John Maynard Keynes, 1st Baron Keynes, was a British economist, whose ideas fundamentally changed the theory and practice of macroeconomics and the economic policies of governments. Trained in mathematics, he built on and refined earlier work on the causes of business cycles, was one of the most influential economists of the 20th century. Considered the founder of modern macroeconomics, his ideas are the basis for the school of thought known as Keynesian economics, its various offshoots. During the Great Depression of the 1930s, Keynes spearheaded a revolution in economic thinking, challenging the ideas of neoclassical economics that held that free markets would, in the short to medium term, automatically provide full employment, as long as workers were flexible in their wage demands, he argued that aggregate demand determined the overall level of economic activity, that inadequate aggregate demand could lead to prolonged periods of high unemployment. Keynes advocated the use of fiscal and monetary policies to mitigate the adverse effects of economic recessions and depressions.
He detailed these ideas in his magnum opus, The General Theory of Employment and Money, published in 1936. In the mid to late-1930s, leading Western economies adopted Keynes's policy recommendations. All capitalist governments had done so by the end of the two decades following Keynes's death in 1946; as a leader of the British delegation, Keynes participated in the design of the international economic institutions established after the end of World War II but was overruled by the American delegation on several aspects. Keynes's influence started to wane in the 1970s as a result of the stagflation that plagued the Anglo-American economies during that decade, because of criticism of Keynesian policies by Milton Friedman and other monetarists, who disputed the ability of government to favorably regulate the business cycle with fiscal policy. However, the advent of the global financial crisis of 2007–2008 sparked a resurgence in Keynesian thought. Keynesian economics provided the theoretical underpinning for economic policies undertaken in response to the crisis by President Barack Obama of the United States, Prime Minister Gordon Brown of the United Kingdom, other heads of governments.
When Time magazine included Keynes among its Most Important People of the Century in 1999, it stated that "his radical idea that governments should spend money they don't have may have saved capitalism." The Economist has described Keynes as "Britain's most famous 20th-century economist." In addition to being an economist, Keynes was a civil servant, a director of the Bank of England, a part of the Bloomsbury Group of intellectuals. John Maynard Keynes was born in Cambridge, England, to an upper-middle-class family, his father, John Neville Keynes, was an economist and a lecturer in moral sciences at the University of Cambridge and his mother Florence Ada Keynes a local social reformer. Keynes was the first born, was followed by two more children – Margaret Neville Keynes in 1885 and Geoffrey Keynes in 1887. Geoffrey became Margaret married the Nobel Prize-winning physiologist Archibald Hill. According to the economic historian and biographer Robert Skidelsky, Keynes's parents were loving and attentive.
They remained in the same house throughout their lives, where the children were always welcome to return. Keynes would receive considerable support from his father, including expert coaching to help him pass his scholarship exams and financial help both as a young man and when his assets were nearly wiped out at the onset of Great Depression in 1929. Keynes's mother made her children's interests her own, according to Skidelsky, "because she could grow up with her children, they never outgrew home". In January 1889 at the age of five and a half, Keynes started at the kindergarten of the Perse School for Girls for five mornings a week, he showed a talent for arithmetic, but his health was poor leading to several long absences. He was tutored at home by a governess, Beatrice Mackintosh, his mother. In January 1892, at eight and a half, he started as a day pupil at St Faith's preparatory school. By 1894, Keynes was top of his excelling at mathematics. In 1896, St Faith's headmaster, Ralph Goodchild, wrote that Keynes was "head and shoulders above all the other boys in the school" and was confident that Keynes could get a scholarship to Eton.
In 1897, Keynes won a scholarship to Eton College, where he displayed talent in a wide range of subjects mathematics and history. At Eton, Keynes experienced the first "love of his life" in Dan Macmillan, older brother of the future Prime Minister Harold Macmillan. Despite his middle-class background, Keynes mixed with upper-class pupils. In 1902 Keynes left Eton for King's College, after receiving a scholarship for this to read mathematics. Alfred Marshall begged Keynes to become an economist, although Keynes's own inclinations drew him towards philosophy – the ethical system of G. E. Moore. Keynes joined the Pitt Club and was an active member of the semi-secretive Cambridge Apostles society, a debating club reserved for the brightest students. Like many members, Keynes retained a bond to the club after graduating and continued to attend occasional meetings throughout his life. Before leaving Cambridge, Keynes became the President of the Cambridge Union Society and Cambridge University Liberal Club.
