The River Tay is the longest river in Scotland and the seventh-longest in the United Kingdom. The Tay originates in western Scotland on the slopes of Ben Lui flows easterly across the Highlands, through Loch Dochart, Loch Iubhair and Loch Tay continues east through Strathtay, in the centre of Scotland southeasterly through Perth, where it becomes tidal, to its mouth at the Firth of Tay, south of Dundee, it is the largest river in the UK by measured discharge. Its catchment is 2,000 square miles, the Tweed's is 1,500 square miles and the Spey's is 1,097 square miles; the Tay drains much of the lower region of the Highlands. It originates on the slopes of Ben Lui, only around 25 miles from the west coast town of Oban, in Argyll and Bute. In 2011, the Tay Western Catchments Partnership determined as its source a small lochan on Allt Coire Laoigh south of the summit; the river has a variety of names in its upper catchment: for the first few miles it is known as the River Connonish. The River Tay emerges from Loch Tay at Kenmore, flows from there to Perth which, in historical times, was its lowest bridging point.
Below Perth the river enters the Firth of Tay. The largest city on the river, lies on the north bank of the Firth. On reaching the North Sea, the River Tay has flowed 120 miles from west to east across central Scotland; the Tay is unusual amongst Scottish rivers in having several major tributaries, notably the Earn, the Isla, the River Tummel, the Almond and the Lyon. A flow of 2,269 m3/s was recorded on 17 January 1993, when the river rose 6.48 m above its usual level at Perth, caused extensive flooding in the city. Were it not for the hydro-electric schemes upstream which impounded runoff, the peak would have been higher; the highest flood recorded at Perth occurred in 1814, when the river rose 7 m above its usual level caused by a blockage of ice under Smeaton's Bridge. Other severe flood events occurred in 1210 and 1648 when bridges over the Tay at Perth were destroyed. During the winters of 2009–10 and 2010–11, the Tay froze over as far as the Tay Road Bridge, ice floes remained for weeks despite a thaw.
Several places along the Tay take their names from it, or are believed to have done so: Broughty - Bruach Tatha, Bank of the Tay Taymouth - Near the mouth of Loch Tay. Tayside - A former Scottish Government region The river is of high biodiversity value and is both a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Area of Conservation; the SAC designation notes the river's importance for salmon, brook lampreys, river lampreys, sea lampreys. The Tay maintains flagship population of Freshwater pearl mussel. Freshwater pearl mussels are one of Scotland's most endangered species and the River Tay hosts two-thirds of the world's remaining stock; the Tay is internationally renowned for its salmon fishing and is one of the best salmon rivers in the United Kingdom, western Europe, attracting anglers from all over the world. The lowest ten miles of the Tay, including prestigious beats like Taymount or Islamouth, provides most of the cream of the Tay; the largest rod caught salmon in Britain, caught on the Tay by Miss Georgina Ballantine in 1922, weighing 64 pounds, retains the British record.
The river system has salmon fisheries on many of its tributaries including the Earn, Ericht, Garry, Dochart and Eden. Dwindling catches include a 50% reduction in 2009 so the Tay District Salmon Fisheries Board ordered a catch-and-release policy for females all season, for males until May, beginning in the January 2010 fishing season. Research by the North Atlantic Salmon Conservation Organisation has shown that the number of salmon dying at sea has doubled or trebled over the past 20 years due to overfishing in the oceans where salmon spend two years before returning to freshwater to spawn; the widespread collapse in Atlantic salmon stocks suggests that this is not a local problem in the River Tay. A section of the Tay surrounding the town of Dunkeld is designated as a national scenic area, one of 40 such areas in Scotland, which are defined so as to identify areas of exceptional scenery and to ensure its protection by restricting certain forms of development; the River Tay NSA covers 5,708 ha.
