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John Lingard

Rev Dr John Lingard was an English Roman Catholic priest and historian, the author of The History of England, From the First Invasion by the Romans to the Accession of Henry VIII, an 8-volume work published in 1819. Lingard was a teacher at the English College at Douai, at the seminary at Crook Hall, St. Cuthbert's College. In 1811 he retired to Hornby in Lancashire to continue work on his writing. Born in 1771 in St Thomas Street in Central Winchester to recusant parents, John Lingard was the son of John and Elizabeth Rennell Lingard, his mother was from an old Catholic family, persecuted for their beliefs. Bishop Challoner recommended the young John Lingard for a burse at the English College at Douai, France, he entered the college in September 1782. At the English College, he excelled in the humanities before beginning the study of theology. At the end of his course in philosophy he was retained as professor of grammar at one of the lower schools. Narrowly escaping attacks by mobs at the time of the French Revolution upon the declaration of war between the Kingdom of Great Britain and France, he returned to England in 1793 in charge of two brothers named Oliveira and of William, afterwards Lord Stourton.

For nearly a year, he was tutor to young Stourton at Baron Stourton's residence near York. When Lingard learned that a number of his students from Douai had made it to Father Arthur Storey's school in Tudhoe, he asked leave of the Baron to join them, granted. In 1792 Rev. Thomas Eyre, was appointed to the mission of Pontop Hall, near Lanchester, County Durham. In 1794 Bishop William Gibson asked Eyre to take charge of the Northern students, expelled from Douai, who were temporarily at Tudhoe under John Lingard. Mr. Eyre relocated Lingard and his students to Pontop Hall, later to Crook Hall, all within a few miles of Durham. Nominally Lingard held the chair of philosophy. Lingard concluded his theological studies and was ordained at York in April 1795. In 1805, he wrote a series of letters which, after their publication in a periodical, were collected as Catholic Loyalty Vindicated. In 1806 the first edition of The Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon Church appeared, a development of his informal lectures.

He remained at Crook Hall for fourteen years until in 1808, the seminary moved to St. Cuthbert's College. Lingard donated a stained glass window to St. Cuthbert's Chapel at Ushaw. Upon the death of Father Eyre in 1810, having continued as Vice-President, governed the college, at the same time teaching theology. In 1811, he retired to take charge of the secluded mission near Lancashire, he was offered the presidency of St Patrick's College, Maynooth and of Old Hall Green, but declined both. In 1819, the first three volumes of The History of England was published. Volume I was intended as textbook for schools. In 1821, Pope Pius VIII created Lingard a doctor of Divinity. A fourth volume followed in 1823, bringing the history up to the reign of Edward VI, he built St. Mary's Church with the proceeds from volume IV of the History of England. Lingard would refer to it in jest as "Henry VIII's Chapel"; when he traveled to Rome for research in 1825, Pope Leo XII presented him with a gold medal. Subsequent volumes appeared at intervals until he completed the work in 1849.

Lingard authored the popular Catholic hymn to the Virgin Mary titled Hail Queen of Heaven, the Ocean Star, loosely based on the medieval Latin plainchant Ave maris stella. J. Vincent Higginson described it as "one of the oldest English vernacular hymns found in Catholic hymnals."Lingard died at Hornby on 17 July 1851 at the age of eighty-one. He was buried, in the cloister of the college cemetery at Ushaw; the Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon Church arose from a series of informal talks Lingard gave at Ushaw. They were compiled and edited, published at Newcastle in 1806. Lingard emphasized, he demonstrated that the church in England grew contemporaneously with expanding political structures, that the institutional structure of the church planted by Augustine of Canterbury developed within the politico-social environment of the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Lingard argued that "... By preserving the use of the Latin tongue, they imposed on the clergy the necessity of study, kept alive the spirit of improvement, transmitted to future generations the writings of the classics, the monuments of profane and ecclesiastical history."

