John Hill (British politician)
John Edward Bernard Hill was a barrister and British Conservative Party politician. He served as Member of Parliament for South Norfolk for 19 years, from 1955 to 1974, he was one of the UK's first MEPs, serving from 1973 to 1974. Hill was the only son of an officer in the Cambridgeshire Regiment, he was educated at Charterhouse School and Merton College, where he gained a football Blue in 1934. After two years travelling in Asia and the Middle East, he became a barrister, called to the Bar at Inner Temple in 1938, he was commissioned into 64th Field Regiment, Royal Artillery in 1939, shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War, was attached for some time to the skiing unit of the 5th Battalion Scots Guards. From 1942 he served as an air observation pilot, flying spotter planes in Tunisia with No. 651 Squadron RAF. He was wounded, invalided out of the Army in 1945 with the rank of Captain. After the war, he took up farming, he was a councillor on Wainford Rural District Council, Suffolk from 1946 to 1953, a senior member of various East Anglian river and flood defence boards.
He served as a governor of Charterhouse School from 1958 to 1990, on the council of the University of East Anglia from 1975 to 1982. Hill was elected to the House of Commons on 13 January 1955, in a by-election caused by the expulsion of the sitting Conservative MP, Captain Peter Baker, after Baker's conviction for uttering and fraud and subsequent imprisonment for seven years. Hill scraped home with a majority reduced to only 865, he held seat that year at the 1955 general election, was re-elected in four subsequent general elections. His majority fell to only 119 in 1966, he was succeeded as MP by John MacGregor. In Parliament, Hill concentrated on the agricultural interests of his rural constituency. Elected to the executive of the 1922 Committee in November 1956, in the aftermath of the Suez Crisis, he became an assistant government whip in January 1959 alongside Willie Whitelaw. While an MP, he pressed for the introduction of a small clock in the corner of the internal monitors, which tell everyone within the Palace of Westminster how long a member has been speaking for.
Hill served as a Lord Commissioner of the Treasury from 1960 to 1964 and as Opposition spokesman on education and science in 1965–66. He was active on the education and agriculture select committees, he supported Edward Heath's policy of joining the European Economic Community, was a delegate to the Council of Europe and the Western European Union. When the UK joined the EEC in 1973, Hill was appointed as a Member of the European Parliament, served from January 1973 until July 1974. At that time, MEPs were appointed rather than being directly elected. In life Hill concentrated on farming, he collected British art paintings by Samuel Palmer. He married Edith Luard in 1944.. Hill was survived by their adopted daughter. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by John Hill John Hill Archive, University of East Anglia
Secretary of State for Transport
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Transport is the member of the cabinet responsible for the British Department for Transport. The office used to be called the Minister of Transport and has been merged with the Department for the Environment at various times; the current Secretary of State for Transport is Chris Grayling. The Secretary of State is supported by a small team of junior Ministers; each Minister is a Member of Parliament from the House of Lords. The number of Ministers supporting the Secretary of State for Transport vary from time to time, but is about 3; the titles given to these Ministers vary. The positions are held by one Minister of State for Transport and two Parliamentary Under-Secretaries of State for Transport. During the tenure of different governments the title of Minister of/for Transport has been used to refer to the Secretary of State for Transport, one or more of the junior Ministers or both the Secretary of State and the junior Ministers at the same time.
From 2003 until June 2007 the role of Secretary of State for Transport was combined with the role of Secretary of State for Scotland. This arrangement changed on 28 June 2007, when in the appointment of his first Cabinet, Prime Minister Gordon Brown assigned the responsibilities of Secretary of State for Scotland to Des Browne, his Secretary of State for Defence; the names provided in the sections below are those who have served in a position equivalent to the Secretary of State for Transport. Colour key: Conservative Labour National Labour Liberal National Liberal The Ministry of Transport absorbed the Ministry of Shipping and was renamed the Ministry of War Transport in 1941, but resumed its previous name at the end of the war; the Ministry of Civil Aviation was created by Winston Churchill in 1944 to look at peaceful ways of using aircraft and to find something for the aircraft factories to do after the war. The new Conservative Government in 1951 appointed the same Minister to Transport and Civil Aviation amalgamating the Ministries on 1 October 1953.