The first sustained and significant population Eurasian beaver living wild in Scotland in over 400 years became established on the river Tay catchment in Scotland as early as 2001, has spread in the catchment, numbering from 20 to 100 individuals in 2011. These beavers were to be either escapees from any of several nearby sites with captive beavers, or were illegally released, were targeted for removal by Scottish Natural Heritage in late 2010. Proponents of the beavers argued that no reason exists to believe that they are of "wrong" genetic stock. In early December 2010, the first of the wild Tayside beavers was trapped by Scottish Natural Heritage on the River Ericht in Blairgowrie and was held in captivity in Edinburgh Zoo, dying within a few months. In March 2012 the Scottish Government reversed the decision to remove beavers from the Tay, pending the outcome of studies into the suitability of re-introduction; as part of the study into re-introduction, a trial release project was undertaken in Knapdale, alongs
Privy Council of the United Kingdom
Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council known as the Privy Council of the United Kingdom or just the Privy Council, is a formal body of advisers to the Sovereign of the United Kingdom. Its membership comprises senior politicians who are current or former members of either the House of Commons or the House of Lords; the Privy Council formally advises the sovereign on the exercise of the Royal Prerogative, corporately it issues executive instruments known as Orders in Council, which among other powers enact Acts of Parliament. The Council holds the delegated authority to issue Orders of Council used to regulate certain public institutions; the Council advises the sovereign on the issuing of Royal Charters, which are used to grant special status to incorporated bodies, city or borough status to local authorities. Otherwise, the Privy Council's powers have now been replaced by its executive committee, the Cabinet of the United Kingdom. Certain judicial functions are performed by the Queen-in-Council, although in practice its actual work of hearing and deciding upon cases is carried out day-to-day by the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.
The Judicial Committee consists of senior judges appointed as Privy Counsellors: predominantly Justices of the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom and senior judges from the Commonwealth. The Privy Council acted as the High Court of Appeal for the entire British Empire, continues to hear appeals from the Crown Dependencies, the British Overseas Territories, some independent Commonwealth states; the Privy Council of the United Kingdom was preceded by the Privy Council of Scotland and the Privy Council of England. The key events in the formation of the modern Privy Council are given below: In Anglo-Saxon England, Witenagemot was an early equivalent to the Privy Council of England. During the reigns of the Norman monarchs, the English Crown was advised by a royal court or curia regis, which consisted of magnates and high officials; the body concerned itself with advising the sovereign on legislation and justice. Different bodies assuming distinct functions evolved from the court; the courts of law took over the business of dispensing justice, while Parliament became the supreme legislature of the kingdom.
The Council retained the power to hear legal disputes, either in the first instance or on appeal. Furthermore, laws made by the sovereign on the advice of the Council, rather than on the advice of Parliament, were accepted as valid. Powerful sovereigns used the body to circumvent the Courts and Parliament. For example, a committee of the Council—which became the Court of the Star Chamber—was during the 15th century permitted to inflict any punishment except death, without being bound by normal court procedure. During Henry VIII's reign, the sovereign, on the advice of the Council, was allowed to enact laws by mere proclamation; the legislative pre-eminence of Parliament was not restored until after Henry VIII's death. Though the royal Council retained legislative and judicial responsibilities, it became a administrative body; the Council consisted of forty members in 1553, but the sovereign relied on a smaller committee, which evolved into the modern Cabinet. By the end of the English Civil War, the monarchy, House of Lords, Privy Council had been abolished.
The remaining parliamentary chamber, the House of Commons, instituted a Council of State to execute laws and to direct administrative policy. The forty-one members of the Council were elected by the House of Commons. In 1653, Cromwell became Lord Protector, the Council was reduced to between thirteen and twenty-one members, all elected by the Commons. In 1657, the Commons granted Cromwell greater powers, some of which were reminiscent of those enjoyed by monarchs; the Council became known as the Protector's Privy Council. In 1659, shortly before the restoration of the monarchy, the Protector's Council was abolished. Charles II restored the Royal Privy Council, but he, like previous Stuart monarchs, chose to rely on a small group of advisers. Under George I more power transferred to this committee, it now began to meet in the absence of the sovereign, communicating its decisions to him after the fact. Thus, the British Privy Council, as a whole, ceased to be a body of important confidential advisers to the sovereign.