In his discussion of saints and their holy books, Lingard implies a continuity between the Anglo-Saxon Christians and the English Roman Catholics of his own day, some of whom retained custody of the ancient manuscripts. The section regarding Ecgberht of Ripon and Saint Boniface suggests that a number of practices and traditions many of his contemporaries would regard as "Romish", where exported to the continent by Englishmen. By drawing a connection between Anglo-Saxon Christians and nineteenth century Roman Catholics he sought to show that the latter were not only good Christians, but good and loyal Englishmen; the principal object of his major work, The History of England, is to emphasise the disastrous effec


Wittersham is a small village and civil parish in the borough of Ashford in Kent, England. It is part of the Isle of Oxney; the Domesday Book of 1086 does not mention Wittersham, but it does assign the manor of Palstre to Odo, Bishop of Bayeux. Palstre was only one of four places in the Weald that had a church; the Domesday Book entry reads:- "In Oxenai hundred, Osbern Paisforiere holds Palestrei, from the Bishop. It is taxed at three yokes. Arable land for two ploughs. In demesne, nine smallholders have half a plough. There is a church, 2 servants, 10 acres of meadow, 5 fisheries at twelve pence, woodland for the pannage of 10 hogs. In the time of Edward the Confessor, it was worth forty shillings, now sixty shillings. Edwy the priest held it for King Edward." An early variation of the village name may be Wyghtresham. Early in the 18th century, the manor came into the ownership of Thomas Brodnax or May of Godmersham Park, Kent. May changed his name to Knight after inheriting estates from the Knight family in 1738 and, on his death in 1781, Owley passed to his son Thomas.

The younger Thomas Knight died childless in 1794, Owley passed to his widow Catherine of White Friars, Canterbury. Mrs Knight was lady of the manor in 1799; when she died in 1812, her husband's estates passed to his adopted son, Edward Austen Knight, brother of novelist Jane Austen, owner of Chawton House in Hampshire. Some time Edward Knight appears to have sold Owley to William Levett of Bodiam; when he died in 1842, Levett owned both the manors of Owley. He left Paltre to Owley to his younger daughter Emily, his Will devised to Emily "my freeholds, buildings, farm lands, containing altogether, by estimation, one hundred and seventy-two acres, more or less, situate lying and being in the Parish of Wittersham aforesaid called or known by the name of Owley Farm, with the apportionments thereto belonging". Emily Levett married Samuel Rutley, the Rutley family continued to own the manor until the end of the 19th century. At the turn of the 20th century, by which time holding the manor had ceased to be equivalent with ownership of most land and property, the Body family held Wittersham, Colonel Heyworth held Palstre, Mrs Samuel Rutley owned Owley.

The village has an award-winning CAMRA approved public house, The Swan, a restored white weatherboarded post mill, Stocks Mill. Wittersham housed a key listening post for downed pilots over the channel during the Second World War. There is a popular and well-attended Community market every Tuesday morning in the Village Hall specialising in organic and local fresh food as well as a variety of other products. Wittersham now has its own dedicated website run from within the village with information regarding local groups, what's on, Lost & Found. The website is being continually improved and is funded by the Wittersham Parish Council. Lord Alli - media entrepreneur and politician Laurence Alma-Tadema - English novelist and poet Thomas Braddock - clergyman and translator lived and died in the village Gabrielle Margaret Vere Campbell - author who wrote under many pseudonyms, including Marjorie Bowen and Joseph Shearing Gerald Campion - TV actor and club owner Tom Chaplin - Keane singer George Digweed MBE - 16 times World Sporting Shooter Champion Norman Forbes-Robertson - Victorian Shakespearean actor Norman Hackforth - long-time accompanist to Sir Noël Coward.

