The Royal Mile is a succession of streets forming the main thoroughfare of the Old Town of the city of Edinburgh in Scotland. The term was first used descriptively in W M Gilbert's Edinburgh in the Nineteenth Century, "...with its Castle and Palace and the royal mile between", was further popularised as the title of a guidebook, published in 1920. From the Castle gates to the Palace gates the street is exactly a mile long and runs downhill between two significant locations in the royal history of Scotland, namely Edinburgh Castle and Holyrood Palace, hence its name; the streets which make up the Royal Mile are Castlehill, the Lawnmarket, the High Street, the Canongate and Abbey Strand. The Royal Mile is the busiest tourist street in the Old Town, rivalled only by Princes Street in the New Town. Retreating ice sheets, many millennia ago, deposited their glacial debris behind the hard volcanic plug of the castle rock on which Edinburgh Castle stands, resulting in a distinctive crag and tail formation.
Running eastwards from the crag on which the castle sits, the Royal Mile sits upon the ridge of the tail which slopes down to Holyrood Palace. Steep closes run between the many tall lands off the main thoroughfare; the route runs from an elevation of 42 metres above sea level at the palace to 109 metres at the castle, giving an average gradient of 4.1%. The Castle Esplanade was laid out as a parade ground, in 1753, using spoil from the building of the Royal Exchange, it was formalised in 1816 when it was provided with decorative railings and walls. The Esplanade with its several monuments has been A-listed by Historic Scotland, it is the venue of the annual Edinburgh Military Tattoo at which time specially designed temporary grandstands are erected. Cannonball House has a cannonball lodged in the wall said to have been accidentally fired from the Castle but which marks the elevation of Comiston Springs, three miles to the south of the Castle, which fed a cistern on Castlehill, one of the first piped water supplies in Scotland.
From the Castle Esplanade, the short section of road entitled Castlehill is dominated by the former Tolbooth-Highland-St John's Church, now the headquarters of the Edinburgh International Festival society - The Hub, on the north side by the Outlook Tower and Camera Obscura. The Assembly Hall of the Church of Scotland and New College are further down on the same side; the Scottish Parliament met in the Assembly Hall between 1999 and 2004. The Lawnmarket was part of the High Street before its separate naming, which accounts for the street numbering being a continuation of the High Street numbers. A charter of 1477 designated this part of the High Street as the market-place for what was called "inland merchandise" - items such as yarn, coarse cloth and other similar articles. In years, linen was the main product sold; as a result, it became known as the Land Market, corrupted to Lawn Market. Today, the majority of shops in the street are aimed at tourists. On the north side is the preserved 17th century merchant's townhouse Gladstone's Land owned by the National Trust for Scotland.
The south side has a strong Dutch influence in its 17th-century gables. The lower end of the Lawnmarket is intersected by George IV Bridge on the right and Bank Street on the left, leading to The Mound and the New Town; the view down Bank Street is closed by the baroque headquarters of the Bank of Scotland. On the south-west corner of this intersection, with its entrance on George IV Bridge, is a new hotel, replacing the former Lothian Regional Council offices; this building is of controversial design winning both best building awards and "carbuncle" awards in 2009/10. Between Bank Street and St Giles Street, marking the end of the Lawnmarket, the High Court of Justiciary, Scotland's supreme criminal court, is housed in what was the Sheriff Court. On the south side, about one-third of the way down from the Castle toward the Palace is Parliament Square, named after the old Parliament House which housed both the law courts and the old Parliament of Scotland between the 1630s and 1707 Parliament House now houses the Court of Session, Scotland's supreme civil court.