According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the definition of the word privy in Privy Council is an obsolete meaning "of or pertaining to a particular person or persons, one's own". It is related to the word private, derives from the French word privé; the sovereign, when acting on the Council's advice, is known as the King-in-Council or Queen-in-Council. The members of the Council are collectively known as The Lords of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council; the chief officer of the body is the Lord President of the Council, the fourth highest Great Officer of State, a Cabinet member and either the Leader of the House of Lords or of the House of Commons. Another important official is the Clerk, whose signature is appended to all orders made in the Council. Both Privy Counsellor and Privy Councillor may be used to refer to a member of the Council; the former, however, is preferred by the Privy Council Office, emphasising English usage of the term Counsellor a
Lord George Murray (general)
Lord George Murray, sixth son of John Murray, 1st Duke of Atholl, was a Scottish nobleman and soldier who took part in the Jacobite rebellions of 1715 and 1719. Pardoned in 1725, he returned to Scotland, where he married and in 1739 took the Oath of Allegiance to George II. At the outbreak of the 1745 Rising, Murray was appointed sheriff depute to Sir John Cope, government commander in Scotland but joined the Jacobite army when it arrived in Perth on 3 September; as one of their senior commanders, he made a substantial contribution to their early success reaching and returning from Derby. However, previous links with the government meant many viewed him with suspicion, while his support for the 1707 Union set him apart from the majority of Scottish Jacobites. Combined with perceived arrogance and inability to accept advice, these combined to reduce his effectiveness. After the Battle of Culloden in April 1746, Murray went into exile in Europe and was excluded from the 1747 Act of Indemnity, he died in the Dutch town of Medemblik in 1760 and his eldest son John became the 3rd Duke of Atholl.
Lord George Murray was born on 4 October 1694, at Huntingtower near Perth, sixth son of John Murray, Duke of Atholl and his first wife, Katherine Hamilton. As a younger son,'Lord' was a courtesy title. In June 1728, he married daughter of James Murray of Strowan and Glencarse, they had two daughters who survived to adulthood. Murray left to join the British army in Flanders; the War of the Spanish Succession was in its closing stages and it is unlikely he saw any action before it ended with the Peace of Utrecht in 1713. Queen Anne died in August 1714 and was succeeded by the Hanoverian George I, with the Whigs replacing the previous Tory government. Of the Tory leaders, Harley was imprisoned in the Tower and Bolingbroke joined James Francis Edward in France. Deprived of his offices, in September 1715 the Earl of Mar launched a Rebellion at Braemar in Scotland, without prior approval from James. Choice of sides was as much driven by the political contest between Whigs and Tories as it was allegiance to the Stuarts or Hanoverians.
Atholl had opposed the 1707 Acts of Union but by 1715 he was a pro-Hanoverian Unionist and forbade his sons to participate in the Rebellion. Despite this and his brothers Tullibardine and Lord Charles joined the Jacobite army, each commanding a clan regiment. Atholl blamed their defection on Lady Nairne, a committed Jacobite married to his cousin Lord William Murray, whose husband and sons took part in the 1715 and 1745 Risings. However, like many others, Atholl had a history of balancing both sides. Lord Charles was captured at the Battle of Preston and Tullibardine fought at Sheriffmuir, a battle Lord George missed, as he was collecting taxes in Fife. Sheriffmuir was inconclusive but without external support the Rebellion collapsed, he was pardoned but his brothers excluded and fled to France, where they lived in poverty. In 1717, the Murrays were involved in efforts to gain support for an invasion from Sweden in dispute with Hanover over Pomerania and an example of the complexity caused by its ruler being British monarch.
This was resurrected as part of the 1719 Rebellion. Tullibardine and Lord George arrived in Stornoway in April 1719 where they met up with other exiles, including 300 Spanish marines under George Keith. For various reasons, only the Scottish element took place and the rebellion collapsed after defeat in the Battle of Glenshiel on 10 June; this seemed to end hopes of a Stuart restoration. Senior leaders like Bolingbroke and the Earl of Seaforth were allowed home, while James and George Keith became Prussian officers; this context explains the post-1746 bitterness towards those like Murray and Lochiel pardoned for their roles in 1715 and 1719. Murray's activities over the next four years are obscure but included attending the Académie royale des sciences de Paris and fighting a duel with fellow Jacobite exile Campbell of Glendaruel, it has been suggested he unsuccessfully applied for commissions in the Venetian and Savoyard armies. In 1724, he returned to Scotland to visit his dying father and was pardoned in 1725.
