's-Hertogenbosch, colloquially known as Den Bosch, is a city and municipality in the Southern Netherlands with a population of 152,968. It is the capital of the province of North Brabant; the city's official name is a contraction of the Dutch des Hertogen bosch—"the Duke's forest". The duke in question was Duke Henry I of Brabant, whose family had owned a large estate at nearby Orthen for at least four centuries, he founded a new town located on some forested dunes in the middle of a marsh. At age 26, he granted's-Hertogenbosch city rights and the corresponding trade privileges in 1185; this is, the traditional date given by chroniclers. The original charter has been lost, his reason for founding the city was to protect his own interests against encroachment from Gelre and Holland. It was soon rebuilt; some remnants of the original city walls may still be seen. In the late 14th century, a much larger wall was erected to protect the expanded settled area. Artificial waterways were dug to serve as a city moat, through which the rivers Dommel and Aa were diverted.
The birthplace and home of one of the greatest painters of the northern Renaissance, Hieronymus Bosch,'s-Hertogenbosch suffered a catastrophic fire in 1463, which the 13-year-old Bosch witnessed. Until 1520, the city flourished, becoming the second largest population centre in the territory of the present Netherlands, after Utrecht; the city was a center of music, composers, such as Jheronimus Clibano, received their training at its churches. Others held positions there: Matthaeus Pipelare was musical director at the Confraternity of Our Lady; the wars of the Reformation changed the course of the city's history. It became an independent bishopric. During the Eighty Years' War, the city took the side of the Habsburg authorities and thwarted a Calvinist coup, it was besieged several times by Prince Maurice of Orange, stadtholder of most of the Dutch Republic, who wanted to bring's-Hertogenbosch under the rule of the rebel United Provinces. The city was defended by Claude de Berlaymont known as Haultpenne.
In the years of Truce, before the renewed fighting after 1618, the fortifications were expanded. The surrounding marshes made a siege of the conventional type impossible, the fortress, deemed impregnable, was nicknamed the Marsh Dragon; the town was finally conquered by Frederik Hendrik of Orange in 1629 in a Dutch stratagem: he diverted the rivers Dommel and Aa, created a polder by constructing a forty-kilometre dyke and pumped out the water by mills. After a siege of three months, the city had to surrender—an enormous blow to Habsburg geo-political strategy during the Thirty Years' War; this surrender cut the town off from the rest of the duchy and the area was treated by the Republic as an occupation zone without political liberties. After the Peace of Westphalia, the fortifications were again expanded. In 1672, the Dutch rampjaar, the city held against the army of Louis XIV of France. In 1794, French revolutionary troops under command of Charles Pichegru took the city with hardly a fight: in the Batavian Republic, both Catholics and Brabanders at last gained equal rights.
From 1806, the city became part of the Kingdom of Holland and from 1810, it was incorporated into the First French Empire. It was captured by the Prussians in 1814; the next year, 1815, when the United Kingdom of the Netherlands was established, it became the capital of North Brabant. Many newer and more modern fortresses were created in the vicinity of the city. A new canal was built, the'Zuid-Willemsvaart', which gave the city an economic impulse. Trade and industry grew; until 1878, it was forbidden to build outside the ramparts. That led to the highest infant mortality in the kingdom. At the end of the 19th century, the conservative city government prevented industrial investment to avoid an increase in the number of workers and the establishment of educational institutions: students were regarded as disorderly; as a result, the relative importance of the city diminished. One of the few official Nazi concentration camp complexes in Western Europe outside Germany and Austria was named after's-Hertogenbosch.
