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John Mayow

John Mayow FRS was a chemist and physiologist, remembered today for conducting early research into respiration and the nature of air. Mayow worked in a field, sometimes called pneumatic chemistry. There has been controversy over both the location and year of Mayow's birth, with both Cornwall and London claimed, along with birth years from 1641 to 1645. Proctor's extensive research led him to conclude that Mayow was born in 1641 near Morval in Cornwall and that he was admitted to Wadham College, Oxford at age 17 in 1658. A year Mayow became a scholar at Oxford, in 1660 he was elected to a fellowship at All Souls, he graduated in law, but made medicine his profession, became noted for his practice therein in the summer time, in the city of Bath. In 1678, on the proposal of Robert Hooke, Mayow was appointed a fellow of the Royal Society; the following year, after a marriage, not altogether to Mayow's content, he died in London and was buried in the Church of St Paul, Covent Garden. Mayow discovered that there were two constituents of air.

Inactive and active. Mayow published at Oxford in 1668 two tracts, on respiration and rickets, in 1674 these were reprinted, the former in an enlarged and corrected form, with three others De sal-nitro et spiritu nitro-aereo, De respiratione foetus in utero et ovo, De motu musculari et spiritibus animalibus as Tractatus quinque medico-physici; the contents of this work, several times republished and translated into Dutch and French, show him to have been an investigator much in advance of his time. Accepting as proved by Boyle's experiments that air is necessary for combustion, Mayow showed that fire is supported not by the air as a whole but by a more active and subtle part of it; this part he called "spiritus igneo-aereus," or sometimes "nitro-aereus", for he identified it with one of the constituents of the acid portion of nitre which he regarded as formed by the union of fixed alkali with a spiritus acidus. In combustion the particulae nitro-aereae – either pre-existent in the thing consumed or supplied by the air – combined with the material burnt.

Mayow argued that the same particles are consumed in respiration, because he found that when a small animal and a lighted candle were placed in a closed vessel full of air the candle first went out and soon afterwards the animal died. However, if there was no candle present the animal lived twice as long, he concluded that this constituent of the air is necessary for life, supposed that the lungs separate it from the atmosphere and pass it into the blood. It is necessary, Mayow inferred, for all muscular movements, he thought there was reason to believe that the sudden contraction of muscle is produced by its combination with other combustible particles in the body. Animal heat is due to the union of nitro-aerial particles, breathed in from the air, with the combustible particles in the blood, is further formed by the combination of these two sets of particles in muscle during violent exertion. In effect, Mayow – who gives a remarkably correct anatomical description of the mechanism of respiration – preceded Priestley and Lavoisier by a century in recognising the existence of oxygen, under the guise of his "spiritus nitro-aereus," as a separate entity distinct from the general mass of the air.

Mayow perceived the part "spiritus nitro-aereus" plays in combustion and in increasing the weight of the calces of metals as compared with metals themselves. Rejecting the common notions of his time that the use of breathing is to cool the heart, or assist the passage of the blood from the right to the left side of the heart, or to agitate it, Mayow saw in inspiration a mechanism for introducing oxygen into the body, where it is consumed for the production of heat and muscular activity, he vaguely conceived of expiration as an excretory process. Using bell-jars over water Mayow showed that the active substance that we today call oxygen constitutes about a fifth part of the air. Parts of Mayow's work seem to agree with modern ideas regarding combustion. Mayow noted. Antoine Lavoisier and others interpreted this gain in terms of a reaction with a gaseous material in the air. See Holmyard and others for critiques of Mayow's work and comparisons to modern chemical thought. Fellow of the Royal Society Partington JR.