He was the famous Mystery Voice for the panel game Twenty Questions. James Harris - father of Major Sir William Cornwallis Harris, military engineer and hunter Paul Hutchinson MBE - Services to Royal Navy Mine Hunters Robert Hichens - Edwardian novelist John Howlett - screenwriter and author Laurence Irving - grandson & biographer of the famous Victorian actor Sir Henry Irving William Jowitt - MP, lawyer and Lord Chancellor William Gardner - English coin designer, engraver and writer Alfred Lyttelton - MP, athlete and sportsman Violet Markham - Liberal politician and women's activist Dave McKean - illustrator, comic book artist, graphic designer and musician Marti Pellow - singer with group Wet Wet Wet Sir Donald Sinden CBE - actor Marc Sinden - film director and West End theatre producer Arthur Symons - Welsh-born Symbolist poet Wittersham Village Website Statistical civil parish overview - map

Mineral industry of Peru

The mineral industry provides a major source of economic growth in Peru's national development. In 2006, Peru occupied a leading position in the global production of the following mineral commodities: fourth in arsenic trioxide, third in bismuth, third in copper, fifth in gold, fourth in lead, fourth in molybdenum, fourth in rhenium, first in silver, third in tin, third in zinc. In Latin America, Peru was the first ranked producer of, in order of value, silver, lead and tellurium and the second ranked producer of copper and bismuth. In 2006, Peru's economy benefited from high prices for mineral commodities. To date, the Government has privatized 220 state-owned firms via joint ventures and consortia in the mining and fuels industries; the firms have generated $9.2 billion, with an additional committed capital flow of about $11.4 billion, representing 17% and 21% of Peru's GDP, respectively. Privatizations and concessions generated a committed investment of $6.9 billion by mining companies such as Perú Copper Inc.

Toromocho copper project, Xstrata plc. for Las Bambas copper mine, Phelps Dodge for expansion of Cerro Verde copper mine, Monterrico Metals Inc. for Rio Blanco base metals project, Rio Tinto Limited for La Granja copper project, Southern Copper Corporation for expansion of Ilo smelter, Goldfields Ltd. for Cerro Corona copper-gold project, Companhia Vale do Rio Doce for the Bayovar phosphate project. The Ministerio de Energía y Minas reported that of the committed investment in 2006, Peru received $1 billion for gas and $200 million for petroleum. Petróleos del Perú was created on July 24, 1969 as a state-owned entity, dedicated sequentially to transportation and commercialization of refined products and other derivatives of petroleum. On June 2, 2004, the Peruvian Congress excluded PETROPERU S. A. from the privatization process and authorized its participation in the exploration and production of hydrocarbons. The state agency Perupetro S. A. was created on November 18, 1993 to promote investments for hydrocarbon exploration and production in the country.

Perupetro negotiates and administers hydrocarbon contracts, for which PETROPERU must compete with private firms as well. In 2006, PETROPERU invested $4.5 billion in the hydrocarbon sector. The mineral industry in Peru has generated controversy. While the mineral industry has spurred national economic growth, it has produced changes to the environment that compromise rural populations' livelihoods; as a result, there has been a rise in corporate-community conflict between extractive corporations and rural populations in the form of peasant protests. In the 1990s, President Fujimori implemented several market reforms that allowed for the growth of Peru's mineral sector. In 1995, the Fujimori government passed a land law that granted mining corporations the right to use land for their operations in exchange for monetary compensation to the landowners. In addition, the Fujimori administration installed a new tax regime that exempted mining corporations from taxation and paying royalties until they regained their initial investments.

Fujimori spearheaded other reforms that removed restrictions on profit/capital remittances, eliminated performance requirements for foreign investments, reduced tariffs on imports and removed tariffs on exports, established simpler licensing procedures, modified policies regarding indigenous land tenure, lowered taxes, liberalized capital market, privatized state firms and financial institutions. These changes facilitated a dramatic increase in new foreign direct investment and allowed entry into the global market. In the period from 1990 to 1998, Peru's exports increased by over 85 percent. Out of this, the mineral industry accounts for 50 percent of Peru's total exports and has played a major role in its national economic growth. In 2006, the mining and mineral processing industries represented 1% of the GDP; the minerals sector employed about 5% of the industrial sector's total of 1.7 million miners. Peru's legal framework regarding domestic and foreign investors is governed by Constitutional Mandates as Legislative Decree No.

