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John Kinzie

John Kinzie was a fur trader from Quebec who first operated in Detroit and what became the Northwest Territory of the United States. A partner of William Burnett from Canada, about 1802-1803 Kinzie moved with his wife and child to Chicago, where they were among the first permanent European settlers. Kinzie Street in Chicago is named for him, their daughter Ellen Marion Kinzie, born in 1805, was believed to be the first child of European descent born in the settlement. In 1812 Kinzie killed Jean La Lime; this was known as "the first murder in Chicago". During the War of 1812, when living in Detroit, Kinzie was accused of treason by the British and imprisoned on a ship for transport to Great Britain. After escaping, he returned to American territory, settling again in Chicago by 1816, he lived there the rest of his years. Kinzie was born in Canada to John and Anne McKenzie, Scots-Irish immigrants, his father died before Kinzie was a year old, his mother remarried. In 1773, the boy was apprenticed to a silversmith.

Some of the jewelry created by Kinzie has been found in archaeological digs in Ohio. By 1777, Kinzie had become a trader in Detroit; as a trader, he became familiar with local Native American peoples and learned the dominant language. He developed trading at a center of the Miami people. In 1785, Kinzie helped rescue two American citizens, kidnapped in 1775 from Virginia by the Shawnee and adopted into the tribe. One of the girls, Margaret McKinzie, married him. Margaret had three children with him. After several years, she left Kinzie and Detroit, returned to Virginia with their children. All three of the Kinzie children moved as adults to Chicago. In 1789, Kinzie lost his business in the Kekionga and had to move further from the western U. S. frontier. The US was excluding Canadians from trade with the Native Americans in their territory; as the United States settlers continued to populate its western territory, Kinzie moved further west. In March 10, 1798, Kinzie married again, to Eleanor Lytle McKillip.

By the time they moved to Chicago, about 1802-1804, they had John. Eleanor bore him three more children in Chicago: Ellen Marion, Maria Indiana, Robert Allen. In 1804 Kinzie purchased the former house and lands of Jean Baptiste Point du Sable, located near the mouth of the Chicago River; that same year, Governor William Henry Harrison of the Indiana Territory appointed Kinzie as a justice of the peace. After American citizens built Fort Dearborn, Kinzie's influence and reputation rose in the area; the War of 1812 began between Great Britain and the United States, tensions rose on the northern frontier. In June 1812, Kinzie killed Jean La Lime, he fled to Milwaukee in Indian territory. While in Milwaukee, he met with pro-British Indians who were planning attacks on American settlements, including Chicago. Historians speculate that La Lime may have been informing on corruption related to purchasing supplies within the fort and been silenced; the case has been called "Chicago's first murder." It has been proposed the Kinzie's attempted to cover up the families early real estate transactions, substituting Francis May as the original owner.

Although worried that Chicago would be on heightened alert, a force of as many as 500 Indians attacked the small garrison of soldiers, their support and their families near the current intersection of 18th and Calumet, as they fled south along the lake shore after evacuated the Fort. The Fort Dearborn attack took place on August 15, 1812 and left 53 dead, including women and children. Kinzie and his family, aided by Potawatomi Indians led by Billy Caldwell, escaped unharmed and returned to Detroit. Identifying as a British subject, Kinzie had a strong anti-American streak. In 1813, the British arrested Kinzie and Jean Baptiste Chardonnai then living in Detroit, charging them with treason, they were accused of having corresponded with the enemy while supplying gunpowder to chief Tecumseh's Indian forces, who were fighting alongside the British. Chardonnai escaped; when the ship put into port in Nova Scotia to weather a storm, Kinzie escaped. He returned to American-held Detroit by 1814. Although he had been a British subject, Kinzie switched to the United States.

