A mansion is a large dwelling house. The word itself derives through Old French from the Latin word mansio "dwelling", an abstract noun derived from the verb manere "to dwell"; the English word manse defined a property large enough for the parish priest to maintain himself, but a mansion is no longer self-sustaining in this way. Manor comes from the same root—territorial holdings granted to a lord who would "remain" there—hence it is obvious how the word mansion got its meaning. Within an ancient Roman city, aristocratic or just wealthy dwellings might be extensive, luxurious; such mansions on one hill in Rome became so extensive that the term palatial was derived from the name Palatine hill and is the etymological origin of "palace". Mansions of considerable size and state significance are called palaces. Following the fall of Rome the practice of building unfortified villas ceased. Today, the oldest inhabited mansions around the world began their existence as fortified castles in the Middle Ages.
As social conditions changed and stabilised fortifications were able to be reduced, over the centuries gave way to comfort. It became fashionable and possible for homes to be beautiful rather than grim and forbidding allowing for the development of the modern mansion. In British English a mansion block refers to a block of flats or apartments designed for the appearance of grandeur. In many parts of Asia, including Hong Kong and Japan, the word mansion refers to a block of apartments. In modern Japan, a "manshon", stemming from the English word "mansion", is used to refer to a multi-unit apartment complex or condominium. In Europe, from the 15th century onwards, a combination of politics and advancements in modern weaponry negated the need for the aristocracy to live in fortified castles; as a result, many were transformed into mansions without defences or demolished and rebuilt in a more modern, undefended style. Due to intermarriage and primogeniture inheritance amongst the aristocracy, it became common for one noble to own several country houses.
These would be visited rotationally throughout the year as their owner pursued the social and sporting circuit from country home to country home. Many owners of a country house would own a town mansion in their country's capital city; these town mansions were referred to as'houses' in London, hotels in Paris and palaces in most European cities elsewhere. It might be noted that sometimes the house of a clergyman was called a "mansion house"; as the 16th century progressed, Renaissance styles of architecture spread across Europe, the last vestiges of castle architecture and life changed. All evidence and odours of cooking and staff were banished from the principal parts of the house into distant wings, while the owners began to live in airy rooms, above the ground floor, with privacy from their servants, who were now confined, unless required, to their delegated areas—often the ground and uppermost attic floors; this was a period of great social change. The uses of these edifices paralleled that of the Roman villas.
It was vital for powerful people and families to keep in social contact with each other as they were the primary moulders of society. The rounds of visits and entertainments were an essential part of the societal process, as painted in the novels of Jane Austen. State business was discussed and determined in informal settings. Times of revolution reversed this value. During July/August 1789 a significant number of French country mansions were destroyed by the rural population as part of the Great Fear—a symbolic rejection of the feudal rights and restraints in effect under the ancient régime; until World War I it was not unusual for a moderately sized mansion in England such as Cliveden to have an indoor staff of 20 and an outside staff of the same size, in ducal mansions such as Chatsworth House the numbers could be far higher. In the great houses of Italy, the number of retainers was even greater than in England, it is doubtful that a 19th-century Marchesa would know the exact number of individuals who served her.
