John Joseph Mearsheimer is an American political scientist and international relations scholar, who belongs to the realist school of thought. He is the R. Wendell Harrison Distinguished Service Professor at the University of Chicago. Mearsheimer proposed the theory of offensive realism which describes the interaction between great powers as dominated by a rational desire to achieve hegemony in a world of insecurity and uncertainty regarding other states' intentions, he was a vocal opponent of the Iraq War in 2003 and was alone in opposing Ukraine's decision to give up its nuclear weapons in 1994 and predicted that, without a deterrent, they would face Russian aggression. His most controversial views concern alleged influence by interest groups over US government actions in the Middle East which he wrote about in The Israel Lobby and U. S. Foreign Policy. In accordance with his theory, Mearsheimer considers that China's growing power will bring it into conflict with the United States, his work is taught to and read by twenty-first century students of political science and international relations.
Mearsheimer was born in December 1947 in New York. He was raised in New York City until the age of eight, when his parents moved his family to Croton-on-Hudson, New York, a suburb located in Westchester County; when he was 17, Mearsheimer enlisted in the U. S. Army. After one year as an enlisted member, he chose to attend the United States Military Academy at West Point, he attended West Point from 1966 to 1970. After graduation, he served for five years as an officer in the U. S. Air Force. In 1974, while in the Air Force, Mearsheimer earned a Masters Degree in International Relations from the University of Southern California, he subsequently entered Cornell University and in 1980 earned a Ph. D. in government in international relations. From 1978 to 1979, he was a research fellow at the Brookings Institution in Washington, D. C.. During the 1998–1999 academic year, he was the Whitney H. Shepardson Fellow at the Council on Foreign Relations in New York. Since 1982, Mearsheimer has been a member of the faculty of the Department of Political Science Faculty at the University of Chicago.
He became an associate professor in 1984, a full professor in 1987, was appointed the R. Wendell Harrison Distinguished Service Professor in 1996. From 1989 to 1992, he served as chairman of the department, he holds a position as a faculty member in the Committee on International Relations graduate program, is the co-director of the Program on International Security Policy. Mearsheimer's books include Conventional Deterrence. Book Award, Nuclear Deterrence: Ethics and Strategy. S. Foreign Policy, his articles have appeared in academic journals like International Security and popular magazines like the London Review of Books. He has written op-ed pieces for The New York Times, the Los Angeles Times, the Chicago Tribune. Mearsheimer has won several teaching awards, he received the Clark Award for Distinguished Teaching when he was a graduate student at Cornell in 1977, he won the Quantrell Award for Excellence in Undergraduate Teaching at the University of Chicago in 1985. In addition, he was selected as a Phi Beta Kappa Visiting Scholar for the 1993–1994 academic year.
In that capacity, he gave a series of talks at universities. In 2003, he was elected to the American Academy of Sciences. Mearsheimer's first book Conventional Deterrence addresses the question of how decisions to start a war depend on the projected outcome of military conflict. In other words, how do decision makers' beliefs about the outcome of war affect the success or failure of deterrence? Mearsheimer's basic argument is that deterrence is to work when the potential attacker believes that a successful attack will be unlikely and costly. If the potential attacker, has reason to believe the attack will succeed and entail low costs deterrence is to break down; this is now accepted to be the way the principle of deterrence works. Mearsheimer argues that the success of deterrence is determined by the strategy available to the potential attacker, he lays out three strategies. First, a war-of-attrition strategy, which entails a high level of uncertainty about the outcome of war and high costs for the attacker.