He returned to Chicago with his family in 1816 and lived there until his death in 1828. During the 1820s, Kinzie served as a justice of the peace for the newly created Pike County, which at the time extended from the Mississippi River to Lake Michigan. Kinzie died a few hours later. Buried at the Fort Dearborn Cemetery, Kinzie’s remains were moved to City Cemetery in 1835; when the cemetery was closed due to concerns it could contaminate the city's water supply, Kinzie's remains were moved to Graceland Cemetery. In 1837, Kinzie’s son John H. Kinzie ran for the position of the first mayor of Chicago, losing to William Butler Ogden, he subsequently unsuccessful ran twice more, in 1845 and in 1847. Maria Kinzie, a granddaughter, married a captain in the US cavalry from Maryland, he served as a general in the Confederate Army. His great-granddaughter, Juliette Gordon Low, was the founder of the Girl Sc

Mount Hawke

Mount Hawke is a village in Cornwall, United Kingdom. It is situated eight miles west-northwest of Truro, five miles north-northeast of Redruth, two and a half miles south of St Agnes; the village is in a former mining area in the administrative civil parish of St Agnes. It has Mount Hawke Community Primary School, a post office and various shops; the settlements bordering Mount Hawke are Menagissey. An electoral ward termed Mount Portreath exists; the population as of the 2011 census was 4,401. Mount Hawke ecclesiastical parish was created in 1847 from part of the parish of Perranzabuloe and a smaller part of the parish of Illogan. Before this date, Mount Hawke was enumerated under St Agnes; the parish has been in the Hundred of the Truro Registration District since its creation. It is in the archdeaconry of Cornwall; the parish church is dedicated to St John the Baptist. It is built of local stone with Bath stone dressings in the Perpendicular style and was consecrated on 5 August 1878 by the Bishop of Truro, Edward Benson.

Mount Hawke has an active Methodist chapel. Mount Hawke is the location of Cornwall's largest indoor skatepark. There is a cricket club which plays in the Cornwall League; the village has a park called the'Millennium Green' with a jungle gym, a slide and swings.'The Mount Hawke Boys' is a private club for young people. Mount Hawke has its own Women's Institute building and a playschool held in the Methodist church; when the first section of the Truro and Newquay Railway was opened in 1903, it passed east of the village. In 1905, extra stations were provided along the line as halts. Mount Hawke Halt railway station was the first such halt for eastbound trains 1​5⁄8 miles from the junction with the main line west of Chacewater; the halt was nearly a mile from the village on the road to Chiverton Cross. The line closed in February 1963. British singer-songwriter Alex Parks, winner of the television show Fame Academy in 2003, was brought up in Mount Hawke


Plietesials are plants that grow for a number of years, flower gregariously, set seed and die. The length of the cycle can vary between 16 years. For example, the Neelakurinji plant flowers every 12 years and bloomed as expected in 2006 in the Munnar region of Kerala, India. Certain species of unrelated families of flowering plants are plietesial; the term plietesial has been used in reference to perennial monocarpic plants “of the kind most met with in the Strobilanthinae” that grow gregariously, flower following a long interval, set seed, die. Other used expressions or terms describing a plietesial life history include gregarious flowering, mast seeding, supra-annual synchronized semelparity, it is not clear why gregarious flowering after long vegetative intervals would be associated with death after flowering, although both are associated with higher reproductive outputs. A good description of this Natural History aspect of a plant's life cycle can be found in the following report: A plietesial life history has long been noted for certain species among unrelated families of flowering plants including Poaceae, Scrophulariaceae, Fabaceae and Acanthaceae.

Bremekamp used the term plietesial in reference to perennial monocarpic plants “of the kind most met with in the Strobilanthinae” that grow gregariously, flower following an interval of several years, set seed, die. A similar life history is well known and documented among certain bamboos. In plietesials, the seed crop germinates shortly following the mass death of the parental plants and initiates a new cycle with the same periodicity. Other used expressions that apply to part or all of the plietesial life history include: gregarious flowering, mast seeding, supra-annual synchronized semelparity. There is considerable variation in life history for Strobilanthes. Most known plietesial Strobilanthes take between 10 and 15 years to flower gregariously, set seed, die; the flowering periodicity in all individuals is 100%, with the result that flowering of rare individuals in non-mass-flowering years is not uncommon. In some species, mass flowering occurs over a wide area on a species-specific cycle.