Colour key: Conservative Labour National Liberal Colour key: Conservative The Ministry was renamed back to the Ministry of Transport on 14 October 1959, when a separate Ministry of Aviation was formed. Colour key: Conservative Labour Transport responsibilities were subsumed by the Department for the Environment, headed by the Secretary of State for the Environment from 15 October 1970 to 10 September 1976. Colour key: Conservative Labour The junior ministers responsible for transport within the Department for the Environment: John Peyton Fred Mulley John Gilbert The Department for Transport was recreated as a separate department by James Callaghan in 1976. Colour key: Labour Not an official member of the cabinet. Colour key: Conservative Colour key: Conservative The super-department Department of the Environment and the Regions was created in 1997 for Deputy Prime Minister John Prescott. Colour key: Labour From 1997 to 2001, the Ministers of State with responsibility for Transport were: Gavin Strang John Reid Helen Liddell Lord Macdonald of Tradeston John Reid attended cabinet meetings, but was not formally a member of the cabinet whereas Gavin Strang was given a seat in the cabinet when he held the position.
The Department of the Environment and the Regions was considered unwieldy and so was broken up, with the Transport functions now combined with Local Government and the Regions in the DTLR. Critics argued from the outset that this was a mistake and that a post of Secretary of State for Transport was needed in its own right. Colour key: Labour After Byers' resignation, such a division was made, with the portfolios of Local Government and the Regions transferred to the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister. During the lifetime of DTLGR, John Spellar served as Minister of State for Transport with a right to attend Cabinet. John Spellar Colour key: Conservative Labour Ministry of Civil Aviation Aerodrome Fire Service Track record: Transport secretaries
Sir Malcolm Leslie Rifkind is a British politician who served in various roles as a cabinet minister under Prime Ministers Margaret Thatcher and John Major, including Secretary of State for Scotland, Defence Secretary, Foreign Secretary. Rifkind was the MP for Edinburgh Pentlands from 1974 to 1997. In 1997, his party lost power and he lost his seat to the Labour Party, he attempted, unsuccessfully, to be re-elected in Pentlands in 2001. He announced his intention to seek the leadership of the party before the 2005 Conservative Party leadership election, but withdrew before polling commenced. Rifkind stood for the Kensington seat and was elected at the 2010 general election with a majority of 8,616 votes, he was appointed Chairman of the Intelligence and Security Committee by the Prime Minister, David Cameron, on 6 July 2010. In January 2015 he was appointed by the OSCE as a member of their Eminent Persons Panel on European Security. In December 2015, Rifkind was appointed a Visiting Professor by King's College, London in their Department of War Studies.
He was invited to become a Distinguished Fellow at the Royal United Services Institute. In July 2016, his memoirs and Pragmatism, were published. In 2017, Rifkind was invited by the UK Government to become the British Co-Chairman of the Belvedere Polish-British Forum. Rifkind was born in Edinburgh to a Jewish family that emigrated to Britain in the 1890s from Lithuania, he was educated at George Watson's College and the University of Edinburgh where he studied law before taking a postgraduate degree in political science. While at university he took part in an overland expedition to the Middle East and India, he appeared on University Challenge. He worked as an Assistant Lecturer at the University College of Rhodesia in Salisbury from 1967 to 1968, he was called to the Scottish Bar in 1970 and practised full-time as an Advocate until 1974. He was appointed a Queen's Counsel in 1985 and a member of the Privy Council in 1986. From 1970 to 1974 he was a member of Edinburgh City Council. Rifkind first stood for Parliament, unsuccessfully, in 1970 in the Edinburgh Central constituency.