It was known to the Germans as Herzogenbusch. About 30,000 inmates were interned in the complex during this time. In the Netherlands, this camp is known as'Kamp Vught', because the concentration camp was located at a heath near Vught, a village a few kilometres south of's-Hertogenbosch. Conquered by the Germans in World War II in 1940, with its railway station bombed by planes of the Royal Air Force on 16 September 1944, it was liberated in 24–27 October 1944 by British soldiers of Major-General Robert Knox Ross's 53rd Infantry Division after Major Donald Bremner of the 1st Battalion, East Lancashire Regiment, of 158th Infantry Brigade, had routed the enemy on 23/24th; the population centres in the municipality are: Bokhoven, Deuteren, Empel, Gewande,'s-Hertogenbosch, Kruisstraat, Maliska
Siege of Schenkenschans
The Siege of Schenkenschans was a major siege of the Eighty Years' War. In a successful campaign the Army of Flanders, commanded by Spanish general Cardinal-Infante Ferdinand of Austria, had captured the towns of Diest, Gennep and Schenkenschans, reversing recent Dutch gains and opening the Dutch Republic to a possible invasion; the Dutch Stadtholder, Fredrick Henry, pushed the Republic's military efforts to their limit to recapture the fortress of Schenkenschans in an epic siege to counter this strategic threat. He succeeded in doing so after nine months; the fortress with the name Schenkenschans was founded by the German mercenary commander Maarten Schenk van Nydeggen on the orders of stadtholder Adolf van Nieuwenaar in 1586. Its location was strategically chosen, because it dominated the place where in 1586 the Rhine and the Waal River forked. An army that approaches from the east there had a choice of marching along the right bank of the Rhine, through the "back door" of the Dutch Republic, thrusting straight to the Dutch heartland.
In all three cases the rivers formed an ideal supply line. However, that supply line was cut off by the Schenkenschans; the Dutch dominated the area during most of the war with Spain. The fortress was much improved after its humble beginnings and in its new form was a fine example of star fort architecture. In 1599 it was besieged unsuccessfully by Spanish forces led Francisco de Mendoza. In 1635 the Dutch Republic concluded an alliance with France with the objective of taking on the Spanish Army of Flanders from two sides, in the hope of breaking the strategic stalemate in the Eighty Years' War and dividing up the Spanish Netherlands between the two partners in the alliance; the Dutch and French invaded from two sides in June, 1635, joined forces in the valley of the Meuse in July, while the Spanish field army under the Cardinal-Infante fell back to cover Brussels. The invading armies captured a few smaller places before investing Leuven, but this siege ended in a fiasco because of bad logistics and organization, because the French army was decimated by the plague.
This failure allowed the Spanish forces to take the initiative and soon the invaders were forced into a headlong retreat. The Cardinal-Infante pushed the Franco–Dutch army back to the Dutch border, he made a north-easterly thrust to the Rhine in the direction of Cleves. A party of 500 German mercenaries under Lt.-Col. Eyndhouts, roaming on his left flank, managed to surprise the fortress of Schenkenschans that at the time had a garrison of only 120, in the night of 27/28 July; the garrison were massacred. Spain put a large garrison in the fortress, at first under the command of Eyndhouts; the Dutch brought up reinforcements right away, but could not prevent the occupation by a Spanish army of 20,000 of the Duchy of Cleves during August and September. This army threatened an invasion of the Dutch heartland and it was therefore essential that this threat be countered. Frederick Henry started the siege of Schenkenschans within days of its fall, but soon transferred command to his cousin John Maurice, Prince of Nassau-Siegen.
The besieging army had a strength at its peak of 30,000 men, while the size of the garrison was 1,500 men. The terrain made the siege difficult; the fortress was built on an island between the two rivers. An escalade would therefore have been difficult, as the garrison was unlikely to let itself be surprised. Mining would have been impossible because of the water-logged terrain, for the same reason the fortress could not be invested with entrenchments. However, the Dutch could and did use the terrain to protect the besieging army from Spanish efforts at relief by inundations. In any case, there seemed to be no option but to starve out the well-provisioned garrison and meanwhile to attempt to pound the fortress to rubble with siege artillery; this the Dutch did with alacrity. The fortress was bombarded from all sides by river gun-boats on the Waal; the effects of such bombardments were terrible. According to an eye-witness, during one particular bombardment, the garrison held out for nine months despite the terrible circumstances and the high casualties.
