John Keats was an English Romantic poet. He was one of the main figures of the second generation of Romantic poets, along with Lord Byron and Percy Bysshe Shelley, despite his works having been in publication for only four years before his death from tuberculosis at the age of 25. Although his poems were not well received by critics during his lifetime, his reputation grew after his death, by the end of the 19th century, he had become one of the most beloved of all English poets, he had a significant influence on a diverse range of writers. Jorge Luis Borges stated that his first encounter with Keats' work was the most significant literary experience of his life; the poetry of Keats is characterised by sensual imagery, most notably in the series of odes. This is typical of romantic poets, as they aimed to accentuate extreme emotion through an emphasis on natural imagery. Today his letters are some of the most popular and most analysed in English literature; some of the most acclaimed works of Keats are "Ode to a Nightingale", "Sleep and Poetry", the famous sonnet "On First Looking into Chapman's Homer".
John Keats was born in Moorgate, London, on 31 October 1795 to Thomas Keats and his wife, Frances Jennings. There is little evidence of his exact birthplace. Although Keats and his family seem to have marked his birthday on 29 October, baptism records give the date as the 31st, he was the eldest of four surviving children. Another son was lost in infancy, his father first worked as a hostler at the stables attached to the Swan and Hoop Inn, an establishment he managed, where the growing family lived for some years. Keats believed that he was born at the inn, a birthplace of humble origins, but there is no evidence to support his belief; the Globe pub now occupies the site, a few yards from the modern-day Moorgate station. He was baptised at St Botolph-without-Bishopsgate, sent to a local dame school as a child, his parents were unable to afford Eton or Harrow, so in the summer of 1803, he was sent to board at John Clarke's school in Enfield, close to his grandparents' house. The small school had a liberal outlook and a progressive curriculum more modern than the larger, more prestigious schools.
In the family atmosphere at Clarke's, Keats developed an interest in classics and history, which would stay with him throughout his short life. The headmaster's son, Charles Cowden Clarke became an important mentor and friend, introducing Keats to Renaissance literature, including Tasso and Chapman's translations; the young Keats was described by his friend Edward Holmes as a volatile character, "always in extremes", given to indolence and fighting. However, at 13 he began focusing his energy on reading and study, winning his first academic prize in midsummer 1809. In April 1804, when Keats was eight, his father died from a skull fracture, suffered when he fell from his horse while returning from a visit to Keats and his brother George at school. Thomas Keats died intestate. Frances remarried two months but left her new husband soon afterwards, the four children went to live with their grandmother, Alice Jennings, in the village of Edmonton. In March 1810, when Keats was 14, his mother died of tuberculosis, leaving the children in the custody of their grandmother.
She appointed Richard Abbey and John Sandell, to take care of them. That autumn, Keats left Clarke's school to apprentice with Thomas Hammond, a surgeon and apothecary, a neighbour and the doctor of the Jennings family. Keats lodged in the attic above the surgery at 7 Church Street until 1813. Cowden Clarke, who remained a close friend of Keats, described this period as "the most placid time in Keats' life." From 1814, Keats had two bequests, held in trust for him until his 21st birthday: £800 willed by his grandfather John Jennings and a portion of his mother's legacy, £8000, to be divided between her living children. It seems. Blame has been laid on Abbey as legal guardian, but he may have been unaware. William Walton, solicitor for Keats' mother and grandmother did know and had a duty of care to relay the information to Keats, it seems. The money would have made a critical difference to the poet's expectations. Money was always a great concern and difficulty for him, as he struggled to stay out of debt and make his way in the world independently.