662, which provides unrestricted access to all economic sectors. 757, which pertains to the private investment growth. 059-96-PCM, which promotes private investment in public infrastructure and utility works. Within the framework of Decree law No. 708 of November 1991, Legislative Decree No. 818 of April 1996, Supreme Decree No. 162-92-EF of October 1992, more than 250 domestic stability and guarantee contracts have been signed since 1993. Supreme Decree No. 014-92-EM of June 1992 and Legislative Decree No. 868 of May 1996 provide guaranteed protections to mining ventures and contracts under the Peruvian Civil Code. Such ventures and contracts are immune from unilateral changes by any governmental authority in Peru without an appropriate legal or administrative remedy or arbitration by the Convenio Constitutivo del Centro Internacional de Arreglo de Differencias Relativas an Inversiones. Additionally, Peru enacted the Supreme Decree No

Diana (Saint-Gaudens)

Diana – known as Diana of the Tower – is an iconic statue by sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens. Once a famous New York City landmark, the second version stood atop the tower of Madison Square Garden from 1893 to 1925. Since 1932, it has been in the collection of the Philadelphia Museum of Art; the statue represents the goddess Diana. Diana was commissioned by architect Stanford White as a weather vane for the tower of Madison Square Garden, a theater-and-dining complex at 26th Street and Madison Avenue in Manhattan, he talked his friend Saint-Gaudens into creating it at no charge, picked up the cost of materials. Model Julia "Dudie" Baird posed for the body of the statue, its face is that of Davida Johnson Clark, Saint-Gaudens's long-time model and mother of his illegitimate son Louis. The first version – built by the W. H. Mullins Manufacturing Company in Salem, Ohio – was 18 ft tall and weighed 1,800 lb. Saint-Gaudens's design specified that the figure appear to delicately balance on its left toe atop a ball.

However, the Ohio metal shop was unable to pass the rotating rod through the toe, so the design was altered and the figure instead was poised on its heel. Diana was unveiled atop Madison Square Garden's tower on September 29, 1891; the 304-foot building had been completed a year earlier, was the second-tallest in New York City. But the addition of the statue made it the city's tallest, by 13 feet; the figure's billowing copper foulard was intended to catch the wind, but the statue did not rotate smoothly because of its weight. Diana's nudity offended moral crusader Anthony Comstock and his New York Society for the Suppression of Vice. To placate Comstock and to increase the likelihood of its catching the wind, Saint-Gaudens draped the figure in cloth, but the cloth blew away. Soon after installation, both White and Saint-Gaudens concluded that the figure was too large for the building, decided to create a smaller, lighter replacement. Following less than a year atop the tower, the statue was removed and shipped to Chicago to be exhibited at the 1893 World's Columbian Exposition.

New Yorker W. T. Henderson wrote a tongue-in-cheek poetic tribute – "Diana Off the Tower" – a play on both the statue's name and situation. Saint-Gaudens served as head of the Chicago exposition's sculpture committee, his initial plan had been to place Diana atop the Women's Pavilion, but the city's Women's Christian Temperance Union protested and insisted that the controversial nude figure be clothed. Instead, it was placed atop the Agricultural Building; the original Diana does not survive. In June 1894, eight months after the exposition's closing, a major fire tore through its buildings; the lower half of the statue was destroyed. Diana was redesigned by Saint-Gaudens – with a more elegant pose, a different thrust to the body, a thinner figure, smaller breasts and a more graceful angle to the leg. To better fit the proportions of Madison Square Garden's tower, the statue's height was scaled down to 14.5 feet. The second version was made of hollowed copper, weighed 700 lb – more than 60% less than the first version – light enough to rotate with the wind.