Some species flower gregariously in certain years but do not die following the mass flowering, are therefore not plietesial. At least one species exhibits different flowering patterns in different portions of its range; the perennial Strobilanthes wallichii flowers annually in the eastern Himalayan portion of its range and plietesially in the western Himalayan portion. Literature reports of life history for some taxa are ambiguous. For example, Robinson noted a 12 year plietesial cycle for S. consanguineus C. B. Clarke whereas Bowden indicated; such discrepancies result either from misidentifications of or life history variations within taxa. Semelparity Monocarpic Masting Strobilanthes callosus Strobilanthes kunthiana Daniel, Thomas F. 2006. Synchronous flowering and monocarpy suggest plietesial life history for neotropical Stenostephanus chiapensis. PROCEEDINGS OF THE CALIFORNIA ACADEMY OF SCIENCES. Fourth Series. Volume 57, No. 38, pp. 1011–1018, 1 fig. December 28, 2006

Arnold Houbraken

Arnold Houbraken was a Dutch painter and writer from Dordrecht, now remembered as a biographer of Dutch Golden Age painters. Houbraken was sent first to learn threadtwisting from Johannes de Haan, who introduced him to engraving. After two years he studied art with Willem van Drielenburch, who he was with during the rampjaar, the year 1672, he studied 9 months with Jacobus Leveck and four years with Samuel van Hoogstraten. In 1685 he married Sara Sasbout, around 1709 he moved from Dordrecht to Amsterdam. Arnold Houbraken painted mythological and religious paintings and landscapes, he is best known for the art historical work The Great Theatre of Dutch Painters. When he died his son Jacob assisted his mother with the last proofs of the manuscript before publishing, his first attempt at an instructive manual for artists was his Emblem book, Inhoud van't Sieraad der Afbeelding, meant as a guide of possible painting themes. His registered pupils were Matthijs Balen, Johan Graham, his son Jacob. Houbraken had ten children.

His son Jacobus Houbraken was an engraver of portraits and book illustrations, including books by his father. His daughter Antonina Houbraken became an engraver for an Amsterdam publisher, is known today for her embellishment of cityscapes and buildings with animals and people, his daughter Christina Houbraken was an artist. Arnold Houbraken's books sold quite well during the entire 18th century. Jacob Campo Weyerman published his updated version in serial form, published as a complete set in 1769. Houbraken's engravings of the artists are in some cases the only surviving portraits of these people; the first to make a published sequel to Houbraken's work was Johan van Gool in 1750–51. Though these books published well, with changing fashions, during the course of the 19th century Houbraken fell out of favor with art historians when his sketches were found wanting, incorrect, or slanderous. Houbraken was careful to check and double check his sources, today many of his personal judgements still stand up to our modern scrutiny.

Attacks of his judgement due to the spelling of artist's names or accusations that he was nationalistic and deemed all of these artists as "Netherlandish" must be dismissed on the grounds that the various borders between the Netherlands and Flanders were far from decided in the period during which he was writing, spelling conventions in the Netherlands regarding names were only introduced by Napoleonic decree in the 1790s. Excepting those cases where the artist died quite young, or whose oeuvre was lost during various wars few artists were included in the Schouburg who do not hang in international museums today; the first modern art historian to publish an update of his work was Adriaan van der Willigen, in 1866. Since he has remained a valuable resource for art historians; the Schouburgh is part of the Basic Library of the dbnl which contains the 1000 most important works in Dutch literature from the Middle Ages to today. Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen, Rotterdam Rijksmuseum Amsterdam Aen den heere Jakob Zeeus, den Wolf in't schaepsvel ter drukpersse bestellende In: De wolf in't schaepsvel Inhoud van't Sieraad der Afbeelding In: Des menschen begin, midden en einde De groote schouburgh der Nederlantsche konstschilders en schilderessen The Man behind the Painter Schouburg in the Digitale Bibliotheek der Nederlandse Letteren Schouburg on Google books

KPI-driven code analysis

KPI driven code analysis is a method of analyzing software source code and source code related IT systems to gain insight into business critical aspects of the development of a software system such as team-performance, time-to-market, risk-management, failure-prediction and much more. The KPI driven code analysis - developed at the Hasso Plattner Institute - is a static program analysis of source code for the purpose of improving software quality. However, the KPI driven code analysis does not only analyze the source code. Other information sources, such as coding activities, are included to create a comprehensive impression of the quality and development progress of a software system. KPI driven code analysis is a automated process which thus enables team activities and modifications to the overall source code of a software system to be monitored in real time. In this way, negative trends become evident as soon; this “early warning system” thus offers a powerful instrument for reducing costs and increasing development speed.