Having finished his apprenticeship with Hammond, Keats registered as a medical student at Guy's Hospital and began studying there in October 1815. Within a month of starting, he was accepted as a dresser at the hospital, assisting surgeons during operations, the equivalent of a junior house surgeon today, it was a significant promotion. Keats' long and expensive medical training with Hammond and at Guy's Hospital led his family to assume he would pursue a lifelong career in medicine, assuring financial security, it seems that at this point Keats had a genuine desire to become a doctor, he lodged near the hospital, at 28 St Thomas's Street in Southwark, with other medical students, including Henry Stephens who became a famous inventor and ink magnate. However, Keats' training took up increasing amounts of his writing time, he was ambivalent about his medical career, he felt. He had written his first extant poem, "An Imitat
John Swinton is a Scottish theologian. He is the Chair in Divinity and Religious Studies at the School of Divinity and Philosophy, University of Aberdeen. John is founder of the university's Centre for Spirituality and Disability. John is an ordained minister of the Church of Scotland and Master of Christ’s College, the university's theological college. Swinton is a major figure in the development of disability theology. In 2016 he was awarded the Michael Ramsey Prize for theological writing for his book Dementia: Living in the Memories of God. John is Professor in Pastoral care, he serves as an honorary professor of nursing in the Centre for Advanced Studies in Nursing at Aberdeen University. In 2004 he founded the university's Centre for Spirituality and Disability; the Centre has a dual focus: the relationship between spirituality and health and the theology of disability. In 2012 Swinton was appointed Master of Christ’s College in Aberdeen by The Church of Scotland. In 2014 he established the Centre for Ministry Studies, a joint project between Christ’s College and the University of Aberdeen.
It provides a broad range of education and training for both ordained people. Dementia: Living in the Memories of God Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Published in the UK London: SCM Press Mental Health: The Inclusive Church Resource Darton, Longman & Todd Brock, BR. & Swinton, J.. Disability in the Christian Tradition: A Reader Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Living Well and Dying Faithfully: Christian Practices for End-Of-Life Care Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. Living Gently in a Violent World: The Prophetic Witness of Weakness IVP Raging With Compassion: Pastoral responses to the problem of evil Grand Rapids: Eerdmans. ISBN 0-8028-2997-X Theology and the New Genetics: Why Science Needs the Church London: T&T Clarke. Practical Theology and Qualitative Research London: SCM Press ISBN 0-334-02980-5 Critical Reflections on Stanley Hauerwas’ Essays on Disability: Disabling society, enabling theology New York: Haworth Press. ISBN 0-7890-2722-4 Spirituality in Mental Health Care: Rediscovering a “forgotten” dimension Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London.
ISBN 1-85302-804-5 Resurrecting the Person: Friendship and the care of people with severe mental health problems Abingdon Press, Nashville. ISBN 0-687-08228-5; the Spiritual Dimension of Pastoral Care: Practical theology in a multidisciplinary context Jessica Kingsley Publishers, London. ISBN 1-85302-892-4. From Bedlam to Shalom: Towards a practical theology of human nature. Interpersonal relationships and mental health care New York. ISBN 0-8204-4425-1. Swinton, John. "Scottish theologian and former mental health chaplain John Swinton talks about disability and dementia — and why churches have got this'inclusion' thing all wrong". The United Church Observer. Interviewed by Chelsea Temple Jones. Bonnie J. Miller-McLemore; the Wiley Blackwell Companion to Practical Theology. John Wiley & Sons. Pp. 480–. ISBN 978-1-4443-4572-8. Yong, Amos. Theology and Down Syndrome: Reimagining Disability in Late Modernity. Baylor University Press. Pp. 237–. ISBN 978-1-60258-006-0. Curriculum vitae Centre for Spirituality and Disability
Goparaju Ramachandra Rao was an Indian social reformer, atheist activist and a participant in the Indian independence movement. He authored proposed atheism as self-confidence, he propagated positive atheism by his articles, speeches and his social work. He is the founder of Atheist Centre along with his wife a few volunteers. Gora was born on 15 November 1902, into an orthodox Telugu Brahmin family in Chhatrapur, India, he pursued a botany degree earning his Master's in botany at Presidency College in Madras. He married Saraswathi Gora in 1922, when she was only 10, he taught botany at various institutes at Madurai, Coimbatore and Kakinada, for fifteen years. Gora started his activism against superstition in the 1920s, he and his wife publicly viewed solar eclipses, as there was a superstitious belief that pregnant women should not do so. They stayed in haunted houses to dispel the myths about such places. Gora used to run a monthly programme called "cosmopolitan dinners" every full moon night, where people of all castes and religions gathered together.
