English Civil War
The English Civil War was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians and Royalists over, the manner of England's governance. The first and second wars pitted the supporters of King Charles I against the supporters of the Long Parliament, while the third saw fighting between supporters of King Charles II and supporters of the Rump Parliament; the war ended with the Parliamentarian victory at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651. The overall outcome of the war was threefold: the trial and execution of Charles I. In England, the monopoly of the Church of England on Christian worship was ended, while in Ireland the victors consolidated the established Protestant Ascendancy. Constitutionally, the wars established the precedent that an English monarch cannot govern without Parliament's consent, although the idea of Parliament as the ruling power of England was only established as part of the Glorious Revolution in 1688; the term "English Civil War" appears most in the singular form, although historians divide the conflict into two or three separate wars.
These wars were not restricted to England as Wales was a part of the Kingdom of England and was affected accordingly, the conflicts involved wars with, civil wars within, both Scotland and Ireland. The war in all these countries is known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. In the early 19th century, Sir Walter Scott referred to it as "the Great Civil War". Unlike other civil wars in England, which focused on who should rule, this war was more concerned with the manner in which the kingdoms of England and Ireland were governed; the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica called the series of conflicts the "Great Rebellion", while some historians – Marxists such as Christopher Hill – have long favoured the term "English Revolution". The two sides had their geographical strongholds, such that minority elements were fled; the strongholds of the royalty included the countryside, the shires, the less economically developed areas of northern and western England. On the other hand, all the cathedral cities sided with Parliament.
All the industrial centers, the ports, the economically advanced regions of southern and eastern England were parliamentary strongholds. Lacey Baldwin Smith says, "the words populous and rebellious seemed to go hand in hand". Many of the officers and veteran soldiers of the English Civil War studied and implemented war strategies, learned and perfected in other wars across Europe, namely by the Spanish and the Dutch during the Dutch war for independence which began in 1568; the main battle tactic came to be known as pike and shot infantry, in which the two sides would line up, facing each other, with infantry brigades of musketeers in the centre, carrying matchlock muskets. The brigades would arrange themselves in lines of musketeers, three deep, where the first row would kneel, the second would crouch, the third would stand, allowing all three to fire a volley simultaneously. At times there would be two groups of three lines allowing one group to reload while the other group arranged themselves and fired.
Mixed in among the musketeers were pikemen carrying pikes that were between 12 feet and 18 feet long, whose primary purpose was to protect the musketeers from cavalry charges. Positioned on each side of the infantry were the cavalry, with a right-wing led by the lieutenant-general, a left-wing by the commissary general; the Royalist cavaliers' skill and speed on horseback led to many early victories. Prince Rupert, the leader of the king's cavalry, learned a tactic while fighting in the Dutch army where the cavalry would charge at full speed into the opponent's infantry firing their pistols just before impact. However, with Oliver Cromwell and the introduction of the more disciplined New Model Army, a group of disciplined pikemen would stand their ground in the face of charging cavalry and could have a devastating effect. While the Parliamentarian cavalry were slower than the cavaliers, they were better disciplined; the Royalists had a tendency to chase down individual targets after the initial charge leaving their forces scattered and tired.
Cromwell's cavalry, on the other hand, was trained to operate as a single unit, which led to many decisive victories. The English Civil War broke out less than forty years after the death of Queen Elizabeth I in 1603. Elizabeth's death had resulted in the succession of her first cousin twice-removed, King James VI of Scotland, to the English throne as James I of England, creating the first personal union of the Scottish and English kingdoms; as King of Scots, James had become accustomed to Scotland's weak parliamentary tradition since assuming control of the Scottish government in 1583, so that upon assuming power south of the border, the new King of England was genuinely affronted by the constraints the English Parliament attempted to place on him in exchange for money. In spite of this, James's personal extravagance meant he was perennially short of money and had to resort to extra-Parliamentary sources of income; this extravagance was tempered by James's peaceful disposition, so that by the su
The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, to a lesser extent that of England and of Ireland, during the 17th century. Presbyterian denominations tracing their history to the Covenanters and incorporating the name continue the ideas and traditions in Scotland and internationally, they derived their name from the word covenant meaning a band, legal document or agreement, with particular reference to the Covenant between God and the Israelites in the Old Testament. The Covenanters are so named for the series of bands or covenants by which the adherents bound themselves to maintain the Presbyterian doctrine and polity as the sole form of religion of their country; the first "godly band" of the Lords of the Congregation and their followers is dated December 1557. Based on the Scots Confession of Faith of 1560, this document denounced the Pope and the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church in no measured terms, it was adopted by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, signed by King James VI and his household, enjoined on persons of all ranks and classes, was subscribed to again in 1590 and 1596.