"The life and work of John Mayow". Isis. 47: 217–30. Doi:10.1086/348501. PMID 13366533. Partington JR. "Some early appraisals of the work of John Mayow". Isis. 50: 211–26. Doi:10.1086/348773. PMID 14430648. Boehm W. "". Sudhoffs Archiv für Geschichte der Medizin und der Naturwissenschaften. 46: 45–68. PMID 13870464. Sternbach GL, Varon J. "Resuscitation Great. John Mayow and oxygen". Resuscitation. 60: 235–7. Doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2003.12.013. PMID 15050753. "John Mayow". JAMA. 197: 364–5. 1966. Doi:10.1001/jama.197.5.364b. PMID 5329985. Beringer, JJ. "John Mayow: Chemist and Physician". Journal of the Royal Institution of Cornwall. Royal Institution of Cornwall. IX: 319–324. Retrieved 12 February 2008. Crum Brown, Alexander. "Dr. John Mayow: The Harveian Oration for 1899". Edinburgh Medical Journal. Y. J. Pentland. 6: 116–129. Retrieved 10


Raskol was the splitting of the Russian Orthodox Church into an official church and the Old Believers movement in the mid-17th century. It was triggered by the reforms of Patriarch Nikon in 1653, which aimed to establish uniformity between Greek and Russian church practices; the term is etymologically related to the family name of Rodion Raskolnikov, the protagonist of Dostoevsky's well-known novel Crime and Punishment. The members of an influential circle called the Zealots of Piety stood for purification of Russian Orthodox faith, they strove to reform Muscovite society, bringing it into closer accordance with Christian values and to improve church practices. As a consequence, they were engaged in the removal of alternative versions and correction of divine service books; the most influential members of this circle were Archpriests Avvakum, Ivan Neronov, Stephan Vonifatiyev, Fyodor Rtishchev and, when still Archbishop of Novgorod, Nikon himself, the future Patriarch. With the support from the Russian Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich, Patriarch Nikon began the process of correction of the Russian divine service books in accordance with their modern Greek counterparts and changed some of the rituals.

These innovations met with resistance from both the clergy and the people, who disputed the legitimacy and correctness of these reforms, referring to theological traditions and Eastern Orthodox ecclesiastic rules. Ignoring these protests, the reforms were approved by the church sobors in 1654–1655. In 1653–1656, the Print Yard under Epifany Slavinetsky began to produce corrected versions of newly translated divine service books. A traditional, widespread view of these reforms is that they only affected the external ritualistic side of the Russian Orthodox faith and that these changes were deemed a major event by the religious Russian people. However, these reforms, apart from their arbitrariness, established radically different relations between the church and the faithful, it soon became obvious that Nikon had used this reform for the purpose of centralization of the church and strengthening of his own authority. Nikon's forcible introduction of the new divine service books and rituals caused a major estrangement between the Zealots of Piety and Nikon.

Some of its members opposed the reforms and patriarch's actions. Avvakum and Daniel petitioned to the tsar in favour of the two-finger sign of the cross and bows during divine services and sermons, they tried to prove to the clergy that the correction of the books in accordance with the Greek standards profaned the pure faith because the Greek Church had deviated from the "ancient piety" and had been printing its divine service books in Catholic print houses and that they had been exposed to Roman Catholic influences. Ivan Neronov spoke against the strengthening of patriarch's authority and demanded democratization of ecclesiastic management; this conflict between Nikon and defenders of the old faith took a turn for the worse and soon Avvakum, Ivan Neronov and others would be persecuted and executed in 1682. The case brought by the defenders of the old faith found many supporters among different strata of the Russian society, which would give birth to the Raskol movement. A part of the old faith low-ranking clergy protested against the increase of feudal oppression, coming from the church leaders.

Some members of the high-ranking clergy joined the Raskol movement due to their discontent over Nikon's aspirations and the arbitrariness of his church reforms. Some of them, such as Bishop Paul of Kolomna, Archbishop Alexander of Vyatka, stood up for the old faith. Boyarynya Feodosiya Morozova, her sister Princess Urusova, some other courtiers supported or secretly sympathized with the defenders of the old faith; the unification of such heterogeneous forces against what had become "the official church" could be explained by the somewhat contradictory ideology of the Raskol movement. A certain idealization and conservation of traditional values and old traditions, a critical attitude towards innovations, conservation of national originality and acceptance of martyrdom in the name of the old faith as the only way towards salvation were intertwined with criticism of feudalism and serfdom. Different social strata were attracted to different sides of this ideology; the most radical apologists of the Raskol preached about approaching Armageddon and coming of the Antichrist, Tsar's and patriarch's worshiping of Satan, which ideas would find a broad response among the Russian people, sympathizing with the ideology of these most radical apologetes.