Gora insisted on staying in a Harijan locality. He conducted several inter-caste and inter-religious marriages. One of his own sons and daughters married spouses from untouchable castes. In 1933, he was dismissed from the PR College in Kakinada for his atheist views. In 1939, he was dismissed from the Hindu College in Machilipatnam for the same reason. In 1940, after his dismissal, he and his wife founded the Atheist Centre, in a small village called Mudunur in the Krishna district; the Atheist Centre was involved in social reforms. On the eve of Independence in 1947, they moved the Atheist centre to Vijayawada. In 1941, he published his first book on atheism in Telugu, Atheism: There is no god. Throughout the 1940s, he worked in the Indian independence movement. In 1942, Gora along with his eldest son were arrested during the Quit India Movement, their 18-month son had to accompany his mother to the Royavellor jail. Gora and Gandhi had several discussions, some of which have been recorded in the book An Atheist With Gandhi.
When Gandhi asked him to differentiate between atheism and godlessness Gora replied, Gandhi supported Gora's anti-untouchability reform movement, remarked that he wished Gora would succeed in producing a Tuskegee in India. Tuskegee in Alabama, United States, is an important site in Africa American history where Booker T. Washington established the Tuskegee University. In 1952, he contested in the parliamentary elections to propagate his idea of party-less democracy. In 1967, he contested in the assembly polls. Gora visited several nations in 1970 and 1974, he was in touch with Madalyn Murray O'Hair. On 5 October 1970, O'Hair mentioned his Atheist Center on her radio show. In 1970, when Gora stopped in United States during his tour, he met O'Hair, they decided. Gora offered to host the first one in 1972. O'Hair was not able to attend; the first World Atheist Conference was held on 1972. After the event, Gora published. Gora first organized Beef and Pork Friendship party in Vijayawada on 15 August 1972, the Silver Jubilee of Indian Independence, there was big commotion and opposition.
True to his principles, Gora urged for voluntary participation. Puri Shakaracharya and some orthodox people violently opposed and threatened to disrupt the function; when the matter went up to the Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, The government reacted positively and provided police protection. Thousands of people gathered, to witness the pork party. Gora and Saraswathi Gora, who headed the programme, made it clear that it was meant to bring social cohesion. Participants were asked to sign in a register. Among the hundreds of gatherers, 138 people ate beef and pork together, they included atheists, orthodox Hindus and Christians. When similar programme was held at Coimbatore, Periyar EV Ramaswami and Gora participated. In various places including Visakhapatnam and Suryapet, Beef and Pork programmes were held. Gora had nine children. Gora got his eldest daughter, married to Arjuna Rao, who belonged to the Dalit community In 1949; the marriage was held in presence of Jawaharlal Nehru. The marriage of his eldest son, with Hemalata, the daughter of Gurram Jashuva, was held in Sevagram In 1960.
His eldest son was an atheist and Gandhian Lavanam, daughter Mythri and another son Vijayam, continued to organise the World Atheist Conference. Mythri chairperson of Atheist Centre and Vijayam is the current executive director of the Atheist Centre; the physician Samaram Goparaju is his son. His daughter, Chennupati Vidya, is a social worker, she was elected to the Lok Sabha, of the Parliament of India, in 1980 and 1989. Gora supported partyless democracy. Gora was a Gandhian and believed in Sarvodaya, he rejected historical materialism and considered Marxism a'fatalist philosophy'. He believed that atheism allows a person to surpass the barriers of religions, it allows a person to understand that his/her actions are directed by free will and not Karma, fate or divine will. This in turn would allow Harijans to be liberated, as they would no longer believe that they are fated to be untouchable. Gora died on 26 July 1975 in Vijayawada, his autobiography, completed a few days before his death, was published in 1976.
The Atheist Centre continued under the guidance of Saraswathi Gora, until her death in 2006 on 19 August. In