Second, a limited-aims strategy, which entails fewer risks and lower costs. And, third, a blitzkrieg strategy, which provides a way to defeat the enemy and decisively, with low costs. For Mearsheimer, failures in the modern battlefield are due to the potential attacker's belief that it can implement a blitzkrieg strategy in which tanks and other mechanized forces are employed swiftly to effect a deep penetration and disrupt the enemy's rear; the other two strategies are unlikely to lead to deterrence failures because they would entail a low probability of success accompanied by high costs or limited gains and the possibility of the conflict turning into a war of attrition. If the attacker has a coherent blitzkrieg strategy available, however, an attack is to ensue, as its potential benefits outweigh the costs and risks of starting a war. Besides analyzing cases from World War II and the Arab–Israeli conflict, Mearsheimer extrapolates implications from his theory for the prospects of conventional dete
The Cadagua or Kadagua River drains the Biscayan area of Encartaciones, from the Castilian valley of Mena to Barakaldo and Bilbao, where it forms the border between these municipalities and ends at the Estuary of Bilbao. Another important town that this river crosses is Balmaseda; the river takes its name from the small village. Cadagua village is located in Valle de Mena surrounded by the beautiful landscape of "La Peña" mountains. Four small hydropower plans produce electricity thanks to the river Cadagua; until the last decades of the 20th century, this water power was used by several mills that can be nowadays seen by the river basin. Cadagua is a company; this company designs and builds water treatment plants in order to improve the environment. List of rivers of Spain
East Yaphank is a proposed station in the hamlet of East Yaphank, New York on the Main Line of the Long Island Rail Road. The station would serve Brookhaven National Laboratory and would replace the existing Yaphank station. On January 10, 2017, Governor Andrew Cuomo, as part of his State of the State Address, announced a proposal to build a station at Brookhaven National Laboratory for $20 million; the station is intended to serve the community of Brookhaven National Laboratory. This proposal is intended to stimulate economic growth in Suffolk County; as part of the April 2018 revision to the Metropolitan Transportation Authority's 2015–2019 Capital Program, the proposed station was renamed East Yaphank to better describe the station's potential location. The station will replace the stop at Yaphank, hard to find, according to local residents, only has 30 daily riders. Prior to the Governor's announcement, on July 21, 2016, elected officials from Brookhaven and the East End of Long Island had requested that the LIRR move the little-used stop at Yaphank to an industrial park near Brookhaven Technology Center and the William Floyd Parkway.
In response, LIRR officials announced that the agency had been evaluating the potential relocation of the station as part of its Network Strategy Study. In December 2018, the consulting contract for the project's Preliminary Design and Environmental Review was awarded to Gannet Fleming for $4,040,289; the consultant will identify and evaluate potential station sites, 30% of the design of the station, which could be in electric territory on. The environmental review is scheduled to be completed in December 2019, with procurement on the design-build contract scheduled for 2020; the remainder of the $20 million will be used for the second phase of the project, which will be the design-build portion of the project, including the removal of the Yaphank station
Red Scarf known as Red Muffler and Operation Air Raid-Red Muffler, is a 1964 South Korean aviation war film set during the Korean War. Headlined by stars Shin Young-kyun, Choi Eun-hee, Choi Moo-ryong some of the best known South Korean actors of their time, Red Scarf is among the most iconic of prolific director Shin Sang-ok's work, was well received outside of South Korea; the film was made with the cooperation of the Republic of Korea Air Force and is well remembered for its aerial sequences. It inspired the 2012 action film R2B: Return to Base. In 1952, during the Korean War, many South Korean fighter pilots were killed. Of those that remain is one of the bravest and best, Major Na Gwan-jung. In the air he is cool and level headed, directly and swiftly dispatches the enemy with a minimum of complication. On the ground he spends his time drinking with his comrades, the vagaries of life and death in wartime has led to the pilots adopting a live for the moment approach to life. Ji-seon is the wife of a fallen pilot, widowed soon after becoming married, unable to support herself the only option left to her is to become a bargirl.
Na Gwan-jung saves her from this fate, helps provide for her, falls in love with her. However, as she is the widow of a close comrade Gwan-jung cannot bring himself to act on his love. Na Gwan-jung's unit is tasked with the destruction of a vitally strategic bridge, during which Bae Dae-bong's plane is shot down. Not wanting Ji-seon to lose another loved one, Gwan-jung risks all to keep the downed pilot safe until he can be recovered; the South Korean pilots are victorious and complete their mission, however with thoughts other than taking down the enemy fighter pilots spoiling his focus, Na Gwan-jung is unable to fly and fight in his usual cool and dispassionate way and is killed in action. The unit returns to base and Na Gwan-jung's will is read out, in accordance with it his effects, including the red scarf which all the pilots wear, are divided amongst his comrades. Na Gwan-jung's mother arrives to visit her son with a delivery of beer, only to find that he has died in action. In keeping with her son's character she shares out the beers she brought for him amongst his comrades.
