the revolution of the 1380s.
The prospect of civil war raised its head. To forestall a rebellion, Infante John seized control of Lisbon and oversaw the assembly of a burgher-packed Cortes to elect his brother Peter of Coimbra as regent for his nephew Afonso V; the high nobility, led by his half-brother Afonso of Barcelos, urged Eleanor to hold fast, a tense power-sharing regency arrangement was agreed upon between Peter and Eleanor. Peter of Coimbra relied on his close alliance with Infante John to secure the lion's share of power during the first few years of the regency. Infante John's sudden death in October 1442 was a terrible blow to Peter, who thereafter found it difficult to fend off the aspirations of his half-brother Afonso of Barcelos. Regent Peter appointed John's son Diogo of Portugal to succeed his father as Master of the Order of Santiago and Constable of Portugal. In 1424, John married his half-niece Isabella of Barcelos, daughter of his half-brother Afonso of Barcelos; the couple had four children: Infante Diogo of Portugal – 4th Constable of Portugal and 11th Master of the Order of St. James.
Infanta Isabella of Portugal, married John II of mother of Isabella I of Spain. Infanta Beatrice of Portugal, married Infante Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, mother of Manuel I of Portugal. Infanta Phillipa of Portugal, Lady of Almada. "Nobreza de Portugal e do Brasil" – Vol. I, pages 296–297. Published by Zairol Lda. Lisbon 1989
João I of Kongo
João I of Kongo, alias Nzinga a Nkuwu or Nkuwu Nzinga, was ruler of the Kingdom of Kongo between 1470 and 1509. He was baptized as João on 3 May 1491 by Portuguese missionaries. Due to his interest in Portugal and its culture, he initiated a major cultural initiative in 1485 upon the arrival of Diogo Cão, it was under these conditions that the first Atlantic Creole emerged, forming in both Central Africa and in Portugal. King Nzinga a Nkuwu was the seventh ruler of Kongo, he was married to a first cousin. She had a son by the king named Nzinga Mbemba, she would help him become king of Kongo after her husband's death. Under the reign of Nzinga a Nkuwu, Kongo had grown to 100,000 square kilometers and contained a centralized government. In 1483, a Portuguese caravel captained by Diogo Cão reached the estuary of the Congo River and made contact with subjects of the king. Cão sailed back to Portugal carrying a party of Kongo emissaries. On arrival in Lisbon, the emissaries were baptized and placed in a monastery before returning to the king in 1491.
Along with the emissaries came Portuguese priests, masons and soldiers plus European goods. The ships anchored at Mpinda and after a brief halt to baptise the governor of Soyo, uncle to the manikongo, the procession went on to the capital where they were greeted by the king and five of his leading nobles. On 3 May 1491, the king of Kongo was baptised along with his family. Only the king and his nobles were to be converted, but the queen demanded to be baptised. Kongo's royal family took the names of their Portuguese counterparts, thus Leonor and Afonso. A thousand subjects were detailed to help the Portuguese carpenters build a church, meanwhile the Portuguese soldiers accompanied the king in a campaign to defend the province of Nsundi from Bateke raiders; the European firearms were decisive in the victory and many captives were taken. Most of the Portuguese departed with slaves and ivory while leaving behind priests and craftsmen. After this cultural honeymoon, the king's profession of the Catholic faith proved short-lived.
He died in 1509. He was succeeded by his son via the Queen, Afonso I. List of rulers of Kongo History of Angola Nzinga of Ndongo and Matamba
John I of Castile
John I was king of the Crown of Castile from 1379 until 1390. He was the son of Henry II and of his wife Juana Manuel of Castile, he was the last monarch of Castile to receive a formal coronation. His first marriage, to Eleanor of Aragon on 18 June 1375, produced his only known issue: Henry, succeeded his father as King of Castile. Ferdinand, became King of Aragon in 1412. Eleanor, died young. In 1379, John I formed the short lived military order of the Order of the Pigeon, known for its large feasts which included eating the organization's namesake, the pigeon, he ransomed Leon V of the House of Lusignan, the last Latin king of the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia, from the Mamluks and out of pity granted him the lifetime lordship of Madrid, Villa Real and Andújar in 1383. He engaged in hostilities with Portugal. On the death of his father-in-law, John endeavoured to enforce the claims of his wife, Ferdinand's only child, to the crown of Portugal; the 1383-1385 Crisis, a period of civil unrest and anarchy in Portugal, followed.
He was resisted by supporters of his rival for the throne, John I of Portugal, was utterly defeated at the battle of Aljubarrota, on 14 August 1385. He had to contend with the hostility of John of Gaunt, who claimed the crown of Castile by right of his wife Constance, the eldest daughter of Peter of Castile; the king of Castile bought off the claim of his English competitor by arranging a marriage in 1388 between his son Henry and Catherine, daughter of Constance and John of Gaunt, as part of the treaty ratified at Bayonne. At the beginning of 1383, the political situation in Portugal was volatile. Beatrice was the only child of King Ferdinand I of Portugal, heir to the throne, after her younger brothers' deaths in 1380 and 1382, her marriage was the political issue of the day, inside the palace, factions lobbied constantly. Ferdinand arranged and canceled his daughter's wedding several times before settling for his wife's first choice, King John I of Castile. John had lost his wife, Infanta Eleanor of Aragon the year before, was happy to wed the Portuguese heiress.