He married, leased a small estate from his brother, James, 2nd Duke of Atholl and settled down as a Scottish country gentleman. He rejected Tullibardine's suggestion that his eldest son live in France to be brought up'in the right way,' sending him to Eton instead. In 1739, he swore the Oath of Allegiance to George II although he claimed this was purely to help his half-brothers be elected as MPs for Perthshire. After Charles la
Aanandam is a 2016 Indian Malayalam-language romantic comedy film written and directed by Ganesh Raj in his directorial debut. Vineeth Sreenivasan produced the film through the banner Habit Of Life, with Vinod Shornur of Cast N Crew as co-producer. Aanandam follows the life of seven sophomore engineering students as they embark on their first college tour; the film features Arun Kurian, Thomas Mathew, Siddhi Mahajankatti, Roshan Mathew, Annu Antony, Vishak Nair and Anarkali Marikar in the lead roles. Shooting locations were at Goa, Kochi, at Amal Jyothi College of Engineering, it was blockbuster in box office. This movie was subsequently dubbed into Telugu as Aanandam in 2018 by Sukhibava movies; the story revolves around a group of seven friends who embark on their first IV tour of their college life and how it affects small to large changes in their mellow lives. “Rockstar” Gautham, Devika, Darshana and Akshay, along with a group of 33 classmates and two faculty members travel to Hampi via Mysuru and to Goa for the New Year’s Eve.
Varun organizes the trip. Gautham and Devika are the lovebirds of the group, with Gautham’s talent in western music being the spark kindling the relationship. While Gautham is no longer interested in western music and wish to pursue Hindustani classical music. Diya with her lovely nature had been the fascination of Akshay’s dreams for a long time, known to everyone, except her; the lively nature of Diya had attracted many others in the past, who confess their feelings only to get turned down as she never adds a different colour to her friendships. Akshay, being apprehensive, never wishes to do the same and hopes that she likes him on her own terms, he never talks to her and his friends recommend that he can never pray for a better chance than their first year IV. Akshay is hunted by many fears including fear of water, fear of heights, among others. Varun had earlier confessed his feelings to Diya, who rejected the proposal hoping to remain friends. With a feeling of insult, he couldn’t do that anymore, leading him to his familiar trait of anger and distant nature.
He remains hostile to another classmate who has a crush on him. The girl, on various occasions tries to approach him. In spite of his cold attitude, he is respected among his friends and classmates alike for his discipline and efficiency, he is too detached from the group carrying on with his responsibilities, that it comes to the notice of their bus driver, Josettan. Diya, whose parents just got divorced joins the trip as an escape from her distress, she doesn’t reveal about the divorce to her dear friends – Devika and Darshana or any others for the fear of their sympathy, which can make the situation more difficult on her. She manages to hide her secrets in her cheerful semblance. Kuppi’s only intention coming for the IV was to have a good time with his three best friends, denied due to the occurrences around him. Darshana, a reserved person by nature, thinks the world of her friends, being a silent partner in all their activities and a curious observer to all the happenings around them, her only outlet of emotions is her sketchbook that she holds private.
During the trip, Diya succeeds in talking to Varun. She resolves their differences to gain back her old friend. Akshay’s friends manage to seat Diya near him during the overnight journey to Goa, whereby Akshay gets a chance to talk to her, they converse through the night. With a little nudge from her friends, Diya starts to reciprocate Akshay’s feelings. Coming to know of Akshay’s irrational fears, Diya gets him to face his fears, starting with the adventure sport of bungee jumping. With his first fear conquered, he does the same with his next by confessing his feelings to Diya, which she welcomes. Diya opens up about her parent’s divorce to Akshay, which he accidentally reveals to Gautham and through him to Devika, who consoles Diya revealing the secret to the whole group. At the same time, Kuppi in a state of intoxication reveals every other secrets about the group – Diya's relation with Akshay, Varun’s proposal and Gautham’s fear, to everyone else. Offended, Diya retreats to her room. Coming back to his senses, Kuppi realizes.