In 1637, Scotland was in a state of turmoil. King Charles I and William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury, met with a reverse in their efforts to impose a new liturgy on the Scots; the new liturgy had been devised by a panel of Scottish bishops, including Archbishop Spottiswoode of St. Andrews, but a riot against its use was orchestrated in St Giles' Cathedral, ostensibly started by Jenny Geddes. Fearing further measures on the part of the king, it occurred to Archibald Johnston to revive the Negative Confession of 1581 in a form suited to the times. Together with the cooperation of Alexander Henderson, this National Covenant was finalized in early 1638. Additional matter intended to suit the document to the special circumstances of the time was added a recital of the acts of parliament against "superstitious and papistical rites" and an elaborate oath to maintain the reformed religion; the Covenant was adopted and signed by a large gathering in the kirkyard of Greyfriars Kirk in Edinburgh, on 28 February 1638, after which copies were sent throughout the country for signing.
The subscribers engaged by oath to maintain religion in the form that it existed in 1580, to reject all innovations introduced since that time, while professing loyalty to the king. It did not reject episcopacy but in effect undermined it; the year 1638 marked an apex of events for the Covenanters, for it was the time of broad confrontations with the established church supported by the monarchy. Confrontations occurred in several parts of Scotland, such as the one with the Bishops of Aberdeen by a high level assembly of Covenanters staging their operations from Muchalls Castle; the General Assembly of 1638 was composed of ardent Covenanters, in 1640 the Covenant was adopted by the Scottish parliament, its subscription being made a requirement for all citizens. Before this date, the Covenanters were referred to as Supplicants, but from about this time the former designation began to prevail; the Covenanters raised an army to resist Charles I's religious reforms, defeated him in the Bishops' Wars.
The crisis that this caused to the Stuart monarchy helped bring about the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which included the English Civil War, the Scottish Civil War and Irish Confederate Wars. For the following ten years of civil war in Britain, the Covenanters were the de facto government of Scotland. In 1642, they sent an army to Ulster in Ireland to protect the Scottish settlers there from the Irish Catholic rebels who had attacked them in the Irish Rebellion of 1641; the Scottish army remained in Ireland until the end of the civil wars, but was confined to its garrison around Carrickfergus after its defeat at the Battle of Benburb in 1646. A further Covenanter military intervention began in 1643; the leaders of the English Parliament, worsted in the English Civil War, implored the aid of the Scots, promised on condition that the Scottish system of church government would be adopted in England. Following considerable debate, a document called the Solemn Covenant was drawn up; this was in effect a treaty between England and Scotland which called for the preservation of the reformed religion in Scotland and the reformation of religion in England and Ireland "according to the word of God and the example of the best reformed churches", the extirpation of popery and prelacy.
It did not explicitly mention Presbyterianism and included some ambiguous formulations that left the door open to Independency. It was subscribed to by many in both kingdoms and in Ireland, was approved by the English Parliament, with some slight modifications by the Westminster Assembly of Divines; this agreement meant that the Covenanters sent another army south to England to fight on the Parliamentarian side in the First English Civil War. The Scottish armies in England were instrumental in bringing about the victory of the English Parliament over the king. In turn, this sparked the outbreak of civil war in Scotland in 1644–47, as Scottish Royalist opponents of the Covenanters took up arms against them. Royalism was most common among Scottish Roman Catholics and Episcopalians, who were opposed to the Covenanters' imposition of their religious settlement on the country; the Covenanters' enemies, led by James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose and aided by an Irish expeditionary force and Highland clans led by Alasdair Mac Col
Battle of Marston Moor
The Battle of Marston Moor was fought on 2 July 1644, during the First English Civil War of 1642–1646. The combined forces of the English Parliamentarians under Lord Fairfax and the Earl of Manchester and the Scottish Covenanters under the Earl of Leven defeated the Royalists commanded by Prince Rupert of the Rhine and the Marquess of Newcastle. During the summer of 1644, the Covenanters and Parliamentarians had been besieging York, defended by the Marquess of Newcastle. Rupert had gathered an army which marched through the northwest of England, gathering reinforcements and fresh recruits on the way, across the Pennines to relieve the city; the convergence of these forces made. On 1 July, Rupert outmanoeuvred the Parliamentarians to relieve the city; the next day, he sought battle with them though he was outnumbered. He was dissuaded from attacking and during the day both sides gathered their full strength on Marston Moor, an expanse of wild meadow west of York. Towards evening, the Parliamentarians themselves launched a surprise attack.