When John Maurice negotiated an honorable surrender with the new governor of the fortress, Gomar de Fourdin, only 600 survivors walked out on April 30, 1636. The population of the Dutch Republic was elated by the surrender, whereas the Spanish chief minister Olivares fell victim to despondency, he wrote to the Cardinal-Infante: Though there may not have been a direct link with the loss of Schenkenschans for Spain, the Cardinal-Infante decided to change the focus of the Spanish offensive to France in the Summer of 1636. To everybody's surprise this led to a collapse of the French defenses and to a deep incursion into France, as far as Corbie; the fortress of Schenkenschans once more played an important role in Dutch history when it fell without a shot being fired to the French invading armies during the Rampjaar on 21 June 1672. The governor of the fortress at the time was the 22-year-old son of a Nijmegen regent by the name of Ten Hoven or Ten Haef, who evidently was in over his head and surrendered the fortress in exchange for a chance to march the garrison off to Friesland By that time the rivers near the fortress had become so shallow that the French army could ford them.
The fall of the fortres
Pieter Jansz Post was a Dutch Golden Age architect and printmaker. Post was baptised in Haarlem, the son of a stained-glass painter and the older brother of painter Frans Post, he is credited with the creation of the Dutch baroque style of architecture, along with his longtime collaborator Jacob van Campen. Together they designed the Mauritshuis in the Hague. According to Houbraken he was a famous architect who introduced his brother Frans to Maurice of Nassau, Prince of Orange while he was working on plans for the Mauritshuis. According to the RKD he became a member of the Haarlem Guild of St. Luke in 1623, became painter and architect for Stadhouder Frederik Hendrik, he was the overseer from 1640 for the new additions to Paleis Noordeinde in The Hague. From 1645 he was the architect for Frederik Hendrik for Huis ten Bosch, where he worked together with Jacob van Campen, he died in The Hague, aged 61. His son Maurits became an architect, his son Johan Post became a painter, his daughter married the anatomist and collector Frederik Ruysch.
His granddaughter Rachel Ruysch became a famous flower painter. 1642 Huis Dedel, The Hague 1643 Huis Prinsessegracht 4 1645-1650 Huis ten Bosch 1645-1648 Gemeenlandshuis Zwanenburg, Halfweg 1649-1653 Huis De Onbeschaamde, Dordrecht 1652-1657 Gebouw van de Staten van Holland, 1655 Johan de Witt Huis, 1657-1658 De Waag, Leiden 1659-1685 Stadhuis, Maastricht 1659-1662 Kruithuis, Delft 1660 Hofje van Nieuwkoop, 1661-1662 Torendeel van Lambertuskerk in Buren 1662-1665 Kasteel Heeze, Heeze 1662-1680 Hervormde Kerk, Bennebroek 1663 Kerk van Stompetoren 1668- Kaaswaag, Gouda Media related to Pieter Post at Wikimedia Commons Pieter Post on Artnet
Johann VII, Count of Nassau-Siegen
Count John VII of Nassau was Count of Nassau in Siegen and Freudenberg as John I. He was the second son of his wife Elisabeth of Leuchtenberg, he was married twice. Firstly, he married on 9 December 1581 with Countess Magdalena of Waldeck, daughter of Count Philip IV of Waldeck-Wildungen and Jutta of Isenburg, they had the following children: Johann Ernst, a general in the Venetian army, involved in the Uskok War. They had the following children: Prince John Maurice of Nassau Prince George Frederick Louis married Mauritia Eleonora of Portugal, daughter of Emilia of Nassau, daughter of William the Silent and daughter-in-law of António, Prior of Crato. William Otto Luise Christiane, married on 4 July 1627 Marquis Philippe de Conflans Sophie Margarete, married on 13 January 1656 to Count Georg Ernst of Limburg Stirum Henry Marie Juliane, married on 13 December 1637 to Duke Francis Henry of Saxe-Lauenburg Amalie, married: on 23 April 1636 to Herman Wrangel on 27 March 1649 to Christian Augustus, Count Palatine of Sulzbach Bernhard Christian Katharine Johann Ernst Elisabeth Juliane, married in 1647 to Count Bernhard of Sayn-Wittgenstein Johann VII and both his wives are buried in the royal crypt in Siegen.
