John Maynard Smith was a British theoretical and mathematical evolutionary biologist and geneticist. An aeronautical engineer during the Second World War, he took a second degree in genetics under the well-known biologist J. B. S. Haldane. Maynard Smith was instrumental in the application of game theory to evolution with George R. Price, theorised on other problems such as the evolution of sex and signalling theory. John Maynard Smith was born in London, the son of the surgeon Sidney Maynard Smith, but following his father's death in 1928, the family moved to Exmoor, where he became interested in natural history. Quite unhappy with the lack of formal science education at Eton College, Maynard Smith took it upon himself to develop an interest in Darwinian evolutionary theory and mathematics, after having read the work of old Etonian J. B. S. Haldane, whose books were in the school's library despite the bad reputation Haldane had at Eton for his communism, he became an atheist at age 14. On leaving school, Maynard Smith joined the Communist Party of Great Britain and started studying engineering at Trinity College, Cambridge.
When the Second World War broke out in 1939, he volunteered for service. He was rejected, because of poor eyesight and was told to finish his engineering degree, which he did in 1941, he quipped that "under the circumstances, my poor eyesight was a selective advantage—it stopped me getting shot". The year of his graduation, he married Sheila Matthew, they had two sons and one daughter. Between 1942 and 1947, he applied his degree to military aircraft design. Maynard Smith, having decided that aircraft were “noisy and old-fashioned” took a change of career, entering University College London to study fruit fly genetics under Haldane. After graduating he became a lecturer in Zoology at UCL between 1952 and 1965, where he directed the Drosophila lab and conducted research on population genetics, he published a popular Penguin book, The Theory of Evolution, in 1958. He became less attracted to communism and became a less active member leaving the Party in 1956 like many other intellectuals, after the Soviet Union brutally suppressed the Hungarian Revolution.
In 1962 he was one of the founding members of the University of Sussex and was a Dean between 1965–85. He subsequently became a professor emeritus. Prior to his death the building housing much of Life Sciences at Sussex was renamed the John Maynard Smith Building, in his honour. In 1973 Maynard Smith formalised a central concept in evolutionary game theory called the evolutionarily stable strategy, based on a verbal argument by George R. Price; this area of research culminated in the Theory of Games. The Hawk-Dove game is arguably his single most influential game theoretical model, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1977. In 1986 he was awarded the Darwin Medal. Maynard Smith published a book entitled The Evolution of Sex which explored in mathematical terms, the notion of the "two-fold cost of sex". During the late 1980s he became interested in the other major evolutionary transitions with the evolutionary biologist Eörs Szathmáry. Together they wrote an influential 1995 book The Major Transitions in Evolution, a seminal work which continues to contribute to ongoing issues in evolutionary biology.
A popular science version of the book, entitled The Origins of Life: From the birth of life to the origin of language was published in 1999. In 1991 he was awarded the Balzan Prize for Genetics and Evolution "For his powerful analysis of evolutionary theory and of the role of sexual reproduction as a critical factor in evolution and in the survival of species. In 1995 he was awarded the Linnean Medal by The Linnean Society and in 1999 he was awarded the Crafoord Prize jointly with Ernst Mayr and George C. Williams. In 2001 he was awarded the Kyoto Prize. In his honour, the European Society for Evolutionary Biology has an award for extraordinary young evolutionary biology researchers named The John Maynard Smith Prize, his final book, Animal Signals, co-authored with David Harper was published in 2003 on signalling theory. He died on 19 April 2004, he is survived by their children. Fellow, Royal Society Darwin Medal Frink Medal Balzan Prize Linnean Medal Royal Medal Crafoord Prize Copley Medal Kyoto Prize Darwin-Wallace Award.
This used to be bestowed every 50 years by the Linnean Society of London. Since 2010, the medal has been awarded annually. Maynard Smith, J.. The Theory of Evolution. London, Penguin Books. ISBN 0-14-020433-4 1993 edn ISBN 0-521-45128-0 Maynard Smith, J. Mathematical Ideas in Biology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-07335-9 Maynard Smith, J. On Evolution. Edinburgh University Press. ISBN 0-85224-223-9 Maynard Smith, J.. R.. "The logic of animal conflict". Nature. 246: 15–18. Bibcode:1973Natur.246...15S. Doi:10.1038/246015a0. Maynard Smith, J. Models in Ecology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20262-0 Maynard Smith, J; the Evolution of Sex. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-29302-2 Maynard Smith, J. Evolution Now. London, Macmillan. ISBN 0-7167-1426-4 Maynard Smith, J. Evolution and the Theory of Games. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-28884-3 Ma
Partington railway station was situated on the Cheshire Lines Committee route between Warrington and Stockport. It served the locality between 1874 and 1964; the line between Skelton West Junction and Cressington Junction was opened for goods traffic on 1 March 1873, with passenger trains beginning on 1 August 1873. The first station named Partington was opened on that line in May 1874; the construction of the Manchester Ship Canal, to cross the line between Partington and Cadishead, meant that the railway had to be raised by 43 feet in order to give a 75-foot clearance for shipping. A new line, parallel to the old but to the south-west, was built on embankments formed using the soil excavated from the new canal; the new line was brought into use for goods traffic on 27 February 1893. The new station was 191 miles 23 chains from London St Pancras, 26 miles 36 chains from Liverpool Central; the second station was closed on 30 November 1964. Butt, R. V. J.. The Directory of Railway Stations. Yeovil: Patrick Stephens Ltd.
ISBN 1-85260-508-1. R508. Conolly, W. Philip. British Railways Gazetteer. Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-0320-3. EX/0176. Dow, George. Great Central, Volume Two: Dominion of Watkin, 1864–1899. Shepperton: Ian Allan. ISBN 0-7110-1469-8. Midland Railway System Maps Volume 2 Leeds to branches. Peter Kay. 1998. ISBN 1-899890-17-3. Partington station on navigable 1946 O. S. map
Jam Session featuring Maynard Ferguson is an album by Canadian jazz trumpeter Maynard Ferguson featuring tracks recorded in early 1954 and released on the EmArcy label. The album was Ferguson's first 12-inch LP and was released on CD compiled with Jam Session featuring Maynard Ferguson as Hollywood Jam Sessions in 2005. Allmusic awarded the album 3 stars stating "Although the music contains no real surprises, this album has its exciting moments and will be enjoyed by bebop fans"; the same reviewer rated Hollywood Jam Sessions 4½ stars stating "Hollywood Jam Sessions has some of Ferguson's most exciting performances from his Los Angeles years". "Our Love is Here to Stay" - 16:07 "Air Conditioned" - 17:05 Maynard Ferguson - trumpet, valve trombone Milt Bernhart - trombone Herb Geller - alto saxophone Bob Cooper - tenor saxophone Claude Williamson - piano John Simmons - bass Max Roach - drums