After a confused fight lasting two hours, Parliamentarian cavalry under Oliver Cromwell routed the Royalist cavalry from the field and, with Leven's infantry, annihilated the remaining Royalist infantry. After their defeat the Royalists abandoned Northern England, losing much of the manpower from the northern counties of England and losing access to the European continent through the ports on the North Sea coast. Although they retrieved their fortunes with victories in the year in Southern England, the loss of the north was to prove a fatal handicap the next year, when they tried unsuccessfully to link up with the Scottish Royalists under the Marquess of Montrose. In Northern England, the Royalists had the advantage in numbers and local support, except in parts of Lancashire and the West Riding of Yorkshire, where the Parliamentarians had support from the clothing-manufacturing towns which "naturally maligned the gentry". On 30 June 1643, the Royalists commanded by the Marquess of Newcastle defeated the Parliamentarian army of Lord Fairfax at the Battle of Adwalton Moor near Bradford.
Fairfax and his son, Sir Thomas Fairfax, fled with their remaining forces to the port of Hull, held for Parliament. Newcastle sent some of his army south into Lincolnshire, as part of a planned "three-pronged" advance on London, but was forced to besiege Hull with most of his forces; the siege failed, as the Parliamentarian navy could supply and reinforce the port and the garrison flooded wide areas around the city, while the Royalist detachments sent into Lincolnshire were defeated at the Battle of Gainsborough and the Battle of Winceby. In late 1643, the English Civil War widened. King Charles I negotiated a "cessation" in Ireland, which allowed him to reinforce his armies with English regiments, sent to Ireland following the Irish Rebellion of 1641, but Parliament took an greater step by signing the Solemn League and Covenant, sealing an alliance with the Scottish Covenanters. Early in 1644, a Covenanter army under the Earl of Leven entered the north of England on behalf of the English Parliament.
The Marquess of Newcastle was forced to divide his army, leaving a detachment under Sir John Belasyse to watch the Parliamentarians under Lord Fairfax in Hull, while he led his main body north to confront Leven. During March and early April, the Marquess of Newcastle fought several delaying actions as he tried to prevent the Scots from crossing the River Tyne and surrounding the city of Newcastle upon Tyne. Meanwhile, a Parliamentarian cavalry force under Sir Thomas Fairfax, campaigning in Cheshire and Lancashire during the winter, crossed the Pennines and entered the West Riding of Yorkshire. To prevent Sir Thomas rejoining Lord Fairfax in Hull, Belasyse occupied the town of Selby which lay between them. On 11 April, Sir Thomas Fairfax's force, reinforced by infantry under Sir John Meldrum, stormed Selby, capturing Belasyse and most of his force. Hearing the news, Newcastle realised. York was the principal city and bastion of Royalist power in the north of England, its loss would be a serious blow to the Royalist cause.
He hastily retreated there to forestall the Fairfaxes. Leven left a detachment under the Earl of Callendar to mask the Royalist garrison of Newcastle upon Tyne, followed the Marquess of Newcastle's army with his main body. On 22 April and the Fairfaxes joined forces at Wetherby, about 14 miles west of York. Together, they began the Siege of York; the siege was a rather loose blockade as the Covenanters and Parliamentarians concentrated on capturing smaller Royalist garrisons which threatened their communications with Hull. On 3 June, they were reinforced by the Parliamentarian army of the Eastern Association under the Earl of Manchester. York was now encircled and siege operations began in earnest. Leven was accepted as commander in chief of the three combined allied armies before York, it was politic to make the Scottish Covenanters pre-eminent in the north as they were the largest single contingent in the army, but Leven was a respected veteran of the Thirty Years' War. News of the siege soon reached Oxford.