As Saint-Gaudens envisioned, the figure was balanced on its left toe atop a ball. The statue was hoisted to the top of the tower on November 18, 1893. During the day, the gilded figure caught the sun and could be seen from all over the city and as far away as New Jersey. Electric lights a novelty, illuminated it at night. Madison Square Garden was slated to be demolished in 1925, to make way for construction of the New York Life Building. Prior to the building's demolition, Diana was put in storage; the intention was for the statue to remain in New York City, however a seven year search to find a place to display it proved futile. In 1932, the New York Life Insurance Company presented Diana to the Philadelphia Museum of Art as a gift, it remains there today. When Diana was removed from Madison Square Garden in 1925, much of its gilded exterior was gone, having eroded away over three decades of exposure to the elements; the Philadelphia Museum of Art cleaned and repaired the statue in 1932, but the gold leaf was not replaced.

In 2013, scaffolding was constructed around the statue in the museum's Great Stair Hall for a year-long restoration. Conservators cleaned its copper surface with chemicals and steam, removing nearly a century of dirt and grime. Samples of the small patches of remaining gold leaf on the statue were taken in an effort to match the carat and color with its replacement; the statue's surface was repaired and regilded with 180 square feet of gold leaf. Because it was known from contemporary sources that Saint-Gaudens did not like the look of bright gold at eye level, the conservators matted the gilding to reduce the glare and museum lighting designers adjusted the display lights for the interior display. On July 14, 2014, the restored statue was rededicated. In the popular 1975 novel Ragtime, author E. L. Doctorow suggests in a single line that showgirl Evelyn Nesbitt had posed for the second version of the Diana statue. Having grown up poor in the streets of a Pennsylvania coal town, Nesbitt had risen up to become “the Gaudens statue Stanny White had put at the top of the tower of Madison Square Garden, a glorious bronze nude Diana, her bow drawn, her face in the skies.”

The 1981 film version of Ragtime expanded upon this incident as the cause of a major conflict between Stanford White and Nesbitt's millionaire husband Harry K. Thaw. In the film, Thaw demands that the statue be tak

Johnny Bush

Johnny Bush is a country music singer and drummer. Bush, nicknamed the "Country Caruso," is best known for his distinctive voice and as the writer of "Whiskey River," a top-ten hit for himself and Willie Nelson's signature song, he is still popular in his native Texas. Born John Bush Shinn III in the blue-collar neighborhood of Kashmere Gardens in Houston, Bush listened to the western swing music of Bob Wills and His Texas Playboys and the honky-tonk sounds of artists like Ernest Tubb, Lefty Frizzell, Hank Thompson. Thanks to a disc jockey uncle, Bush got a taste for performance. In 1952 he moved to San Antonio, where he began solo career in area honky-tonks like the Texas Star Inn before switching to drums, it was during this period that he earned his stage name, when an announcer mistakenly introduced him as "Johnny Bush." As a drummer he worked for bands like the Mission City Playboys, the Texas Plainsmen and the Texas Top Hands. In 1963, Bush joined Ray Price's band, the Cherokee Cowboys along with a young Willie Nelson and Darrell McCall.

His association with Price led Bush to a contract to sing for record demos. He played in Nelson's band, the Record Men. With Nelson's financial backing, Bush recorded his first album in The Sound of a Heartache. A series of regional hits on the Stop label, including Marty Robbins's "You Gave Me a Mountain", "Undo the Right", "What A Way To Live" and "I'll Be There", soon followed. Rock critic Robert Christgau said that Bush's version of "You Gave Me A Mountain" "brings a catch to the throat and a tear to the eye." These songs did well in Bush's native Texas, reached the national top twenty. In 1972 he was signed to RCA Records, whose Nashville division was helmed by legendary guitarist Chet Atkins, his first RCA single, "Whiskey River," was climbing the charts with airplay on countless radio stations when his voice began faltering. Bush felt he was being punished by God for his sins. Bush has since said: "I thought because of my promiscuous behavior and bad choices and being raised as a Baptist, that it was a punishment from God."Bush lost half of his vocal range and was sometimes unable to talk.