On the next day, Kuppi apologizes to his best friends revealing how tough it was for him to be denied their presence and they reconcile. Gautham reveals his interests to Devika, who accepts and share in his likes. Meanwhile, Varun learns. To his surprise, no one blames him and the group now has the huge task to search for another party. Diya still stays away from the group because she can’t come to trips with her mother leaving her father, she doesn’t talk to anyone including Akshay, much to the dismay of the group. During the search for a party, Akshay runs into his “ideal” brother, partying in Goa. Although astonished at the find, they share a talk. With his brother’s help he finds an Origami themed party for the night. On Akshay’s initiative,his professor instigates a talk between Di
Dunkeld and Birnam
Dunkeld and Birnam is a community council area and UK Census locality in Perth and Kinross, consisting of two villages on opposite banks of the River Tay: the historic cathedral "city" of Dunkeld on the north bank, Birnam on the south bank. The two were first linked by a bridge built in 1809 by Thomas Telford; the two places lie close to the Highland Boundary Fault, which marks the geological boundary between the Highlands and the Lowlands, are described as the "Gateway to the Highlands" due to their position on the main road and rail lines north. Dunkeld and Birnam share a railway station, Dunkeld & Birnam, on the Highland Main Line, are about 24 kilometres north of Perth on what is now the A9 road. Dunkeld lies on the eastern side of the A9 on the north bank of the River Tay; the town is the location of Dunkeld Cathedral. Around 20 of the houses within Dunkeld have been restored by the National Trust for Scotland, who run a shop within the town; the Hermitage, on the western side of the A9, is a countryside property, a National Trust for Scotland site.
Birnam lies opposite Dunkeld, on the south bank of the Tay, to which it is linked by the Telford bridge. It is the location of the Birnam Oak, believed to the only remaining tree from the Birnam Wood named in Shakespeare's Macbeth; the Highland games held at Birnam are the location of the World Haggis Eating Championships. The name Dùn Chailleann means Fort of the Caledonii or of the Caledonians. The'fort' is the hill fort on King's Seat north of the town. Both these place-names imply an early importance for the area of the town and bishop's seat, stretching back into the Iron Age. Dunkeld is said to have been'founded' or'built' by Caustantín son of Fergus, king of the Picts; this founding referred to one of an ecclesiastical nature on a site of secular importance, a Pictish monastery is known to have existed on the site. Kenneth I of Scotland is reputed to have brought relics of St Columba from Iona in 849, in order to preserve them from Viking raids, building a new church to replace the existing structures, which may been constructed as a simple group of wattle huts.
The relics were divided in Kenneth's time between Dunkeld and the Columban monastery at Kells, Co. Meath, Ireland, to preserve them from Viking raids. The'Apostles' Stone', an elaborate but badly worn cross-slab preserved in the cathedral museum, may date to this time. A well-preserved bronze'Celtic' hand bell kept in the church of the parish of Little Dunkeld on the south bank of the River Tay opposite Dunkeld, may survive from the early monastery: a replica is kept in the cathedral museum; the dedication of the medieval cathedral was to St Columba. This early church was for a time the chief ecclesiastical site of eastern Scotland. An entry in the Annals of Ulster for 865 refers to the death of Tuathal, son of Artgus, primepscop of Fortriu and Abbot of Dunkeld; the monastery was raided in 903 by Danish Vikings sailing up the River Tay, but continued to flourish into the 11th century. At that time, its abbot, Crínán of Dunkeld, married one of the daughters of Máel Coluim mac Cináeda and became the ancestor of Kings of Scots through their son Donnchad.
The see of Dunkeld was revived by Alexander I. Between 1183 and 1189 the newly formed diocese of Argyll was separated from that of Dunkeld, which extended to the west coast of Scotland. By 1300 the Bishops of Dunkeld administered a diocese comprising sixty parish churches, a number of them oddly scattered within the sees of St Andrews and Dunblane; the much-restored cathedral choir, still in use as the parish church, is unaisled and dates to the 13th and 14th centuries. The aisled nave was erected from the early 15th century; the western tower, south porch and chapter house were added between 1450 and 1475. The cathedral was stripped of its rich furnishings after the mid-16th century Reformation and its iconoclasm; the nave and porch have been roofless since the early 17th century. They and the tower in the 21st century are in the care of Historic Environment Scotland. Below the ceiling vault of the tower ground floor are remnants of pre-Reformation murals showing biblical scenes, one of few such survivals in Scotland.