From 24 April to 5 May, he held a council of war attended by his nephew and most renowned field commander, Prince Rupert. It was settled. Rupert set out from Shrewsbury with a small force on 16 May, his first moves were intended to ga
Bradford is a city in West Yorkshire, England, in the foothills of the Pennines, 8.6 miles west of Leeds, 16 miles north-west of Wakefield. Bradford became a municipal borough in 1847, received its charter as a city in 1897. Following local government reform in 1974, city status was bestowed upon the City of Bradford metropolitan borough. Bradford forms part of the West Yorkshire Urban Area, which in 2001 had a population of 1.5 million and is the fourth largest in the United Kingdom, with Bradford itself having a population of 529,870. Part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, Bradford rose to prominence in the 19th century as an international centre of textile manufacture wool, it was a boomtown of the Industrial Revolution, amongst the earliest industrialised settlements becoming the "wool capital of the world". The area's access to a supply of coal, iron ore and soft water facilitated the growth of Bradford's manufacturing base, which, as textile manufacture grew, led to an explosion in population and was a stimulus to civic investment.
The textile sector in Bradford fell into decline from the mid-20th century. Bradford has since emerged as a tourist destination, becoming the first UNESCO City of Film with attractions such as the National Science and Media Museum, Bradford City Park, the Alhambra theatre and Cartwright Hall. Bradford has faced similar challenges to the rest of post-industrial Northern England, including deindustrialisation, social unrest and economic deprivation; the name Bradford is derived from the Old English brad and ford the broad ford which referred to a crossing of the Bradford Beck at Church Bank below the site of Bradford Cathedral, around which a settlement grew in Saxon times. It was recorded as "Bradeford" in 1086. After an uprising in 1070, during William the Conqueror's Harrying of the North, the manor of Bradford was laid waste and is described as such in the Domesday Book of 1086, it became part of the Honour of Pontefract given to Ilbert de Lacy for service to the Conqueror, in whose family the manor remained until 1311.
There is evidence of a castle in the time of the Lacys. The manor passed to the Earl of Lincoln, John of Gaunt, The Crown and private ownership in 1620. By the middle ages Bradford, had become a small town centred on Kirkgate and Ivegate. In 1316 there is mention of a fulling mill, a soke mill where all the manor corn was milled and a market. During the Wars of the Roses the inhabitants sided with House of Lancaster. Edward IV granted the right to hold two annual fairs and from this time the town began to prosper. In the reign of Henry VIII Bradford exceeded Leeds as a manufacturing centre. Bradford grew over the next two-hundred years as the woollen trade gained in prominence. During the Civil War the town was garrisoned for the Parliamentarians and in 1642 was unsuccessfully attacked by Royalist forces from Leeds. Sir Thomas Fairfax took the command of the garrison and marched to meet the Duke of Newcastle but was defeated; the Parliamentarians retreated to Bradford and the Royalists set up headquarters at Bolling Hall from where the town was besieged leading to its surrender.
The Civil War caused a decline in industry but after the accession of William III and Mary II in 1689 prosperity began to return. The launch of manufacturing in the early 18th century marked the start of the town's development while new canal and turnpike road links encouraged trade. In 1801, Bradford was a rural market town of 6,393 people, where wool spinning and cloth weaving was carried out in local cottages and farms. Bradford was thus not much bigger than nearby Keighley and was smaller than Halifax and Huddersfield; this small town acted as a hub for three nearby townships – Manningham and Great and Little Horton, which were separated from the town by countryside. Blast furnaces were established in about 1788 by Hird, Dawson Hardy at Low Moor and iron was worked by the Bowling Iron Company until about 1900. Yorkshire iron was used for shackles and piston rods for locomotives, colliery cages and other mining appliances where toughness was required; the Low Moor Company made pig iron and the company employed 1,500 men in 1929.
When the municipal borough of Bradford was created in 1847 there were 46 coal mines within its boundaries. Coal output continued to expand, reaching a peak in 1868 when Bradford contributed a quarter of all the coal and iron produced in Yorkshire. In 1825 the wool-combers union called a strike that lasted five-months but workers were forced to return to work through hardship leading to the introduction of machine-combing; this Industrial Revolution led to rapid growth, with wool imported in vast quantities for the manufacture of worsted cloth in which Bradford specialised, the town soon became known as the wool capital of the world. A permanent military presence was established in the city with the completion of Bradford Moor Barracks in 1844. Bradford had ample supplies of locally mined coal to provide the power. Local sandstone was an excellent resource for building the mills, with a population of 182,000 by 1850, the town grew as workers were attracted by jobs in the textile mills. A desperate shortage of water in Bradford Dale was a serious limitation on industrial expansion and improvement in urban sanitary conditions.