Most European mansions were the hub of vast estates. The 19th century saw the continuation of the building of mansions in the United States and Europe. Built by self-made men, these were smaller than those built by the old European aristocracy; these new builders of mansions did not confine themselves to just the then-fashionable Gothic tastes in architecture, but experimented with 19th-century versions of older Renaissance and Tudoresque styles. During the 19th century, like the major thoroughfares of all important cities, Fifth Avenue in New York City, was lined with mansions. Many of these were designed by the leading architects of the day in European gothic styles, were built by families who were making their fortunes, thus achieving their social aspirations. However, nearly all of these have now been demolished, thus depriving New York of a boulevard to rival, in the architectural sense, those in Paris, London or Rome—where the many large mansions and palazzi built or remo
The Landport is a gate into the territory of Gibraltar. It was the only entrance to the fortification from the land and so was fortified and guarded. After the territory was first captured from the Spanish in 1704, the British defended the Landport with twenty guns; the gate was subsequently defended by the Inundation — a flooded and fortified area of ground measuring about 200 yards in length by about 60 yards broad and was "nearly man-height" in depth. There were obstacles in it such as cheval de frise and metal hoops. There was a moat covering the northern approach — the Landport Ditch; the ditch's defences included a palisade and a gunpowder mine which could be exploded beneath an assault. To cross these defences, there was a drawbridge, pulled up at night. Tobacco smugglers would exit the gate at this time and lurk outside, waiting for an opportunity to cross the neutral ground into Spain during the night. Grand Casemates Gates King James's and Landport Gates — similar gates in the port of Portsmouth Southport Gates
A post office is a public department that provides a customer service to the public and handles their mail needs. Post offices offer mail-related services such as acceptance of parcels. In addition, many post offices offer additional services: providing and accepting government forms, processing government services and fees, banking services; the chief administrator of a post office is called a postmaster. Prior to the advent of postal and ZIP codes, postal systems would route items to a specific post office for receipt or delivery. During the nineteenth-century, in the United States, this led to smaller communities being renamed after their post offices; the term "Post-Office" has been in use since the 1650's, shortly after the legalization of private mail services in England in 1635. In early Modern England, post riders – mounted couriers – were placed every few hours along post roads at posting houses known as post houses, between major cities; these stables or inns permitted important correspondence to travel without delay.
In early America, post offices were known as "stations". This term and "post house" fell from use as horse and coach service was replaced by railways and automobiles. Today, the term "Post Office" refers to postal facilities providing customer service; the term "General Post Office" is sometimes used for the national headquarters of a postal service if it does not provide customer service within the building. A postal facility, used for processing mail is instead known as sorting office or delivery office, which may have a large central area known as a "sorting" or "postal hall". Integrated facilities combining mail processing with railway stations or airports are known as mail exchanges. There is evidence of corps of royal couriers disseminating the decrees of the Egyptian pharaohs as early as 2,400 BC and the service may precede that date. Organized systems of post houses providing swift mounted courier service seems quite ancient, although sources vary as to who initiated the practice. By the time of the Persian Empire, a system of Chapar-Khaneh existed along the Royal Road.
The 2nd-Century BC Mauryan and Han dynasties established similar systems in China. Suetonius credited Augustus with regularizing the Cursus Publicus. Local officials were obliged to provide couriers who would be responsible for their message's entire course. Locally maintained post houses owned rest houses were obliged or honored to care for them along their way. Diocletian established two parallel systems: one providing fresh horses or mules for urgent correspondence and another providing sturdy oxen for bulk shipments. Procopius, though not unbiased, records that this system remained intact until it was dismantled in the surviving empire by Justinian in the 6th Century; the Princely House of Thurn and Taxis family initiated regular mail service from Brussels in the 16th century, directing the Imperial Post of the Holy Roman Empire. The British Postal Museum claims that the oldest functioning post office in the world is on High Street in Sanquhar, Scotland; this post office has functioned continuously since 1712, an era in which horses and stage coaches were used to carry mail.
In parts of Europe, special postal censorship offices censor mail. In France, such offices were known as cabinets noirs. In many jurisdictions, mail boxes and post office boxes have long been in widespread use for drop-off and pickup of mail and small packages outside post offices or when offices are closed. Deutsche Post introduced the Pack-Station for package delivery in 2001. In the 2000s, the United States Postal Service began to install Automated Postal Centers in many locations both in post offices and in retail locations. APCs can accept mail and small packages. General Post Office Dublin, headquarters of the Irish post and headquarters of the 1916 Easter Uprising First Toronto Post Office General Post Office, erected on the site of the Black Hole of Calcutta General Post Office in Chennai, India General Post Office in Lahore, Pakistan General Post Office, the headquarters of the Sri Lankan Post General Post Office, headquarters of the Croatian post Istanbul Main Post Office, home of the Istanbul Postal Museum James Farley Post Office, America's largest operating post office, the main office for New York City.
