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Happy Campers (film)

Happy Campers is a 2001 American dark comedy film written and directed by Daniel Waters and starring Brad Renfro, Dominique Swain, Jaime King, Emily Bergl, Justin Long. The film focuses on a group of college freshmen and their experiences as summer camp counselors at the fictional Camp Bleeding Dove; the film is collectively narrated by each of the subjective counselors. It marks Waters' directorial debut, as well as the film debut of Jaime King; the film was screened at the 2001 Sundance Film Festival, was released straight-to-DVD in 2002. When the rule-enforcing camp director at Camp Bleeding Dove gets struck by lightning, the counselors find themselves in sole charge of their campers, themselves. Among them are the intellectual Wichita. Wichita, who finds himself repulsed by Wendy, his polar opposite, begins to find himself attracted to her, the two begin to court one another while the rest of the campers and counselors look on. An atheist, Wichita begins to question his belief in God after he finds a photo of himself as a child in the background of one of Wendy's family photos at Mount Rushmore.

The two admit their feelings for one another, Wendy loses her virginity to Wichita after having an allergic reaction to a bee sting. Meanwhile, who has feelings for Wichita, becomes disillusioned after he admits he wants to be friends. Donald, urged by the rest of the counselors, attempts to court Talia. Wendy, in order to test the legitimacy of Wichita's feelings for her, has Pixel attempt to seduce him in the woods. Wichita, who overheard their plan, kisses Pixel in front of her, Wendy leaves in tears, believing he failed the test. On the penultimate day of camp, Wichita confesses to Wendy that he had purposely failed she and Pixels' test. At the camp mess hall and Talia incite a riot with the campers, they all run into the woods in body paint and attack Adam, Pixel and Wendy with condoms fashioned into water balloons; the next day, as Wendy and Pixel prepare to leave, Wendy notices that half of her family photo from Mount Rushmore has been torn off, which Wichita had taken and eaten to dispose of.

As the campers and counselors prepare to leave, the children confess. On the bus ride back, Wendy is forced to sit next to Wichita. Donald takes a photo of them with a camper in-between, asking them to smile for the photo, which appears on the cover of the following year's camp staff manual. Brad Renfro as Wichita Dominique Swain as Wendy Keram Malicki-Sanchez as Jasper Emily Bergl as Talia Jaime King as Pixel Justin Long as Donald Jordan Bridges as Adam Peter Stormare as Oberon Ryan Adams as "Bad Boy Billy" Trevor Christensen as Wes Happy Campers was shown at the 2001 Sundance Film Festival on January 21, 2001. However, it did not receive a theatrical release; the film received a 57% positive rating based on 7 critics' reviews on the film review aggregate site Rotten Tomatoes. Jeffrey Anderson of Combustible Celluloid gave the film a positive review, writing: "This hilarious little gem from Daniel Waters, the screenwriter of Heathers, went straight to video because the distributor couldn't figure out what to do with it.

In this vicious, odd summer camp story, everyone wants to be like cool counselor Brad Renfro, every imaginable disaster comes to light, the gorgeous James King frolics half-naked by the lakeside. Before long, this will be a cult favorite and people will be quoting lines at parties. Don't miss it."Nathan Rabin of The A. V. Club called the film a "cross between Wet Hot and A Midsummer Night's Dream" and deemed it "a worthy followup to Heathers." Happy Campers on IMDb Happy Campers screenplay, early draft "Cabin Fever," photographs from the set of Happy Campers

Saturn Launch Vehicle Digital Computer

The Saturn Launch Vehicle Digital Computer was a computer that provided the autopilot for the Saturn V rocket from launch to Earth orbit insertion. Designed and manufactured by IBM's Electronics Systems Center in Owego, N. Y. it was one of the major components of the Instrument Unit, fitted to the S-IVB stage of the Saturn V and Saturn IB rockets. The LVDC supported pre- and post-launch checkout of the Saturn hardware, it was used in conjunction with the Launch Vehicle Data Adaptor which performed signal conditioning to the sensor inputs to the computer from the launch vehicle. The LVDC was capable of executing 12190 instructions per second. For comparison, a 2012-era microprocessor can execute 4 instructions per cycle at 3 GHz, achieving 12 billion instructions per second, one million times faster, its master clock ran at 2.048 MHz, but operations were performed bit-serially, with 4 cycles required to process each bit, 14 bits per phase, 3 phases per instruction, for a basic time of 168 cycles = 82 μs for a simple add.