In 1854 Bradford Corporation bought the Bradford Water Company and embarked on a huge engineering programme to bring supplies of soft water from Airedale and Nidderdale. By 1882 water supply had radically improved. Meanwhile, urban expansion took place along the routes out of the city towards th
Drake's Island is a 6.5-acre island lying in Plymouth Sound, the stretch of water south of the city of Plymouth, Devon. The rocks which make up the island are volcanic tuff and lava, together with marine limestone of the mid-Devonian period; the first recorded name for the island was in 1135, when it was referred to as St Michael's after the chapel erected on it. At some date the chapel was rededicated to St Nicholas and the island adopted the same name. From the latter part of the 16th century the island was referred to as Drake's Island after Sir Francis Drake, the English privateer who used Plymouth as his home port. Well into the 19th century and other references continued to refer to the island as St Nicholas's Island and it is only in about the last 100 years that this name has slipped into disuse and the name Drake's Island has been adopted, it was from here that Drake sailed in 1577, to return in 1580 having circumnavigated the world, in 1583 Drake was made governor of the island. From 1549 the island began to be fortified as a defence against the French and Spanish, with barracks for 300 men being built on the island in the late 16th century.
For several centuries, the island remained the focal point of the defence of the three original towns that were to become modern Plymouth. In 1665 the Roundhead Robert Lilburne died imprisoned on the island, he had been sentenced to life imprisonment for his part in the Regicide of Charles I. A few years John Lambert, a Roundhead General, was moved to Drake's Island from Guernsey, where he had been imprisoned since 1662. Like Lilburne, he never regained his liberty, dying on Drake's Island in the winter of 1683. In June 1774 the first recorded submarine fatality in history occurred north of Drake's Island, when a carpenter named John Day perished while testing a wooden diving chamber attached to the sloop Maria; the 1859 Royal Commission on the Defence of the United Kingdom recommended a huge programme of new fortifications to defend Plymouth. On Drake's Island, the existing battery at the centre of the island was to be replaced by five 12-inch muzzle loading guns in open emplacements. A new battery was to be built on the southwestern end, of 21 9-inch guns in an arc of stone casemates with iron shields.
The work was not complete in 1880. Six 12-pounder quick firing guns were added in 1897 and three 6-inch guns became the main armament in 1901. In 1942, a modern twin 6-pounder gun was installed. Following World War II Drake's Island remained under the administration of the War Office, despite having announced in 1956 that it was no longer needed for defence purposes, did not vacate the island until 1963, when Plymouth City Council obtained a lease from the Crown with the aim of establishing a youth adventure training centre there; this centre was opened in 1964, the year in which a mains water supply reached the island. On 1 May 1987 the island got its first telephone line, using a cable attached to the mains water pipe; the telephone number was Plymouth 63393. The warden had used the Ministry of Defence system. Drake's Island Adventure Centre, under the custody of the Mayflower Centre Trust, operated until 31 March 1989, when the Mayflower Trust surrendered their lease to the Crown and sold off the boats and sports equipment.
In 1995, Drake's Island was put up for sale by the Crown Estate, with an asking price of £235,000, had numerous offers. In the end, a bidding war commenced between former Plymouth Argyle chairman, Dan McCauley, a Cheshire-born businessman who wanted to open it to the public. McCauley's bid was successful and he bought the island for £384,000 in 1995, with plans to turn it into a hotel complex. In 2003, Plymouth City Council turned down a planning application from McCauley to build a hotel and leisure complex complete with helipad; as of 2014 the island contains derelict military barracks and buildings from the Napoleonic era, an MoD radio mast. In May 2005 the island attracted British media attention when one of the empty buildings on the island was squatted by a group of anti-nuclear protestors, Trident Ploughshares. With planning consent secured in April 2017, details have been released showing how the Grade II-listed Island House, barracks block and ablutions building could be linked to form a £10 million-plus hotel and spa complex containing 25 bedrooms.