It bears the famous translation of Herodotus's description of the Persian postal system along its front facade: "Neither snow nor rain nor heat nor gloom of night stays these couriers from the swift completion of their appointed rounds". General Post Office, the main post office of Mumbai and one of the world's largest Polish Post Office, the scene of intense fighting during the 1939 German invasion of Danzig General Post Office Building, former headquarters of the Chunghwa Post and present home of the Shanghai Postal Museum Manila Central Post Office Taipei Post Office, the headquarters of Taiwan Post General Post Office, the headquarters of Hongkong Post Bandinelli Palace, a former post office in Lviv in the Ukraine General Post Office, the city's first "all-marbl
A military parade is a formation of soldiers whose movement is restricted by close-order manoeuvering known as drilling or marching. The military parade is now entirely ceremonial, though soldiers from time immemorial up until the late 19th century fought in formation. Massed parades may hold a role for propaganda purposes, being used to exhibit the apparent military strength of one's nation; the terminology comes from the tradition of close order formation combat, in which soldiers were held in strict formations as to maximise their combat effectiveness. Formation combat was used as an alternative to mêlée combat, required strict discipline in the ranks and competent officers; as long as their formations could be maintained, regular troops could maintain a significant advantage over less organised opponents. Military parades are not to be confused with military show of force. Although the firepower of breechloading rifles and machine guns long ago rendered close formations in battle suicidal, modern armies still use parades for ceremonial purposes or in non-combat environments for their efficiency, ease of organization and encouragement of discipline.
Synonymous are "drill" and "march". The English word "drill" is of Middle Dutch origin, dating from the 16th century drill of the Dutch army of prince Maurice of Orange, copied throughout Europe at the time. In ancient times, drilling increased in importance when men stopped fighting as individuals and began to fight together as units. Drilling as a vital component of a war machine further increased with the increases in the size of armies, for example when Phillip II of Macedon disciplined his army so they could swiftly form the phalanxes that were so critical to his successes as a general. Military drilling was used by the Roman Army to maximise efficiency and deadliness throughout their long history. After the fall of the empire, the Dark Ages set in Europe, most feudal lords more relied on peasant levies and their wealthy knights to fight their wars, the knights for the most part reverting to fighting as individuals. Massed military drilling was used by only the foremost armies and nations, such as the Normans.
The U. S. drill is based on the contributions of Baron von Steuben, a Prussian Army officer who served in the Continental Army. During the winter quarters in Valley Forge, von Steuben taught a model company of 100 soldiers musket drill; these soldiers, in turn, taught the remainder of the Continental Army. The oldest and most famous regular military parade in Europe is the Bastille Day Military Parade, held each 14 July, on the Champs-Élysées in Paris, during France's national day celebrations. A military drill is memorizing certain actions through repetition until the action is instinctive to the soldiers being drilled. Complex actions are broken down into simpler ones which can be practised in isolation so when the whole is put together the desired results are achieved; such is necessary for a fighting force to perform at maximum efficiency in all manner of situations. However, depending on the army and the drills it adopts, drilling may destroy flexibility and initiative in exchange for predictability and cohesion.
Recruits in most modern militaries are taught drill to teach them how to move as a team. In addition, formations are still used in riot control. Parades consist of four directions: Advance Retire Left RightThe Advance is the primary direction of movement, regardless of which direction the soldiers are facing On a parade square, the advance is determined by the position of the dais or flags; when these are not present, the direction of the drill commander is the advance. The Retire is opposite to the advance, against the primary direction of movement The Left is to the left of the Advance The Right is to the right of the Advance If the Advance is changed all other directions are changed to be based on the new Advance. There is only one person in charge of a parade at a time. Changing this person is ceremonious; this is to make it obvious to the soldiers, in command and therefore to whom to pay attention. During parades, unless explicitly told otherwise, soldiers have restricted movement, meaning they can move only when they are told, doing only what they are told to do.
In most stances, any movement at all is disallowed and is held to such an extent as to have soldiers fainting on parade, although fainting under any conditions short of plural hours standing still in the hot sun is considered a sign of medical disability. American usage allows the service member to be at four states of alert: Attention: standing straight, eyes forward, chest out, knees straight but not locked, feet together at a 45-degree angle. Parade Rest: A modified position of attention in which the left foot is moved to shoulder width and the hands are placed in the small of the back with the right hand placed inside the left with all fingers together and pointing rigidly straight. Stand At Ease: Same as Parade Rest. At Ease: The service member is allowed to move around all but the right foot, but must remain silent. Rest: Service member may talk and may move as long as their right pivot foot remains grounded. A formation must be brought to the position of attention before it can go to a higher state of alert.