He was said to be an atheist. In May 1904, he received a first-class BA in mathematics. Aside from a few months spent on holidays with family and friends, Keynes continued to involve himself with the university over the next two ye
John "Johnny" C. Miles, was a Canadian marathon runner, he won the Boston Marathon in 1926 and 1929. Born in Halifax, West Yorkshire, as a child he moved with his family to Florence, Nova Scotia, a coal town located near Sydney Mines on Cape Breton Island; when his father enlisted in the armed forces in 1916, at age 11 he helped to support his family by working in the coal mines during the evening shift and continuing at school during daytime. As a teenager he won local races, he went on to win the Canadian five-mile championship when it was held in Halifax in 1925. He won the Halifax Herald 10-mile competition in the same year; as a young man, Miles worked various temporary jobs, including a stint in northern Ontario. When he won the Halifax races, he was employed in a colliery blacksmith's shop, he was offered employment with the British Canadian Cooperative Store. For them, Miles delivered groceries to local customers and country stores by wagon. To stay in shape he would run behind the wagon wearing heavy boots.
In 1926 Miles's neighbours raised a few hundred dollars to send him to the Boston Marathon by train. This would be Miles's debut marathon; the field at the 1926 Boston Marathon included four-time winner Clarence DeMar and 1924 Olympic champion Albin Stenroos, whom Miles idolized. Miles arrived at the marathon as an unknown, competing in a handmade singlet adorned with a maple leaf and the letters "NS" for Nova Scotia and a pair of 98-cent sneakers. Stenroos attempted leaving DeMar behind. Miles stayed with him until Heartbreak Hill. Miles completed the race in a time of 2:25:40, his time found to be 176 yards short. Miles attempted to defend his title at the 1927 Boston Marathon, but dropped out early due to problems with his shoes. In 1929 Miles returned to Boston and won the marathon in a time of 2:33:08. Miles competed in two more Boston Marathons. Between his two wins in Boston, Miles won the Canadian 10000 metre championship in 1928, he won a bronze medal in the marathon at the 1930 British Empire Games.
He finished 17th in the 1928 Olympic marathon. Four years at the 1932 Summer Olympics he finished 14th in the Olympic marathon race. After the 1932 Olympics, Miles retired from competition, he had moved to Hamilton, Ontario in 1927 and, while training for the 1928 Olympics, he found work as a labourer for International Harvester. He subsequently worked for them as an inspector and foreman and as a manager in France and in Chicago, he retired home to Canada in 1971. In 1982, he was made a Member of the Order of Canada, he was inducted into the Nova Scotia Sports Hall of Fame. Miles died at age 97 in Ontario. At the time of his death, he was Canada's oldest living Olympic athlete and the oldest Boston Marathon winner. In 2018 Miles was named by the Nova Scotia Sports Hall of Fame as one of the greatest 15 athletes in Nova Scotia's history, ranking seventh. Since 1975 the Johnny Miles Marathon has been held in Nova Scotia in his honour. An annual 5K race is held in his honour in Sydney Mines, Nova Scotia.
Sydney Mines displays his image on a sign at the entrance of the town and a statue of Miles is displayed on Main St. List of winners of the Boston Marathon Evans, Hilary. "Johnny Miles". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Nova Scotia Sport Hall of Fame citation Article covering Johnny Miles NY Times Obituary Canada's Sports Hall of Fame Williston, Floyd. Johnny Miles: Nova Scotia's Marathon King. Halifax, Nova Scotia: Nimbus Publishing. ISBN 0-921054-39-4
Jonathan Anthony Nichols is an English former professional footballer. Nichols signed for Torquay United on a YTS apprenticeship, making his debut whilst still an apprentice on 2 March 1999 in a 2-0 defeat away to Leyton Orient, with another five league appearances before the end of the season leading to him being awarded the club's Young Player of the Year Award. Although expected to make a breakthrough the following season, Nichols only made one further league appearance and was released at the end of the season, joining Dorchester Town on a free transfer in August 2000. In the 2001 close season he joined Team Bath and won player of the year awards while studying at the University of Bath. Nichols joined Rugby Town towards the end of the 2004-05 season, but left due to working in the South of England, he spent the 2005 pre-season with AFC Wimbledon, but returned to Rugby Town in August 2005. In February 2006 Nicholls joined Wingate & Finchley. Jon Nichols at Soccerbase