Through the early-warning approach of KPI driven code analysis, every newly introduced level of complexity is discovered in good time and its impact can thus be minimized. Instead of wasting valuable time trying to reduce legacy complexities, developers can use their time for new functionality, helping the team increase productivity; the “human factor” is included in the KPI driven code analysis which means that it looks at which code was registered by which developer and when. In this way, the quality of software delivered by each individual developer can be determined and any problems in employee qualification and motivation can be identified early and appropriate measures introduced to resolve them. In order to determine the key performance indicators – figures which are crucial to the productivity and success of software development projects – numerous data sources related to the software code are read out. For this purpose, KPI driven code analysis borrows methods taken from data mining and business intelligence, otherwise used in accounting and customer analytics.

The KPI driven code analysis extracts data from the following sources and consolidates them in an analysis data model. On this data model, the values of the key performance indicators are calculated; the data sources include, in particular: Revision Control known as version control. In this system every step of each individual developer is tracked for the entire life cycle of the software system; the data describes: “Which developer changed what when.” This data provides a basis for answering the question, “What effort or development cost has been invested in which areas of code?” Prominent revision control systems are Subversion, Perforce, Synergy, ClearCase, … Software Test Systems. These provide a read-out as to which parts of the source code have been tested. With this information, it becomes obvious where there are gaps in testing even where these gaps were intentionally left. Bug Tracking Systems; this information can be used in combination with the information provided by the revision control system to help draw conclusions on the error rate of particular areas of code.

Issue tracking systems. The information produced by these systems, in conjunction with the information from revision control, enables conclusions to be drawn regarding development activity related to specific technical requirements. In addition, precise data on time investment can be utilized for the analysis. Performance profilers; the data on the performance of the software system help to analyze which areas of code consume the most CPU resources. Due to the many influencing factors which feed into the analysis data model, methods of optimizing the source code can be identified as well as requirements for action in the areas of employee qualification, employee direction and development processes: Knowledge as to where source code needs to be reworked because it is too complex or has an inferior runtime performance: Deep nesting which exponentially increases the number of control flow paths. Huge, monolithic code units in which several aspects have been mixed together so that to change one aspect, changes have to be implemented at several points.

Identification of unnecessary multi-threading. Multi-threading is an large error source; the run-time behavior of multi-threading code is hard to comprehend meaning the cost and effort required for extensions or maintenance to it is correspondingly high. Thus, as a general rule, unnecessary multi-threading should be avoided. Identification of insufficient exception handling. If there are too few try-catch blocks in the code or if nothing is executed in the catch function, the consequences, if program errors arise, can be serious. Identification of which sections of source code have been altered since the last software test, i.e. where tests must be performed and where not. This information enables software tests to be planned more intelligently: new functionality can be tested more intensively or resources saved. Knowledge of how much cost and effort will be required for the development or extension of a particular software module: When extending existing software modules, a recommendation for action could be to undertake code refactoring.

Any newly developed functionality can be analyzed to ascertain whether a target/performance analysis has been performed for the costs and if so why. Were the causes of the deviations from the plan identified, can measures be implemented to increase accuracy in future planning. By tracing which developer produced which source code and examining the software created over a sustained period, any

Vicia hirsuta

Vicia hirsuta is a species of flowering plant from the large genus Vicia. It is an annual herb producing a slender four-sided, hairless to hairy, climbing stem up to 70 to 90 centimeters tall, known to well exceed one meter at times; the leaves are tipped with tendrils. The leaves are made up of up to 10 pairs of elongated leaflets each up to 2 centimeters in length with notched, flat pointed, or toothed tips; the inflorescence is a raceme of up to 8 flowers borne near the tip and on one side only. Each flower is whitish or pale blue, just a few millimeters in length, short-lived; the fruit is a legume pod up to a centimeter long by half a centimeter wide and hairy densely so. It is pale green to nearly black in color and contains two seeds, it is native to Western Asia. It can be found on other continents as an introduced species. For example, hairy vetch is used in cover crops and green manures on farms in North America. Common vetch or hairy vetch provides the leguminous component of the crop comingled with a grassy component as a nurse crop and an addition of more cellulose to the resultant organic matter.

The species Vicia villosa is called hairy vetch. Jepson Manual Treatment USDA Plants Profile Washington Burke Museum AgroAtlas: Economic Plants Photo gallery