The Raskol movement thus became a vanguard of the conservative and at the same time democratic opposition. The Raskol movement gained in strength after the church sobor in 1666–67, which had anathemized the defenders of the old faith as heretics and made decisions with regards to their punishment. Members of the low-ranking clergy, who had severed their relations with the church, became the leaders of the opposition. Propagation of the split with the church in the name of preservation of the Orthodox faith as it had existed until the reforms was the main postulate of their ideology; the most dramatic manifestations of the Raskol included the practice of the so-called ognenniye kreshcheniya, or self-immolation, practiced by the most radical eleme

Buoys (album)

Buoys is the sixth studio album by American musician Panda Bear, released on February 8, 2019. It was preceded by the lead single "Dolphin", released along with its music video, features collaborations with Chilean DJ Lizz and Portuguese singer Dino D'Santiago; the album was co-produced by Panda Bear with Rusty Santos in Lisbon, where Lennox now lives. The last record the two worked on was Lennox's 2007 album Person Pitch. Lennox stated that he wanted to create music that would "feel familiar to a young person's ears", so worked with Santos to utilize production techniques of current music. Rolling Stone stated that the sound of the record is different from Lennox's previous material and evident on "Dolphin", which contains a "single guitar, a faint bassline and some textured samples" around Lennox's vocals. Lennox himself called the album the "beginning of something new"

Highland Park Ford Plant

The Highland Park Ford Plant is a former Ford Motor Company factory located at 91 Manchester Avenue in Highland Park, Michigan. It was the second American production facility for the Model T automobile and the first factory in history to assemble cars on a moving assembly line, it became a National Historic Landmark in 1978. The Highland Park Ford Plant was designed by Albert Kahn Associates in 1908 and was opened in 1910. Ford automotive production had taken place at the Ford Piquette Avenue Plant, where the first Model Ts were built; the Highland Park Ford Plant was 4 miles northwest of the original Dodge Brothers factory who were subcontractors for Ford, producing precision engine and chassis components for the Model T. It was approximately 1 mile northwest of the former Brush-Maxwell plant, which became the headquarters for the Chrysler Corporation; the complex included factories, a power plant and a foundry. About 102 acres in size the Highland Park Plant was the largest manufacturing facility in the world at the time of its opening.

Because of its spacious design, it set the precedent for many factories and production plants built thereafter. On October 7, 1913, the Highland Park Ford Plant became the first automobile production facility in the world to implement the moving assembly line; the new assembly line improved production time of the Model T from 728 to 93 minutes. The Highland Park assembly line lowered the price of the Model T from $700 in 1910 to $350 in 1917, making it an affordable automobile for most Americans. On January 5, 1914, Ford announced that factory wages would be raised from a daily rate of $2.34 to $5.00, that daily shifts would be reduced from nine hours to eight. After the increase in pay, Ford claimed that the turnover rate of 31.9 percent in 1913 decreased to 1.4 percent in 1915. Ford offered nearly three times the wages paid at other unskilled manufacturing plants. In the late 1920s, Ford moved automobile assembly to the River Rouge Plant complex in nearby Dearborn. Automotive trim manufacturing and Fordson tractor assembly continued at the Highland Park plant.