The Wetterau Association of Counts German Calvinist and Reformed Christians
Dillenburg Oranienstadt Dillenburg, is a town in Hesse's Gießen region in Germany. The town was the seat of the old Dillkreis district, now part of the Lahn-Dill-Kreis; the town lies on the German-Dutch holiday road called the Orange Route, joining towns and regions associated with the House of Orange-Nassau, as well as on the German Timber-Frame Road and the Rothaarsteig hiking trail. Dillenburg lies on the eastern edge of the Westerwald range in the narrow valley of the river Dill, which flows from Hesse-Westphalia border to Wetzlar, emptying into the Lahn. Dillenburg borders in the north on the community of Eschenburg, in the east on the community of Siegbach, in the south on the town of Herborn, the community of Breitscheid, in the west on the town of Haiger. Dillenburg is divided into the centres of Donsbach, Frohnhausen, Nanzenbach and Oberscheld. Donsbach lies 4 km southwest of the Dillenburg main town. Eibach has some 1,450 inhabitants; the village, whose livelihood was once based on mining, lies among the other constituent communities of Nanzenbach and Niederscheld.
Its healing spring, whose water is heavy with iron, makes the village a favourite among locals. At Eastertime, it is decorated. With 3,900 inhabitants, Frohnhausen is the largest of the constituent communities after the main town of Dillenburg. Manderbach lies on a sunny plateau 3 km north of the main town of Dillenburg. Nanzenbach lies 6 km north of the main town of Dillenburg; the tallest mountain of Dillenburg, the Eschenburg at an elevation of 589 m, is part of the Nanzenbach area. Niederscheld is a village with about 3000 inhabitants; the name comes from a small brook called the Schelde that rises between Oberscheld and Tringenstein and flows into the Dill at Niederscheld. The village's greatest hallmarks are the Adolfshütte industrial park. Towards the end of the Second World War, the village suffered comparatively heavy damage from Allied air raids. Niederscheld had been appointed a target, because parts for the V-2 rocket were built at the Adolfshütte. Oberscheld is a village with about 2000 inhabitants, it is the neighbour village from Niederscheld.
The Mining was quite important for Oberscheld, there was a blast furnace, the blast furnace was closed in 1969. Oberscheld had a station, the last train ran in Oberscheld in 1987. Dillenburg had its first documentary mention in 1254. Dillenburg was the ancestral seat of the Orange branch of the House of Nassau. Dillenburg Castle was built on top of the peak now called the Schlossberg in the late 13th or early 14th century. There are no pictures of this castle, however, as it was wooden, was destroyed in the Dernbacher Feud. From his stately home in exile, William I of Orange-Nassau, born in Dillenburg, organized the Dutch resistance against Spain, which still occasions regular Dutch royal visits to the town to this day; the land was administered by the presidents of the House of Nassau-Dillenburg. One of the last presidents was Georg Ernst Ludwig Freiherr von Preuschen von und zu Liebenstein. In the Seven Years' War, the stately home was destroyed, Wilhelmstraße was built out of the remains. In 1797, one of the earliest schools of forestry in Europe, founded a decade earlier at Hungen by Georg Ludwig Hartig, was moved to Dillenburg.