Ji-seon soon too arrives and on learning of Gwan-jung's death, clutches his red scarf and cries inconsolably. Shin Young-kyun as Major Na Gwan-jungSouth Korean ace fighter pilotChoi Eun-hee as Ji-seonYoung widow, wife of a comrade of Gwan-jungChoi Moo-ryong as Bae Dae-bongSouth Korean fighter pilot, new hotshot assigned to unitNamkoong WonSouth Korean fighter pilot, late husband of Ji-seonYun In-ja 11th Asia-Pacific Film Festival Best director - Shin Sang-ok Best leading actor -Shin Young-kyun Best film editing - Yang Seong-ran2nd Blue Dragon Film Awards Best supporting actor - Choi Moo-ryong Best screenplay - Kim Kang-yoon Best cinematography - Kim Jong-rae Award for technical excellence - Yang Seong-ran4th Grand Bell Awards Best supporting actress - Yun In-ja Best cinematography - Kim Jong-rae The film was made with the full support of the Republic of Korea Air Force and production costs were subsidised by the South Korean military government in line with its film policy of supporting anticommunist propaganda films.
The Red Scarf of the title is not the red neckerchief associated with the communist pioneer movement, but a scarf introduced as a device to aid visual location of downed South Korean airmen, it has since become and remains one of the symbols of the Republic of Korea Air Force. Red Scarf was well received outside of South Korea and was the first South Korean film to receive a nationwide distribution in Japan. In Taiwan it proved popular from the school playground upwards, children played at and wanted to grow up to be aviators, the theme song could be heard in every back alley and the red scarf became a fashion item; the film has been described as a precursor of the Korean Wave in Taiwan. In Taiwan and Chinese speaking areas it was known as 紅巾特攻隊 Red Scarf Special Operations Unit. In 2011 work began on loose remake of the film as a last project for Korean entertainer Rain prior to the start of his mandatory military service. Red Scarf was used as a working title and in preproduction, the film was released in 2012 as R2B: Return to Base.
In the remake the point of view character is the new hotshot pilot transferred to the unit. Like its predecessor Return to Base was made with the full support of the RoKAF, like its predecessor its final message is that the RoKAF stands vigilant and ready to defend South Korea from the North; the Bridges at Toko-ri This article is based on the Chinese language version of this article. This article uses where possible the established romanizations of cast and crew member's names, where these have been impossible to find, the names used are revised romanizations of the names given in the Chinese Wikipedia article read as Hanja. Red Scarf on IMDb Red Scarf at the Korean Movie Database Red Scarf at Naver
Protests against the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état erupted in July 2013. Following the removal of President Mohamed Morsi by the Egyptian Armed Forces on 3 July 2013 amid demonstrations against Morsi's rule, many protesters amassed near the Rabia Al-Adawiya Mosque to call for Morsi's return to power and condemn the military, while others demonstrated in support of the military and interim government. Deadly clashes such as Rabaa massacre continued for several days, with three bloody incidents being described by Muslim Brotherhood officials as "massacres" perpetrated by security forces. During the month of Ramadan, prime minister Hazem al-Beblawy threatened to disperse the ongoing Pro-Morsi sit-ins in Rabaa al-Adaweya square and al-Nahda square; the government crackdown of these protests occurred in a violent dispersal on 14 August 2013. In mid-August, the violence directed by the army towards the protesters escalated, with hundreds killed, the government declaring a month-long nighttime curfew.
Protests against President Hosni Mubarak in early 2011 led to his resignation and trial after the Egyptian military switched its allegiance to the demonstrators. Mubarak's downfall was only the second revolution in the Arab world of the revolutionary wave known as the Arab Spring. Vice President Omar Suleiman, who announced Mubarak's resignation in February 2011, handed power to the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces. Egypt came under martial law as top generals led by Mohamed Hussein Tantawi began directing Egypt toward democratic elections; this period was marked by further conflict and continuing protests, as demonstrators who had cheered the support of the military in removing Mubarak turned against the generals when they began imposing harsh security measures and tamping down on revolutionary activity. The Muslim Brotherhood emerged as a leading voice in criticizing military rule. An Islamist-dominated parliament was elected in late 2011 and early 2012; the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces dissolved the body in June 2012, saying many of the elections were illegitimate.
Presidential elections were held in mid-2012. No candidate garnered as much as a quarter of the vote in the first round of elections; the top two candidates advanced to the runoff: Mohamed Morsi of the Freedom and Justice Party, the candidate of the Muslim Brotherhood, Ahmed Shafik, an independent candidate who served as prime minister of Egypt under Mubarak. Morsi criticized the Mubarak regime and offered a vision for Egypt as an Islamic democracy, while Shafik, a secularist, promised to restore order. Morsi prevailed in the runoff, defeating Shafik by a margin of 3.5 percentage points. While Islamists hailed Morsi's election with enthusiasm, many Copts and liberals viewed the runoff as a choice between two unappealing candidates. Morsi reinstated parliament days after his election, lawmakers set to work drafting a constitution; the constitution was passed over the objections of opposition members who argued the process was faulty. When put to a referendum in December 2012, the constitution was approved by a nearly 28-point margin, as supporters argued that approval of the constitution was needed to ensure stability.