The wedding took place on 17 May at the Cathedral of Badajoz. Beatrice was only ten years old. King Ferdinand died soon thereafter, on 22 October 1383. According to the treaty between Castile and Portugal, the Queen Mother, Leonor Telles de Menezes, declared herself Regent in the name of her daughter and son-in-law; the assumption of the regency by the queen was badly received in many Portuguese cities. At the request of John I of Castile, when he had knowledge of his father-in-law's decease, Leonor ordered the acclaim of Beatrice, although John I of Castile hadn't expressly recognized her as the Regent; this was ordered first in Lisbon, Santarém and other important places, some days after the assassination of Count Andeiro, in all the country. The national rebellion led by the Master of the Order of Aviz, the future John I, began leading to the 1383-1385 Crisis. King John of Castile invaded Portugal in the end of December 1383, to enforce his claim to be king by right of his wife; the consequent war was ended in 1385, with the defeat of Castile in the Battle of Aljubarrota on 14 August.
In the aftermath of this battle, John of Aviz became the uncontested King of Portugal. John of Castile and Beatrice no longer had a tenable claim to the throne of Portugal, but during the lifetime of John I of Castile, they continued to call themselves king and queen of Portugal. To secure the succession of the throne of Portugal, the Portuguese Cortes on 2 April 1383 in Salvaterra de Magos covenanted marriage between Beatrice and John I of Castile, with the stipulation that upon the death of Ferdinand I, with no issue of sons, the crown would pass to Beatrice, her husband become titular king of Portugal. Although John I of Castile could call himself king of Portugal, the Spanish and Portuguese parties agreed not to unite the kingdoms of Castile and Portugal, therefore, widow of King Ferdinand, would remain regent of the government of Portugal until Beatrice had a son who upon reaching fourteen years of age would assume the title and office of King of Portugal, his parents' claim cease. If Beatrice died childless, the crown would pass to other hypothetical younger sisters, if not, the crown would pass to John I of Castile, through him to his son Henry, thus disinheriting the line of Inês de Castro.
Pedro de Luna, a Papal legate to the realms of Castile, Aragon and Navarre, pronounced the betrothal in Elvas on 14 May, the wedding ceremony took place on 17 May at the Cathedral of Badajoz. To ensure compliance with the treaty, on 22 May a group of Castilian knights and prelates of the kingdom swore an oath to depose their king if the Castilian king dishonoured the commitments agreed in the treaty, a corresponding group of Portuguese knights and prelates vowed to do the same if the king of Portugal broke the treaty with Castile, among them the Master of Aviz. King Ferdinand I of Portugal had died on 22 October 1383, his widow, Leonor Telles de Menezes, under the Treaty of Salvaterra de Magos and by the previous testament of the deceased king, declared herself Regent in the name of her daughter and son-in-law. From onwards, Leonor ruled with her lover, João Fernandes Andeiro, second Count of Ourém called "Conde Andeiro", a Galician, Fernando's chancellor, which
Beatrice, Countess of Arundel
Beatrice of Portugal, LG, was a natural daughter of John I of Portugal and Inês Pires born before the marriage of her father with Philippa of Lancaster. She was a sister of Afonso, Duke of Braganza and half-sister of King Edward of Portugal, Infante Peter, Duke of Coimbra, Henry the Navigator, Isabella of Portugal, Lord of Reguengos de Monsaraz, Ferdinand the Saint Prince. Queen Philippa was in charge of the education of both of her husband's children out of wedlock. Beatrice was born. 1380 in Veiros, Portugal. In April 1405 her wedding with Thomas Fitzalan, 12th Earl of Arundel by proxy was celebrated in Lisbon and, in the same year, she travelled to England, accompanied by her brother Afonso and many of the king's vassals and her ladies-in-waiting where the marriage ceremony took place on 26 November 1405 in London, with King Henry IV in attendance. Thomas died on 13 October 1415, she married Gilbert Talbot, 5th Baron Talbot and subsequently of his steward, Thomas Fettiplace of East Shefford in Berkshire.
The Peerage of England is a multivolume book written in 1756 outlining the genealogy of the Peers of England. The following is from page 406+, as it is out of copyright is quoted in full here. Sir Gilbert Talbot, Kt. Lord of Irchenfield and Blackmere, died on October 19 in 1419, having married two wives, first Joan, second daughter of Thomas Duke of Gloucester, youngest son of King Edward III and co-heir to her brother Humphrey Earl of Buckingham; this Lady Beatrix was, the wife of John Holland, Earl of Huntingdon. By her first husband she had no issue, she married John Holland, Earl of Huntingdon in 1432. She died in Bordeaux, France in November 1439
Treaty of Windsor (1386)
The Treaty of Windsor is the diplomatic alliance signed between Portugal and England on 9 May 1386 at Windsor and sealed by the marriage of King John I of Portugal to Philippa of Lancaster, daughter of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster. With the victory at the Battle of Aljubarrota, assisted by English archers, John I was recognized as the undisputed King of Portugal, putting an end to the interregnum of the 1383–1385 Crisis; the Treaty of Windsor established a pact of mutual support between the countries. This document is preserved at the Portuguese National Archives. Historian Matthew Winslett says, "This treaty has been the cornerstone of both nations' relations with each other since." Anglo-Portuguese Treaty of 1373 Timeline of Portuguese history Anglo-Portuguese Alliance Livermore, H. V. A History of Portugal. Cambridge University Press.179 Winslett, Matthew. The Nadir of Alliance: The British Ultimatum of 1890 and Its Place in Anglo-Portuguese Relations, 1147--1945. University of Texas Arlington.3 Country profile of Portugal and Commonwealth Office website