It continued in Dillenburg until 1805, when Hartig lost his position as Inspector of Forests for the Prince of Orange-Nassau, when the principality was dissolved by Napoleon. In 1875, the Wilhelmsturm, views from which can be seen in this article, was completed on the Schlossberg, it is today the town's landmark. The "casemates" under the former stately home are among the biggest defensive works in Europe, they have been excavated and may be toured. In the 19th century came the Industrial Revolution with the building of the Deutz–Gießen railway and the use of iron ore found on the Lahn and Sieg. Many mines and metalworking operations came into being in the region. In this time, many railway branchlines were built from Dillenburg to, among other places, Gönnern and Ewersbach; these lines have all been abandoned now. The line to Gönnern was torn up; the railway depot, so useful in the time of steam traction, was shut down in 1983. In the Second World War, Dillenburg became a target of Allied attacks due to its marshalling yard.
In years that yard was closed and ore mining became less profitable and in 1968, the last blast furnace, in Oberscheld, ceased operations. As of November 2017, the town's name was extended to "Oranienstadt Dillenburg" to reference Dillenburg's special connection to the House of Orange-Nassau as its ancestral seat. Eibach's history began in "Nassau times" in the 13th century. In 1313, the village had its first documentary mention. In the Second World War, it was left unscathed. In 2004, the healing spring was renovated, a brineworks was built. Manderbach had its first documentary mention in 1225, making it older than the main town of Dillenburg; the two former villages – nowadays parts of Dillenburg – Frohnhausen and Manderbach, had much in common in their early history. Here the two noble families von Hunsbach and von Selbach both held sway; as in Frohnhausen, there was a great fire in Manderbach – albeit 148 years before Frohnhausen's – which, having been started by a lightning strike, burnt 38 houses down within an hour and a half on 29 April 1630.
The name Nanzenbach was mentioned for the first time in a document on 8 May 1325. This document mentions "die Nantzenbecher" — "the inhabitants of Nanzenbach"
Bay of All Saints
The Bay of All Saints known as All Saints' Bay and Todos os Santos Bay, is the principal bay of the Brazilian state of Bahia, to which it gave its name. Todos os Santos Bay sits on the eastern coast of Brazil, surrounding part of Bahia's capital Salvador and opening to the Atlantic Ocean, it covers 1,223 square kilometers. Farol da Barra, on the site of a historic fort, stands at the entrance of the bay; the Bay of All Saints is shallow along much of its area with an average depth of 9.8 meters. The Paraguaçu River travels 500 kilometers to empty into the bay and the coastal lowlands of the Reconcavo Basin are at its mouth, it contains the largest being Itaparica Island at its entrance. The Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci was the first European to visit the bay, during his second expedition to the Americas, he entered the bay on All Saints' Day, 1501. He named the Bay of the Holy Savior of All the Saints after the date and his parish church in Florence, San Salvatore di Ognissanti; the bay, its principal settlement, the captaincy around it all shared the same name, but they were distinguished, the state becoming Bahia, the bay becoming the Bay of All Saints, the city becoming first Bahia and now Salvador.
In 1501, one year after the arrival of Pedro Álvares Cabral's fleet in Porto Seguro, Gaspar de Lemos arrived at the Bay of All Saints and sailed most of the Bahia coast. The first European to disembark in Morro de São Paulo was Martim Afonso de Sousa in 1531, while he was leading an expedition charged with exploring the coast of the new continent. Salvador was a major slave port for the sugarcane fields of Brazil by the early 18th century. In the whaling days, it was a popular spot, since the bay was a mating ground for whales; the northeast shore of the Bay of All Saints is home to Brazil's first active oil fields. The municipality of São Francisco do Conde, at the north of the bay, remains a port that serves the oil refineries at Mataripe; the bay is dredged from the port to the Atlantic Ocean to remain open to shipping. Bargellini, Piero. Le Strade di Firenze, Vol. II, Florence: Bonechi. "Plano de la Bahia de todos Santos situada en la costa meridional del Brasil", a 19th-century Spanish map of the Bay of All Saints
Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg
Frederick William was Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia, thus ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia, from 1640 until his death in 1688. A member of the House of Hohenzollern, he is popularly known as "the Great Elector" because of his military and political achievements. Frederick William was a staunch pillar of the Calvinist faith, associated with the rising commercial class, he promoted it vigorously. His shrewd domestic reforms gave Prussia a strong position in the post-Westphalian political order of north-central Europe, setting Prussia up for elevation from duchy to kingdom, achieved under his son and successor. Elector Frederick William was born in Berlin to George William, Elector of Brandenburg, Elisabeth Charlotte of the Palatinate, his inheritance consisted of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the Duchy of Cleves, the County of Mark, the Duchy of Prussia. During the Thirty Years' War, George William strove to maintain, with a minimal army, a delicate balance between the Protestant and Catholic forces fighting throughout the Holy Roman Empire.