Commonwealth of Nations countries allow four states of alert: Attention: standing straight, eyes forward, heels together, fe
The Garrison Library was founded in Gibraltar in 1793 by Captain John Drinkwater Bethune. Constructed on the site of the Governors’ residence during the Spanish occupation of Gibraltar, the library was opened in 1804 by the Duke of Kent. In 1823 the library's fees were "100 hard dollars", paid by the 150 proprietors of the "Commercial Library"; each proprietor was entitled to borrow one large or three smaller books or an entire set of a novel for one to two weeks. In exchange they had to pay 16 dollars per year; this was a commercial affair and membership of the library could be bought or sold. The thirteen members of the committee were elected annually and the library was to be open seven days a week with both winter and summer hours; the library served as the headquarters and archive service of the Gibraltar Chronicle, the world's second oldest English language newspaper. The Library was established by the officers of the Garrison of Gibraltar, it has remained a private entity run by a Trust for over two hundred years up until, September 2011, at which point the Library was transferred to the Government of Gibraltar.
The Garrison is a library including many rare volumes. This library exists to hold the collection which includes good coverage of the subjects of culture and travel; the library was started to occupy officers stationed in Gibraltar. It has an excellent local history collection. Many lithographs and art prints are held here and many of the furnishings have interesting historical backgrounds. In 2006 the editorial offices of the Gibraltar Chronicle moved to new premises in Watergate House, the print works relocated in 2007 to New Harbours; the Chronicle's archive remains at the Garrison Library, as does the records of the more recent Panorama newspaper. The dragon tree in the library's front garden is thought to date from the Spanish occupation when the plant was introduced to Gibraltar by mariners who brought the seeds from the Canary Islands. Barnaby Rogerson. "Gibraltar in History". Travel Intelligence. Retrieved 2012-12-21
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively between 800 million and more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians. It originated with the 16th century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church. Protestants reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of papal supremacy and sacraments, but disagree among themselves regarding the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist, they emphasize the priesthood of all believers, justification by faith alone rather than by good works, the highest authority of the Bible alone in faith and morals. The "five solae" summarise basic theological differences in opposition to the Roman Catholic Church. Protestantism is popularly considered to have begun in Germany in 1517 when Martin Luther published his Ninety-five Theses as a reaction against abuses in the sale of indulgences by the Roman Catholic Church, which purported to offer remission of sin to their purchasers.
However, the term derives from the letter of protestation from German Lutheran princes in 1529 against an edict of the Diet of Speyer condemning the teachings of Martin Luther as heretical. Although there were earlier breaks and attempts to reform the Roman Catholic Church—notably by Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Jan Hus—only Luther succeeded in sparking a wider and modern movement. In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Sweden, Latvia and Iceland. Reformed denominations spread in Germany, the Netherlands, Scotland and France by reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli, John Knox; the political separation of the Church of England from the pope under King Henry VIII began Anglicanism, bringing England and Wales into this broad Reformation movement. Protestants have developed their own culture, with major contributions in education, the humanities and sciences, the political and social order, the economy and the arts, many other fields. Protestantism is diverse, being more divided theologically and ecclesiastically than either the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, or Oriental Orthodoxy.
Without structural unity or central human authority, Protestants developed the concept of an invisible church, in contrast to the Roman Catholic view of the Catholic Church as the visible one true Church founded by Jesus Christ. Some denominations do have a worldwide scope and distribution of membership, while others are confined to a single country. A majority of Protestants are members of a handful of Protestant denominational families: Adventists, Anglicans, Reformed, Lutherans and Pentecostals. Nondenominational, charismatic and other churches are on the rise, constitute a significant part of Protestant Christianity. Proponents of the branch theory consider Protestantism one of the three major divisions of Christendom, together with the Roman Catholic Church and Orthodoxy. Six princes of the Holy Roman Empire and rulers of fourteen Imperial Free Cities, who issued a protest against the edict of the Diet of Speyer, were the first individuals to be called Protestants; the edict reversed concessions made to the Lutherans with the approval of Holy Roman Emperor Charles V three years earlier.