The 1,690 M4A3 Sherman tanks built by Ford from June, 1942 to September, 1943 were assembled in this factory, as well. During the 1940s through 1960s, the Highland Park plant was a principal location for Ford U. S. tractor manufacture. In the 1970s, the Romeo, plant displaced it for that role. By the mid-1990s neither plant was producing tractors or tractor parts, as Ford had sold off its tractor and implement interests in stages during the 1990-1993 period. By 2011 it was being used by Ford Motor Company to store documents and for artifact storage for the Henry Ford Museum. A portion is occupied by a Forman Mills clothing warehouse that opened in 2006; the Woodward Avenue Action Association has a purchase agreement with the complex's owner, National Equity Corp. to pay $550,000 for two of eight buildings at the historic Ford manufacturing complex: a four-floor, 40,000-square-foot administration building and the 8,000-square-foot executive garage near it. The center would include a theater with continuous videos, informational kiosks, interpretive displays on automotive history and a gift/coffee/snack shop.

It could be a place where visitors could pick up historical automotive tours, such as the current tour offered by the Woodward group, "In the Steps of Henry." The plant was used as a location for director Shawn Levy's 2011 Disney/Touchstone Pictures film Real Steel. List of Ford factories The Moving Assembly Line Debuted at the Highland Park Plant, Historic Sites, Ford Motor Company official site. National Register of Historic Places Inventory - Nomination Form, May 1977. Ford's Highland Park plant a manufacturing pioneer, MotorCities National Heritage Area, Detroit News article, May 21, 2009. National Historic Landmarks in Michigan, Michigan Historical Center, State Historic Preservation Office, Michigan State Housing Development Authority. Ford search results - Historic Sites Online, Michigan Historical Center, State Historic Preservation Office, Michigan State Housing Development Authority

Nahuel Peralta

Nahuel Iván Peralta is an Argentine professional footballer who plays as a midfielder for Defensores de Belgrano. Deportivo Armenio were Peralta's first club, he began featuring for them in the 2012–13 Primera B Metropolitana, he made his debut on 21 August 2012 at the Estadio Alfredo Beranger versus Temperley, before scoring his first goal four months against Flandria. He ended his first season with one goal in twenty-nine games, which preceded a further five goals and sixty-nine appearances for Deportivo Armenio in the next two years. In July 2015, Peralta was loaned by Argentine Primera División side Temperley, he stayed for 2015 and 2016 but made just one league appearance - against Defensa y Justicia in April 2016. On 28 July 2016, Peralta returned to Primera B Metropolitana. Seven goals arrived during 2016 -- 17. August 2017 saw, he returned to his homeland ten months after Stade Nyonnais secured a second-place finish in the Swiss Promotion League. Peralta left Deportivo Armenio permanently in July 2018 to join Defensores de Belgrano of Primera B Nacional.

His first appearance arrived on 12 December against former club Temperley. As of 15 December 2018. Nahuel Peralta at Soccerway Nahuel Peralta on

Ida Marcussen

Ida Marcussen is a Norwegian heptathlete. She represents IK Våg, having changed clubs from Kristiansands IF in 2006; as a junior athlete she finished sixth at the 2005 European Junior Championships and won a silver medal at the 2006 World Junior Championships in Beijing. Her score of 6020 points from Beijing was only 65 points away from being a new Norwegian record. In 2007 she entered her first senior championships at the 2007 World Championships in Osaka. After day one she was situated near the bottom of the results list, she scored 6226 points. In 2008 she opened the season by setting a Norwegian indoor record in the pentathlon, with 4214 points, she competed at the international combined event meets in Götzis and Ratingen, setting new personal bests in the shot put, javelin and 800 metres. In August she entered the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, she started well, managing new personal best marks in the first two events, the 100 metres hurdles and the high jump. However, the rest of the competition was sub-par.

In the end, she finished in twenty-first place after a decent 800 metres. Her trainer is Lukas Udelhoven. 200 metres - 24.57 s 800 metres - 2:09.74 min 100 metres hurdles - 13.96 s High jump - 1.75 m Long jump - 6.47 m - third on the Norwegian all-time list Shot put - 13.96 m Javelin throw - 52.95 m - second on the Norwegian all-time list Heptathlon - 6226 pts - Norwegian record. Pentathlon - 4316 pts Ida Marcussen at World Athletics