In October 2018, the island was put up for sale for £6 million. Woodward, Freddy; the Historic Defences of Plymouth. Cornwall County Council. ISBN 978-1898166467. History of the island Victorian Forts data sheet
The Restoration of the English monarchy took place in the Stuart period. It began in 1660 when the English and Irish monarchies were all restored under King Charles II; this followed the Interregnum called the Protectorate, that followed the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. The term Restoration is used to describe both the actual event by which the monarchy was restored, the period of several years afterwards in which a new political settlement was established, it is often used to cover the whole reign of Charles II and the brief reign of his younger brother James II. In certain contexts it may be used to cover the whole period of the Stuart monarchs as far as the death of Queen Anne and the accession of the Hanoverian George I in 1714; the Commonwealth, which preceded the English Restoration, might have continued if Oliver Cromwell's son Richard, made Lord Protector on his father's death, had been capable of carrying on his father's policies. Richard Cromwell's main weakness was. After seven months, an army faction known as the Wallingford House party removed him on 6 May 1659 and reinstalled the Rump Parliament.
Charles Fleetwood was appointed a member of the Committee of Safety and of the Council of State, one of the seven commissioners for the army. On 9 June 1659, he was nominated lord-general of the army. However, his leadership was undermined in Parliament, which chose to disregard the army's authority in a similar fashion to the post-First Civil War Parliament. A royalist uprising was planned for 1 August 1659. However, Sir George Booth gained control of Cheshire. Booth held Cheshire until the end of August; the Commons, on 12 October 1659, cashiered General John Lambert and other officers, installed Fleetwood as chief of a military council under the authority of the Speaker. The next day Lambert ordered that the doors of the House be shut and the members kept out. On 26 October a "Committee of Safety" was appointed, of which Lambert were members. Lambert was appointed major-general of all the forces in England and Scotland, Fleetwood being general; the Committee of Safety sent Lambert with a large force to meet George Monck, in command of the English forces in Scotland, either negotiate with him or force him to come to terms.
It was into this atmosphere that Monck, the governor of Scotland under the Cromwells, marched south with his army from Scotland. Lambert's army began to desert him, he returned to London alone. Monck marched to London unopposed; the Presbyterian members, excluded in Pride's Purge of 1648, were recalled, on 24 December the army restored the Long Parliament. Fleetwood was deprived of his command and ordered to appear before Parliament to answer for his conduct. On 3 March 1660, Lambert was sent to the Tower of London, he tried to rekindle the civil war in favour of the Commonwealth by issuing a proclamation calling on all supporters of the "Good Old Cause" to rally on the battlefield of Edgehill, but he was recaptured by Colonel Richard Ingoldsby, a participant in the regicide of Charles I who hoped to win a pardon by handing Lambert over to the new regime. Lambert was incarcerated and died in custody on Guernsey in 1694. On 4 April 1660, Charles II issued the Declaration of Breda, in which he made several promises in relation to the reclamation of the crown of England.
Monck organised the Convention Parliament. On 8 May it proclaimed that King Charles II had been the lawful monarch since the execution of Charles I on 30 January 1649. "Constitutionally, it was as if the last nineteen years had never happened." Charles returned from exile, landing at Dover on 25 May. He entered London on his 30th birthday. To celebrate His Majesty's Return to his Parliament, 29 May was made a public holiday, popularly known as Oak Apple Day, he was crowned at Westminster Abbey on 23 April 1661. Some contemporaries described the Restoration as "a divinely ordained miracle"; the sudden and unexpected deliverance from usurpation and tyranny was interpreted as a restoration of the natural and divine order. The Cavalier Parliament convened for the first time on 8 May 1661, it would endure for over 17 years being dissolved on 24 January 1679. Like its predecessor, it was overwhelmingly Royalist, it is known as the Pensionary Parliament for the many pensions it granted to adherents of the King.