The term protestant, though purely political in nature acquired a broader sense, referring to a member of any Western church which subscribed to the main Protestant principles. However, it is misused to mean any church outside the Roman and Eastern Orthodox communions. Protestantism as a general term is now used in contradistinction to the other major Christian traditions, i.e. Roman Catholicism and Orthodoxy. During the Reformation, the term protestant was hardly used outside of German politics. People who were involved in the religious movement used the word evangelical. For further details, see the section below. Protestant became a general term, meaning any adherent of the Reformation in the German-speaking area, it was somewhat taken up by Lutherans though Martin Luther himself insisted on Christian or evangelical as the only acceptable names for individuals who professed Christ. French and Swiss Protestants instead preferred the word reformed, which became a popular and alternative name for Calvinists.
The word evangelical, which refers to the gospel, was used for those involved in the religious movement in the German-speaking area beginning in 1517. Nowadays, evangelical is still preferred among some of the historical Protestant denominations in the Lutheran and United Protestant traditions in Europe, those with strong ties to them. Above all the term is used by Protestant bodies in the German-speaking area, such as the Evangelical Church in Germany. In continental Europe, an Evangelical is either a Calvinist, or a United Protestant; the German word evangelisch means Protestant, is different from the German evangelikal, which refers to churches shaped by Evangelicalism. The English word evangelical refers to evangelical Protestant churches, therefore to a certain part of Protestantism rather than to Protestantism as a whole; the English word traces its roots back to the Puritans in England, where Evangelicalism originated, was brought to the United States. Martin Luther always disliked the term Lutheran, preferring the term evangelical, derived from euangelion, a Greek word meaning "good news", i.e. "gospel".
The followers of
The Moorish Castle is the name given to a medieval fortification in Gibraltar comprising various buildings and fortified walls, with the dominant features being the Tower of Homage and the Gate House. Part of the castle itself housed the prison of Gibraltar until it was relocated in 2010; the Tower of Homage is visible to all visitors to Gibraltar. Although sometimes compared to the nearby alcazars in Spain, the Moorish Castle in Gibraltar was constructed by the Marinid dynasty, making it unique in the Iberian Peninsula. Gibraltar has always been of special significance to the numerous peoples and civilizations that have visited or occupied it over the ages, from the Neanderthal period, through the Classical and on to Moorish and the current British rule; the Moorish occupation is by far the longest in Gibraltar's recorded history, having lasted from 711 to 1309 and again from 1350 to 1462, a total of 710 years. The Moorish conquest of Spain was led by Tarik ibn Ziyad and Musa ibn Nusayr, who may have landed in Europe at or near Gibraltar.
Gibraltar thus became the stepping-stone to the Moorish conquests of most of Spain and part of France. This spectacular feat of arms took a mere twenty-one years, no mean task considering the distances and terrain involved, the fact that mechanical transport on land was not in use; the strategic importance of Gibraltar rose in the last years of the Moorish rule, after the successful Spanish reconquest of the entire Guadalquivir valley, Gibraltar became one of the key elements in communication between the Kingdom of Granada and Moorish domains in northwestern Africa. Construction of the Moorish Castle commenced in the 8th century AD, its walls enclosed a considerable area, reaching down from the upper part of the Rock of Gibraltar to the sea. The most conspicuous remaining parts of the Castle are the upper tower, or Tower of Homage, together with various terraces and battlements below it, the massive Gate House, with its cupola roof; the Tower of Homage is the highest tower of the period of Islamic rule in the Iberian Peninsula, the Qasbah of the Castle is the largest in the area.
The Castle itself played a prominent part in the Muslim invasion of the Iberian Peninsula, with Muslim forces overrunning a large portion of it in two years - an invasion which led to Islamic domination of parts of western Europe for more than seven centuries. It is therefore of historic significance not only for Gibraltar and Iberia, but for all of western Europe; the present Tower of Homage, most of what is visible today of the Castle, was rebuilt during the second Moorish period of occupation in the early 14th century, after its near destruction during a reconquest of Gibraltar by the Moors following a re-occupation by Spanish forces from 1309 to 1333. Today the Moorish Castle is one of the major tourist attractions of Gibraltar, it is shown on the reverse of the 1995 design of the Gibraltar five-pound banknote; the name "Moorish Castle" is used locally when referring to the residential area surrounding the Castle, location of the Moorish Castle Estate. Part of the castle itself housed the prison of Gibraltar until the prison was relocated in 2010.
Moorish Gibraltar History of Gibraltar