The clearest to survive is a representation of the Judgement of Solomon. This reflects the medieval use of this space as the Bishop's Court. Within the tower are preserved fragments of stonework associated with the cathedral and the surrounding area, including a Pictish carving of a horseman with a spear and drinking-horn, a number of medieval grave-monuments; the cathedral museum is housed in the former chapter house and sacristy, on the north side of the choir. After the Reformation this chamber was used as a burial aisle by the Earls and Dukes of Atholl, contains a number of elaborate monuments of the 17th-early 19th centuries. Preserved within the museum are two early Christian cross-slabs, a number of communion and other items, a display on the history of Dunkeld and the cathedral. In June 2005, there was a major theft from the cathedral museum. Items stolen included a quaich, communion cups, and'a cast-bronze beadle’s bell with a wooden handle, used in the cathedral from the 17th century.'
Most of the original town was destroyed during the Battle of Dunkeld when, in August 1689, the 26th Foot fought the Jacobites shortly after the latter's vic
David Dalrymple, Lord Hailes
Sir David Dalrymple, Lord Hailes, 3rd Baronet of Hailes was a Scottish advocate and historian, born in Edinburgh. His father, Sir James Dalrymple, 2nd Baronet of Hailes, near Haddington, was Auditor of the Exchequer in Scotland, was a grandson of James Dalrymple, 1st Viscount of Stair, he was the eldest of sixteen children. He was educated at Eton, studied law at Utrecht. In 1748 upon his return to Scotland from Utrecht he was admitted an Advocate, he succeeded to his father's baronetcy upon his death in 1751, inheriting Newhailes House in Musselburgh. It is said that as a pleader he attained neither high distinction nor extensive practice, but he established a well-deserved reputation for sound knowledge, unwearied application and strict probity, in 1766 he was elevated to the bench in the Court of Session where he assumed the title of Lord Hailes. Ten years he was appointed a Lord of Justiciary, his Edinburgh townhouse was on New Street, north of the Canongate. He died at Newhailes House on 29 November 1792.
He is buried in the family mausoleum at Morham churchyard near East Lothian. He was twice married: firstly in 1763, to Anne Broun, daughter of Sir George Broun, Lord Coalston, a Lord of Session, by whom he had a daughter, Christian, he secondly married, on 20 March 1770, Helen Fergusson, daughter of Sir James Fergusson, Baronet, of Kilkerran, Ayrshire, by whom he had another daughter, Jean who married her cousin, James Fergusson, Esq. and left issue. Upon the death of Lord Hailes, his baronetcy passed to his nephew, James, 3rd Bt. the son of his brother John Dalrymple, Lord Provost of Edinburgh. Lord Hailes's most important contribution to literature was the Annals of Scotland, of which the first volume, From the accession of Malcolm III, surnamed Canmore, to the accession of Robert I, appeared in 1776, the second, From the accession of Robert I, surnamed Bruce, to the accession of the house of Stewart, in 1779, it is, as his friend Dr Johnson justly described this work at the time of its appearance, a "Dictionary" of sifted facts, which tells all, wanted and all, known, but without any laboured splendour of language or affected subtlety of conjecture.
The other works of Lord Hailes include: Historical Memoirs concerning the Provincial Councils of the Scottish Clergy An Examination of some of the Arguments for the High Antiquity of Regiam Majestatem Remains of Christian Antiquity, 3 vols. Remarks on the History of Scotland Account of the Martyrs of Smyrna and Lyons in the Second Century, 1776 The Trials of Justin Martyr, etc. 1778 The History of the Martyrs of Palestine, translated from Eusebius, 1780 Disquisitions concerning the Antiquities of the Christian Church editions or translations of portions of Lactantius and Minucius Felix. In 1786 he published An Inquiry into the Secondary Causes which Mr Gibbon has assigned for the Rapid Growth of Christianity, one of the most respectable of the many replies which were made to the famous 15th and 16th chapters of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire. A Memoir of Lord Hailes is prefixed to the 1808 reprint of his Inquiry into the Secondary Causes; the Extinct and Dormant Baronetcies of England and Scotland, by Messrs.