He entered Parliament in the February 1974 general election representing Edinburgh Pentlands for the Scottish Conservative and Unionist Party. During the leadership election in 1975, he supported Edward Heath in the first round but when Heath withdrew Rifkind voted for Margaret Thatcher. Thatcher, on becoming leader, appointed Rifkind an Opposition front-bench spokesman on Scottish Affairs, he subsequently resigned from that position in protest at the decision of the Shadow Cabinet to vote against the Government's Bill for a Scottish Assembly. Rifkind argued that as, at that time, the Conservative Party supported the principle of a Scottish Assembly, it would have been preferable either to vote for the Second Reading of the Bill or to abstain, try to improve the Bill. In the subsequent referendum on a Scottish Assembly, Rifkind voted in favour, but withdrew his support when the result of the referendum showed Scotland equally divided over the proposal. Rifkind was one of only five Ministers to serve throughout the whole 18 years of the Governments of Margaret Thatcher and John Major.
This represents the longest uninterrupted Ministerial service in Britain since Lord Palmerston in the early 19th century. He was appointed Minister of Home Affairs and the Environment at the Scottish Office in the 1979 Thatcher Government. In that role, he was responsible for the passage of the Tenants' Rights Act which resulted in a massive increase of home ownership in Scotland as council tenants bought their homes, he was responsible, under the Secretary of State George Younger, for relations with local government and for the police and prisons. In 1982, at the time of the Falklands War, he was transferred to the Foreign and Commonwealth Office as Parliamentary Under-Secretary of State, being promoted to Minister of State at the Foreign Office in 1983. At the Foreign Office, he served first under Francis Pym and Sir Geoffrey Howe. Rifkind was responsible for Britain's relations with the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, the European Community, sub-Saharan Africa, he assisted Sir Geoffrey Howe in persuading Thatcher to change the Government's policy on the Soviet Union, attended the Chequers meeting which decided to invite Soviet leaders to the United Kingdom, was present at Chequers when Thatcher had her first meeting with Mikhail Gorbachev and decided that he was a Soviet leader with whom "she could do business".
Rifkind had strong links with the Solidarity movement in Poland. In 1984, he made a Ministerial visit to Poland. Against the wishes of General Jaruzelski, the Polish Communist President, he insisted on laying a wreath at the grave of the murdered Polish priest Father Jerzy Popiełuszko, had a meeting with three of the leaders of the banned Solidarity movement. Jaruzelski attacked Rifkind and cancelled a meeting he was due to have with him but Rifkind's meeting with Solidarity created a precedent, followed by the West German Foreign Minister, Hans-Dietrich Genscher and other Western ministers; this helped force the Polish Government to remove the ban on Solidarity and acknowledge the need for political reform and pluralism. Rifkind was, decorated by the non-communist democratic Polish Government fo
King's College London
King's College London is a public research university located in London, United Kingdom, a founding constituent college of the federal University of London. King's was established in 1829 by King George IV and Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, when it received its first royal charter, claims to be the fourth oldest university institution in England. In 1836, King's became one of the two founding colleges of the University of London. In the late 20th century, King's grew through a series of mergers, including with Queen Elizabeth College and Chelsea College of Science and Technology, the Institute of Psychiatry, the United Medical and Dental Schools of Guy's and St Thomas' Hospitals and the Florence Nightingale School of Nursing and Midwifery. King's has five campuses: its historic Strand Campus in central London, three other Thames-side campuses and one in Denmark Hill in south London. In 2017/18, King's had a total income of £841.1 million, of which £194.4 million was from research grants and contracts.