RCA dropped him in 1974 after three albums, he developed a drug habit, was stricken with performance anxiety when he was able to perform at all. After several misdiagnoses, doctors diagnosed the cause in 1978, when they discovered he had a rare neurological disorder called spasmodic dysphonia. Although this did not prevent him from recording, Bush's career began to take a downturn, he worked with a vocal coach in 1985, was able to regain seventy percent of his original voice. In 1986, Bush teamed up with Darrell McCall, recording a successful honky-tonk album Hot Texas Country, began assembling a large country band, performing around south Texas. In 1994 the band released Time Changes Everything, the same year that RCA released a greatest hits album. A major tour soon followed. In recent years, Johnny Bush has continued to tour often performing with Willie Nelson and the late Merle Haggard. Several albums on local Texas labels soon followed, his renewed visibility made him a mentor figure to younger Texas musicians who revered the honky-tonk/hardcore country sound that Bush has done so much to keep in the public eye.

Austin musicians like Dale Watson and Cornell Hurd sought him out to play on their albums. In 2003, he was inducted into the Texas Country Music Hall of Fame with his lifelong friend Willie Nelson on hand to induct him. In 2007 he released his autobiography, with the aide of Rick Mitchell: Whiskey River: The True Story of Texas Honky-Tonk, published by University of Texas Press. A new album, Kashmere Garden Mud: A Tribute to Houston’s Country Soul was released on the Icehouse label at the same time. With the success of his recent Botox treatments for his vocal condition, his successful career revival, Bush is a spokesman for people afflicted with vocal disorders. In 2002 he was honored with the Annie Glenn Award, named for the wife of the John Glenn, by the National Council of Communicative Disorders for his work in bringing attention to the condition of spasmodic dysphonia. In June 2017, Johnny Bush self-released The Absolute Johnny Bush, a full-length album of brand new recordings, including collaborations with Dale Watson and Reckless Kelly.

It is available via the artists's website. Bogdanov, Vladimir. All Music Guide to Country: The Definitive Guide to Country Music. San Francisco: Backbeat Books. Pp. 104–105. ISBN 0-87930-760-9. Bush, Johnny. Whiskey River: The True Story of Texas Honky-Tonk. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-79531-9. Christgau, Robert. Rock Albums of the'70s: A Critical Guide. New York: Da Capo Press. P. 68. ISBN 0-306-80409-3. Shelburne, Craig. "Thanks to Botox, Johnny Bush Sings Again: Texas Artist Had a Hit With "Whiskey River," Then Lost His Voice". CMT News. Retrieved February 20, 2008. Wolff, Kurt. Country Music: The Rough Guide. London: Rough Guides. Pp. 346–347. ISBN 1-85828-534-8. "Johnny Bush: Biography". Retrieved February 20, 2008. "Johnny Bush: Biography". Lone Star Music. Retrieved February 23, 2008. "Johnny Bush". Retrieved February 23, 2008. "Johnny Bush". Allmusic. Retrieved February 23, 2008. Johnny Bush's Official Website Johnny Bush at Allmusic Johnny Bush at CMT Johnny Bush at Lone Star Music

Aseptis serrula

Aseptis serrula is a moth of the family Noctuidae first described by William Barnes and James Halliday McDunnough in 1918. It is found in the lower mountain-desert transition zone and in high desert such as the Mojave and Sonora deserts of south-eastern California, Nevada and Baja California; the wingspan is 29–34 mm. The forewings are narrow, powdery gray, with the pointed black claviform spot as the most prominent mark; the dark reniform and orbicular spots are less prominent, the basal and postmedial lines are faint or absent, the subterminal line is evident as a pale W-mark. The postreniform patch is small, the medial area is lighter than the ground color near the claviform spot; the hindwing is off white with dark veins and terminal area in males and darker gray with light base and dark veins in females. Adults are on wing in the desert spring, between March and early May depending on winter rainfall