John and John Bernard Burke, second edition, London, 1841, p. 620. David Dalrymple, Lord Hailes at James Boswell - a Guide "Archival material relating to David Dalrymple, Lord Hailes". UK National Archives
Jacobite rising of 1745
The Jacobite rising of 1745 known as the Forty-five Rebellion or the'45, was an attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for his father, James Francis Edward Stuart. It took place during the War of the Austrian Succession, when the bulk of the British Army was fighting in mainland Europe, proved to be the last in a series of revolts that began in 1689, with major outbreaks in 1708, 1715 and 1719. Charles launched the rebellion on 19 August 1745 at Glenfinnan in the Scottish Highlands, capturing Edinburgh and winning the Battle of Prestonpans in September. At a council in October, the Scots agreed to invade England after Charles assured them of substantial support from English Jacobites and a simultaneous French landing in Southern England. On that basis, the Jacobite army entered England in early November, reaching Derby on 4 December, where they decided to turn back. Similar discussions had taken place at Carlisle and Manchester and many felt they had gone too far already.
The invasion route had been selected to cross areas considered Jacobite but the promised English support failed to materialise. The decision was supported by the vast majority but caused an irretrievable split between Charles and his Scots supporters. Despite victory at Falkirk Muir in January 1746, the Battle of Culloden in April ended the Rebellion and significant backing for the Stuart cause. Charles escaped to France, but was unable to win support for another attempt, died in Rome in 1788; the 1688 Glorious Revolution replaced James II and VII with his Protestant daughter Mary and her Dutch husband William, who ruled as joint monarchs of England and Scotland. Neither Mary, who died in 1694, nor her sister Anne, had surviving children, which left their Catholic half-brother James Francis Edward as the closest natural heir. To ensure a Protestant monarch, the 1701 Act of Settlement excluded Catholics from the succession and when Anne became queen in 1702, her heir was the distantly related but Protestant Sophia of Hanover.
Sophia died in June 1714 and when Anne followed two months in August, her son succeeded as George I. Louis XIV of France, the Stuarts' main backer, died in 1715 and his successors needed peace with Britain in order to rebuild their economy; the 1716 Anglo-French alliance forced James to leave France. Rebellions in 1715 and 1719 failed, the latter so badly its planners concluded that it might "ruin the King's Interest and faithful subjects in these parts." Senior exiles like Bolingbroke now accepted pardons and returned home or took employment elsewhere and while many remained sympathetic, the Stuart cause seemed at an end. The birth of his sons Charles and Henry helped maintain public interest but by 1737, James was "living tranquilly in Rome, having abandoned all hope of a restoration."In the 1730s, French statesmen began to see the post-1713 expansion of British commercial strength as a threat to the European balance of power and looked for ways to reduce it. A Stuart restoration would be expensive, risky and of little value, since they were unlikely to be any more pro-French than the Hanoverians.
A low level, ongoing insurgency was far more cost-effective and the Scottish Highlands an ideal location, due to the feudal nature of clan society, their remoteness and terrain. An opportunity was provided due to unhappiness with the London government, resulting in the 1725 malt tax riots and 1737 Porteous riots. In March 1743, the Highland-recruited 42nd Regiment or Black Watch was posted to Flanders, contrary to an understanding their service was restricted to Scotland and led to a short-lived mutiny. However, mutinies over pay and conditions were not unusual and the worst riots in 1725 took place in Glasgow, a town Charles noted in 1746 as one'where I have no friends and who are not at pains to hide it.' Trade disputes between Spain and Britain led to the 1739 War of Jenkins' Ear, followed in 1740–41 by the War of the Austrian Succession. The long-serving British prime minister Robert Walpole was forced to resign in February 1742 by an alliance of Tories and anti-Walpole Patriot Whigs, who did a deal that excluded the majority of their Tory partners from government.
Furious Tories such as the Duke of Beaufort now asked for French help in restoring James to the British throne. While war with Britain was only a matter of time, Cardinal Fleury, chief minister since 1723, viewed the Jacobites as unreliable fantasists, an opinion shared by most French ministers. One exception was the Marquis D'Argenson. In 1745, supporters of the exiled Stuarts, or Jacobites, remained a significant element in British and Irish politics but with different and competing goals; these divisions between the Scots and Irish, became apparent during the 1745 Rising, which demonstrated estimates of English support confused indifference to the Hanoverians with enthusiasm for the Stuarts. Charles' senior advisors included Irish exiles such as John O'Sullivan, who wanted an autonomous, Catholic Ireland and the return of lands confiscated after the Irish Confederate Wars. James II promised these concessions in return for Irish support in the 1689–91 Williamite War, only a Stuart on the throne of Great Britain could ensure their fulfilment.
A prominent factor in Tory opposition to th