The leading political figure at the beginning of the Restoration was Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon. It was the "skill and wisdom of Clarendon" which had "made the Restoration unconditional". Many Royalist exiles were rewarded. Prince Rupert of the Rhine returned to the service of England, became a member of the privy council, was provided with an annuity. George Goring, 1st Earl of Norwich, returned to be the Captain of the King's guard and received a pension. Marmaduke Langdale returned and was made "Baron Langdale". William Cavendish, Marquess of Newcastle and was able to regain the greater part of his estates, he was invested in 1666 with the Order of the Garter, was advanced to a dukedom on 16 March 1665. The Indemnity and Oblivion Act, which became law on 29 August 1660, pardoned all past treason against the crown, but excluded those involved in the trial and execution of Charles I. Thirty-one of the 59 commissioners (
Sir Bulstrode Whitelocke was an English lawyer, writer and Lord Keeper of the Great Seal of England. He was the eldest son of Sir James Whitelocke and Elizabeth Bulstrode, was born on 6 August 1605 at George Croke's house in Fleet Street, London, he was baptized on 19 August 1605 at the nearby church of St Dunstan-in-the-West, where his mother's parents were married in 1571. The vicar demurred, but Edmund insisted that he bear his mother's name, "Bulstrode or Elizabeth, let them choose which they please." Bulstrode was educated at Eton College at Merchant Taylors' School and at St John's College, where he matriculated on 8 December 1620. He left Oxford, without a degree, for the Middle Temple, was called to the bar in 1626 and chosen treasurer of his Temple in 1628, he was fond of field sports and of music, in 1633 he had charge of the music in the great masque performed by the Inns of Court before the king and queen. He was elected for Stafford in the parliament of 1626 and appointed recorder of Abingdon, Oxford and counsel for Henley.
In 1640 he was chosen member for Great Marlow in the Long Parliament. He took a prominent part in the proceedings against Strafford, was chairman of the committee of management, had charge of articles XIX.–XXIV. of the impeachment. He drew up the bill for making parliaments indissoluble except by their own consent, supported the Grand Remonstrance and the action taken in the House of Commons against the illegal canons. On the outbreak of the English Civil War he took the side of the parliament, using his influence in the country as deputy-lieutenant to prevent the king's raising troops in Buckinghamshire and Oxfordshire, he was sent to the king at Oxford both in 1643 and 1644 to negotiate terms, the secret communications with Charles on the latter occasion were the foundation of a charge of treason brought against Whitelocke and Denzil Holles later. He was again one of the commissioners at the Treaty of Uxbridge in 1645, he opposed the policy of Holles and the peace party and the proposed disbanding of the army in 1647, though one of the lay members of the assembly of divines, repudiated the claims of divine authority put forward by the Presbyterians for their church, approved of religious tolerance.
He thus gravitated more towards Oliver Cromwell and the army party, but he took no part either in the disputes between the army and the parliament or in the trial of the king. On the establishment of the Commonwealth, though out of sympathy with the government, he was nominated to the council of state and a commissioner of the Parliaments new Great Seal, he urged Cromwell after the Battle of Worcester and again in 1652 to recall the royal family, while in 1653 he disapproved of the expulsion of the Long Parliament and was marked out for attack by Cromwell in his speech on that occasion. In the autumn, in consequence, Whitelocke was despatched on a mission to Christina, queen of Sweden, to conclude a treaty of alliance and assure the freedom of the Sound. Retroactively, the diplomatic mission caused him to be considered as the first of the English and British Ambassadors to Sweden, though at the time this was not a regular or fixed position. On his return he resumed his office as commissioner of the Great Seal, was appointed a commissioner of the treasury with a salary of 1000, was returned to the parliament of 1654 for each of the four constituencies of Bedford, Exeter and Buckinghamshire, electing to sit for the latter constituency.
Whitelocke was a sound lawyer. He had hitherto shown himself not unfavourable to reform, having supported the bill introducing the use of English into legal proceedings, having drafted a new treason law, set on foot some alterations in chancery procedure. A tract advocating the registering of title-deeds is attributed to him, but he opposed the revolutionary innovations dictated by popular prejudices. He defeated the strange bill, he still, remained on good terms with Cromwell, by whom he was respected. In December 1657 he became a member of the Cromwell's Other House. On Richard Cromwell's assumption of the Protectorship he was reappointed a commissioner of the Great Seal, had considerable influence during the former's short tenure of power, he returned to his place in the Long Parliament on its recall, was appointed a member of the council of state on 14 May 1659, became president in August. He again received the Great Seal into his keeping on the first of November. During the period which preceded the Restoration he endeavoured to oppose George Monck's schemes, desired Charles Fleet