However, Morsi's government faced popular protests after the president decreed in November 2012 that he had vast powers that could not be checked by the courts. Protesters called for Morsi to resign from office. Within weeks, Morsi annulled the declaration, days before the constitution itself was approved by voters. Protests against Morsi continued throughout the first half of 2013, whipping up in June 2013 after the president appointed an Islamist accused of involvement in the Luxor massacre to head the Luxor Governorate and culminating in mass demonstrations that began on 30 June. Protesters criticized Morsi for alleged mismanagement of the country and for the growing influence of the Muslim Brotherhood; the Tamarod movement, which translates into English as "Rebel", claimed it had gathered 22 million signatures from Egyptians opposed to Morsi. According to some sources, the protests were the largest in Egypt's history; the Egyptian Armed Forces again sided with demonstrators against the regime, warning Morsi to respond to protesters' demands or face a "political road map" expected to involve the president's removal from office.
Despite this, Morsi remained defiant, giving a speech on 2 July insisting he was the legitimate president and would sooner die than relinquish power. The next day, Defence Minister Abdul Fatah al-Sisi informed Morsi that he was no longer president and addressed the country on television to announce the change in leadership. Indications on 6 July 2013 that Mohamed ElBaradei would be sworn in as prime minister proved to be incorrect; the next day, a founding member of the Egyptian Social Democratic Party named Ziad Bahaa El-Din was offered the post of Prime Minister, while ElBaradei was nominated as vice president. Younes Makhioun, chairman of the Nour Party, objected to both appointments because both of them belong to the same political coalition; the Nour Party rejected El-Din on 7 July 2013 and pulled out of the transitional process altogether on 8 July 2013 because of the 2013 Republican Guard Headquarters clashes. However, the party has advised the interim government on ministerial candidates, including Ahmed Darwish.
Hazem Al Beblawi was sworn in as prime minister on 9 July 2013 with the backing of the Nour Party. On 3 July, General Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, head of the Egyptian Armed Forces, announced that he there would be calling new presidential and Shura Council elections; the coalition appointed Chief Justice Adly Mansour as the interim
Steeltown Records was an American record company in Gary, Indiana. The company was founded in 1966 by William Adams and co-owned with Ben Brown, Maurice Rogers, Willie Spencer, Lou "Ludie" D. Washington; the record company was active from 1966 to 1972. "Steeltown" is best known for giving the Jackson 5 their start in the music industry. The Jackson 5's first record was released on the Steeltown label in early 1968, before Motown signed the group in 1969. Two Jackson 5 singles were recorded for Steeltown at a South Chicago recording studio in 1967, "Big Boy"/"You Changed" and "We Don't Have To Be Over 21"/"Jam Session". "Big Boy", Michael Jackson's first song, was released on January 31, 1968 by Gordon Keith, the manager and producer of the Jackson Five and their songs. "Big Boy" became a local hit. The following March, Keith signed a contract with Atlantic Records to manufacture and distribute the "Big Boy"/"You Changed" record nationally. Atco Records, a division of Atlantic Records in New York City, distributed several thousand Steeltown copies with the "Atlantic-Atco" record sleeve.
Many of these vinyl records are still in existence, as are some of the first "Big Boy" singles distributed in Gary by Steeltown. The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and Museum owns one of the original Steeltown "Big Boy"/"You Changed" records, this single was on display there in 2010; the Jacksons moved to Los Angeles, California in 1969. After Ben Brown moved there in 1985, he partnered with Joe Jackson the father of The Jackson 5, became the president of Jackson Records. In January 2015, Brown's son Dwayne Joseph Brown and his son's business partner, Alicia Barber, came together to launch SteelTown Los Angeles. A SteelTown movie is in the works, set to be released in 2020. List of record labels List of songs recorded by The Jackson 5 Michael Jackson Taraborrelli, J. Randy; the Magic and the Madness. Terra Alta, WV: Headline. ISBN 0-330-42005-4. Neely, Tim. Goldmine Standard Catalog of American Records 1950-1975 2nd Ed. Iola, WI: Krause. ISBN 0-87341-934-0