It is the 12th largest university in the United Kingdom by total enrolment. It has the fifth largest endowment of any university in the United Kingdom, the largest of any in London, its academic activities are organised into nine faculties, which are subdivided into numerous departments and research divisions. King's is considered part of the'golden triangle' of research-intensive English universities alongside the University of Oxford, University of Cambridge, University College London, Imperial College London, The London School of Economics, it is a member of academic organisations including the Association of Commonwealth Universities, European University Association, the Russell Group. King's is home to six Medical Research Council centres and is a founding member of the King's Health Partners academic health sciences centre, Francis Crick Institute and MedCity, it is the largest European centre for graduate and post-graduate medical teaching and biomedical research, by number of students, includes the world's first nursing school, the Florence Nightingale Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery.
Globally, it was ranked 31st in the 2019 QS World University Rankings, 36th in the 2018 CWTS Leiden Ranking, 36th in the 2018 The World University Rankings, 46th in the 2017 ARWU. King's was ranked 42nd in the world for reputation in the annual Times Higher Education survey of academics for 2018. Nationally it was ranked 26th in the 2019 Complete University Guide, 35th in the 2019 Times/Sunday Times University Guide, 58th in the 2019 Guardian University Guide. King's alumni and staff include 12 Nobel laureates. Alumni include heads of states and intergovernmental organisations. King's College, so named to indicate the patronage of King George IV, was founded in 1829 in response to the theological controversy surrounding the founding of "London University" in 1826. London University was founded, with the backing of Utilitarians and Nonconformists, as a secular institution, intended to educate "the youth of our middling rich people between the ages of 15 or 16 and 20 or later" giving its nickname, "the godless college in Gower Street".
The need for such an institution was a result of the religious and social nature of the universities of Oxford and Cambridge, which educated the sons of wealthy Anglicans. The secular nature of London University was disapproved by The Establishment, indeed, "the storms of opposition which raged around it threatened to crush every spark of vital energy which remained". Thus, the creation of a rival institution represented a Tory response to reassert the educational values of The Establishment. More King's was one of the first of a series of institutions which came about in the early nineteenth century as a result of the Industrial Revolution and great social changes in England following the Napoleonic Wars. By virtue of its foundation King's has enjoyed the patronage of the monarch, the Archbishop of Canterbury as its visitor and during the nineteenth century counted among its official governors the Lord Chancellor, Speaker of the House of Commons and the Lord Mayor of London; the simultaneous support of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, for an Anglican King's College London and the Roman Catholic Relief Act, to lead to the granting of full civil rights to Catholics, was challenged by George Finch-Hatton, 10th Earl of Winchilsea, in early 1829.
Winchilsea and his supporters wished for King's to be subject to the Test Acts, like the universities of Oxford, where only members of the Church of England could matriculate, Cambridge, where non-Anglicans could matriculate but not graduate, but this was not Wellington's intent. Winchilsea and about 150 other contributors withdrew their support of King's College London in response to Wellington's support of Catholic emancipation. In a letter to Wellington he accused the Duke to have in mind "insidious designs for the infringement of our liberty and the introduction of Popery into every department of the State"; the letter provoked a furious exchange of correspondence and Wellington accused Winchilsea of imputing him with "disgraceful and criminal motives" in setting up King's C
Peter Rees, Baron Rees
Peter Wynford Innes Rees, Baron Rees, was a British politician and barrister. He was Conservative Member of Parliament for Dover and Deal from 1974 to 1983 and MP for Dover from 1970 to 1974 and 1983 to 1987, he was Chief Secretary to the Treasury from 1983 until 1985. He was created a life peer as Baron Rees of Goytre in 1987. Rees was born in Camberley, the only son of Major-General Thomas Wynford Rees of the India Army, Agatha Rosalie, his maternal grandfather was Sir Charles Alexander Innes, Governor of British Burma from 1927 to 1932. He was educated at Stowe School, he joined the Scots Guards in 1945 and three years continued his education at Christ Church, Oxford. In 1953, he was called to the bar by the Inner Temple, he became a QC in 1969. At the 1964 general election Rees stood as the Conservative candidate in the safe Labour seat of Abertillery, where he won only 14% of the votes, against the 86% won by the only other candidate, Labour's Reverend Llewellyn Williams; when Williams died in 1965, Rees was the Conservative candidate in the consequent by-election, losing by a large margin.