Memory was in the form of 13-bit syllables, each with a 14th parity bit. Instructions were one syllable in size. Main memory was random access magnetic core, in the form of 4,096-word memory modules. Up to 8 modules provided a maximum of 32,768 words of memory. Ultrasonic delay lines provided temporary storage. For reliability, the LVDC used a voting system; the computer included three identical logic systems. Each logic system was split into a seven-stage pipeline. At each stage in the pipeline, a voting system would take a majority vote on the results, with the most popular result being passed on to the next stage in all pipelines; this meant that, for each of the seven stages, one module in any one of the three pipelines could fail, the LVDC would still produce the correct results. The result was an estimated reliability of 99.6% over 250 hours of operation, far more than the few hours required for an Apollo mission. With four memory modules, giving a total capacity of 16,384 words, the computer weighed 72.5 lb, was 29.5×12.5×10.5 inches in size and consumed 137 watts.

LVDC instruction words were split into a 9-bit operand address field. This left it with sixteen possible opcode values when there were eighteen different instructions: three of the instructions used the same opcode value, used two bits of the address value to determine which instruction was executed. Memory was broken into 256-word "sectors". 8 bits of the address specified a word within a sector, the 9th bit selected between the software-selectable "current sector" or a global sector called "residual memory". The eighteen possible LVDC instructions were: In flight the LVDC ran a major computation loop every 2 seconds for vehicle guidance, a minor loop 25 times a second for attitude control; the minor loop takes 18ms to run. Unlike the Apollo Guidance Computer software, the software which ran on the LVDC seems to have vanished. While the hardware would be simple to emulate, the only remaining copies of the software are in the core memory of the Instrument Unit LVDCs of the remaining Saturn V rockets on display at NASA sites.

The LVDC could respond to a number of interrupts triggered by external events. For a Saturn IB these interrupts were: For a Saturn V these interrupts were: The LVDC was 30 inches wide, 12.5 inches high, 10.5 inches deep and weighed 80 pounds. The chassis was made of magnesium-lithium alloy LA 141, chosen for its high stiffness, low weight, good vibration damping characteristics; the chassis was divided into a 3 x 5 matrix of cells separated by walls through which coolant was circulated to remove the 138 Watts of power dissipated by the computer. Slots in the cell walls held "pages" of electronics; the decision to cool the LVDC by circulating coolant through the walls of the computer was unique at the time and allowed the LVDC and LVDA to be placed in one cold plate location due to the three dimensional packaging. The cold plates used to cool most equipment in the Instrument Unit were inefficient from a space view although versatile for the variety of equipment used; the alloy LA 141 had been used by IBM on the Gemini keyboard, read out units, computer in small quantities and the larger frame of the LVDC was produced from the largest billets of LA 141 cast at the time and subsequently CNC machined into the frame.

A page consisted of two 2.5 x 3-inch boards back to back and a magnesium-lithium frame to conduct heat to the chassis. The 12-layer boards contained signal and ground layers and connections between layers were made by plated-through holes. Up to 35 alumina squares 0.3 x 0.3 x 0.070 inch could be reflow soldered to a board. These alumina squares had conductors silk screened to the top side and resistors silk-screened to the bottom side. Semiconductor chips 0.025 x 0.025 inch, each containing either one transistor or two diodes, were reflow soldered to the top side. The complete module was called a unit logic device; the unit logic device was a smaller version of IBM's Solid Logic Technology module, but with clip connections. Copper balls were used for contacts between the conductive patterns; the hierarchy of the electronic structure is shown in the following table. Apollo Guidance Computer Apollo PGNCS primary spacecraft guidance system Gemini Spacecraft On-Board Computer IBM, Saturn V Launch Vehicle Digital Computer, Volume One: General Description and Theory, 30 November 1964 IBM, Satur