Out of these unpromising beginnings Frederick William managed to rebuild his war-ravaged territories. In contrast to the religious disputes that disrupted the internal affairs of other European states, Brandenburg-Prussia benefited from the policy of religious tolerance adopted by Frederick William. With the help of French subsidies, he built up an army to defend the country. In the Second Northern War, he was forced to accept Swedish vassalage for the Duchy of Prussia according to the terms of the Treaty of Königsberg, but as the war progressed he succeeded in gaining full sovereignty for the Prussian duchy in the treaties of Labiau, Wehlau and Oliva, leaving the Holy Roman Emperor as his only liege for his imperial holdings. In the conflict for Pomerania inheritance, Frederick William had to accept two setbacks, one in the Northern War and one in the Scanian War. Though militarily successful in Swedish Pomerania, he had to bow to France's demands and return his gains to Sweden in the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye.
Frederick William was a military commander of wide renown, his standing army would become the model for the Prussian Army. He is notable for his joint victory with Swedish forces at the Battle of Warsaw, according to Hajo Holborn, marked "the beginning of Prussian military history", but the Swedes turned on him at the behest of King Louis XIV and invaded Brandenburg. After marching 250 kilometres in 15 days back to Brandenburg, he caught the Swedes by surprise and managed to defeat them on the field at the Battle of Fehrbellin, destroying the myth of Swedish military invincibility, he destroyed another Swedish army that invaded the Duchy of Prussia during the Great Sleigh Drive in 1678. He is noted for his use of broad directives and delegation of decision-making to his commanders, which would become the basis for the German doctrine of Auftragstaktik, he is noted for using rapid mobility to defeat his foes. Frederick William is notable for raising an army of 40,000 soldiers by 1678, through the General War Commissariat presided over by Joachim Friedrich von Blumenthal.
He was an advocate of mercantilism, subsidies and internal improvements. Following Louis XIV's revocation of the Edict of Nantes, Frederick William encouraged skilled French and Walloon Huguenots to emigrate to Brandenburg-Prussia with the Edict of Potsdam, bolstering the country's technical and industrial base. On Blumenthal's advice he agreed to exempt the nobility from taxes and in return they agreed to dissolve the Estates-General, he simplified travel in Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia by connecting riverways with canals, a system, expanded by Prussian architects, such as Georg Steenke. On 7 December 1646 in The Hague, Frederick William entered into a marriage, proposed by Blumenthal as a partial solution to the Jülich-Berg question, with Luise Henriette of Nassau, daughter of Frederick Henry of Orange-Nassau and Amalia of Solms-Braunfels and his 1st cousin once removed through William the Silent, their children were as follows: William Henry, Electoral Prince of Brandenburg Charles, Electoral Prince of Brandenburg Frederick I of Prussia, his successor Amalie Henry Louis, who married Ludwika Karolina RadziwiłłOn 13 June 1668 in Gröningen, Frederick William married Sophie Dorothea of Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg, daughter of Philip, Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and Sophie Hedwig of Saxe-Lauenburg.
Their children were the following: Philip William Marie Amelie Albert Frederick Charles Philip Elisabeth Sofie Dorothea Christian Ludwig German colonial projects before 1871#Brandenburg-Prussian colonies Media related to Friedrich Wilhelm I of Brandenburg at Wikimedia Commons