At the 1966 election, he stood in the more promising Labour-held seat of Liverpool West Derby, but lost again. He entered Parliament at the 1970 general election, when he won in Dover, with a majority of 1,649 over sitting Labour MP David Ennals. In Edward Heath's government, he served from 1972 to 1973 as Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Solicitor General, Michael Havers. In 1979, when the Conservative Party entered government under Margaret Thatcher, he became Minister of State at the Treasury, working to the Chancellor of the Exchequer, Geoffrey Howe, before becoming Minister for Trade in 1981. After the 1983 UK general election he was appointed to the cabinet as Chief Secretary to the Treasury, working to the new Chancellor of the Exchequer, Nigel Lawson, he was made Privy Counsellor the same year. Unlike most other Chief Secretaries to the Treasury, Peter Rees never went further within the Cabinet, leaving the post in the September 1985 cabinet reshuffle, he retired from Parliament at the 1987 general election, aged 61, on 16 November 1987 was created a life peer as Baron Rees, of Goytre in the County of Gwent and sat in the House of Lords as a Conservative.
In 1969, he married Anthea Peronelle Wendell, daughter of Major Hugh John Maxwell-Hyslop, former wife of Major Jack Wendell. They had no children. Rees died of a spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhage at St Thomas' Hospital, following a short illness, he was buried at Goytre. Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by Peter Rees
Minister of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food
The Minister of Agriculture and Food was a United Kingdom cabinet position, responsible for the Ministry of Agriculture and Food. The post was named President of the Board of Agriculture and was created in 1889. In 1903, an Act was passed to transfer to the new styled Board of Agriculture and Fisheries certain powers and duties relating to the fishing industry, the post was renamed President of the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries. In 1919, it was renamed Minister of Fisheries. In 1954, the separate position of Minister of Food was merged into the post and it was renamed Minister of Agriculture and Food. Successive Prime Ministers asked the Minister to upgrade the Ministry to a Department of State taking the title'Secretary of State', but all refused. On 8 June 2001, the Ministry merged with Secretary of State for the Environment into the office of Secretary of State for Environment and Rural Affairs. However, the Ministry of Agriculture and Food was not formally abolished until The Ministry of Agriculture and Food Order 2002 came into force on 27 March 2002.
Until the Dissolution Order made the necessary amendments to the law when it did come into force, many statutory functions were still vested in the holder of the office of Minister of Agriculture and Food, rather in the Secretary of State at large. For that reason, in a final twist, Margaret Beckett had to be appointed formally as the last Minister of Agriculture and Food as well as becoming the first Secretary of State for Environment and Rural Affairs. Post created by the Board of Agriculture Act 1889. Board of Agriculture superseded by the Board of Agriculture and Fisheries in 1903. From 2002 the Ministry of Agriculture and Food was dissolved and ministerial responsibility transferred to the Secretary of State for Environment and Rural Affairs
Chief Secretary to the Treasury
The Chief Secretary to the Treasury is the third most senior ministerial position in HM Treasury, after the First Lord of the Treasury and the Chancellor of the Exchequer. It was created in 1961, to share the burden of representing the Treasury with the Chancellor of the Exchequer. Between 1961 and 2015 the holder of the post of Chief Secretary to the Treasury was automatically a member of the Cabinet making the Treasury the only Department to have two ministers automatically serving in the Cabinet. Since 2015, the status of the Chief Secretary to the Treasury has been reduced to an "also attending Cabinet" role; the position's responsibilities include negotiating with departments about budget allocations, public sector pay, procurement policy. Secretary to the Treasury Financial Secretary to the Treasury Economic Secretary to the Treasury Exchequer Secretary to the Treasury Paymaster General