St Giles' Cathedral, the High Kirk of Edinburgh stands in Parliament Square. By the West Door of St Giles' is the Heart of Midlothian, a heart-shaped pattern built into the "setted" road, marking the site of the Old Tolbooth the centre of administration and justice in the burgh; the prison was described by Sir Walter Scott as the "Heart of Midlothian", soon after demolition the city fathers marked the site with a heart mosaic. Locals have traditionally spat upon the heart's centre as a sign of contempt for the prison. On the north side, opposite St Giles', stand Edinburgh City Chambers, where the City of Edinburgh Council meets. On the south side, just past the High Kirk, is the Mercat Cross from which royal proclamations are read and the summoning of Parliament announced; the whole south side of buildings from St Giles to the Tron Kirk had to be rebuilt or refaced in the 1820s following the Great Edinburgh Fire of 1824. This was done in a Georgian style; the central focus of the Royal Mile is a major intersection with the Bridges.
North Bridge runs north over Waverley station to the New Town's Princes Street. South Bridge spans the Cowgate to the south, a street in a hollow below, continues as Nicolson Street past the Old College building of the U
Edinburgh Napier University
Edinburgh Napier University is a public university in Edinburgh, Scotland. Napier Technical College, the predecessor of the university was founded in 1964, taking its name from Scottish mathematician John Napier, it was renamed Napier University. The university is based around its three main Edinburgh campuses: Merchiston and Sighthill, it has over 19,500 students, including those on-campus in Scotland and others studying on transnational programmes abroad and online. In 2018 this included nearly 9,500 international and EU students, from more than 140 nations worldwide. Napier Technical College was founded in 1964, taking its name from John Napier, the inventor of logarithms and the decimal point, born in 1550 in the medieval tower house of Merchiston Castle, his statue stands in the tower of Merchiston Castle today. An opening ceremony was held on 23 February 1965. In 1966, it was renamed Napier College of Technology. In 1974, it merged with the Sighthill-based Edinburgh College of Commerce to form Napier College of Commerce and Technology, which became a Central Institution in 1985.
The college was renamed Napier Polytechnic in 1986 and in the same year acquired the former Hydropathic hospital buildings at Craiglockhart. In June 1992 the institution became Napier University. At a ceremony witnessed by over 700 staff and students, Lord James Douglas Hamilton and the Principal, William Turmeau, unveiled the new University sign at Merchiston. In 1994, Napier University acquired its Craighouse Campus. In 1996, the university gained a new Faculty of Health Studies through a merger between the Scottish Borders College of Nursing and Lothian College of Health Studies. In February 2009 it became Edinburgh Napier University Edinburgh Napier has been awarded the Queen's Anniversary Prize twice, its most recent win came in 2015, when it was recognised for its work in timber engineering, sustainable construction and wood science. Edinburgh Napier was awarded the Queen's Anniversary Prize in 2009 when the award was made for'Innovative housing construction for environmental benefit and quality of life'.
This recognised the contribution made by the University's Building Performance Centre towards improving sound insulation between attached dwellings. The motto of the University, Nisi sapientia frustra, echoes the motto of the City of Edinburgh, Nisi Dominus frustra. Edinburgh Napier's Tartan was launched at the same time as the name change in February 2009; the university used the Clan Napier Tartan. The university is based around its three main campuses at Merchiston and Sighthill; the Sighthill Campus opened to students in the School of Health & Social Care and School of Applied Sciences in January 2011. The campus includes a five-storey learning resource centre, 25 specialised teaching rooms including clinical skills laboratories, three IT-enabled lecture theatres and seminar rooms, a clinical skills suite and integrated sports facilities; the campus has received the BREEAM excellence rating. This sets the standard for best practice in sustainable design; the Sighthill campus is home to a new sports facility which includes a biomechanics laboratory and an environmental chamber which can recreate high altitude conditions with controllable temperature and humidity levels to simulate varying climatic conditions.
In 2016, the gym facilities at Sighthill became home to the BT Sport Scottish Rugby Academy Edinburgh. The Craiglockhart Campus is home to The Business School, it incorporates the Craiglockhart Hydropathic Hospital buildings which were for a time known as Craiglockhart War Hospital, where First World War poets Wilfred Owen and Siegfried Sassoon were treated. The Craiglockhart Campus exhibits photography, writing and memorabilia to provide a glimpse into the minds of the poets and medical staff at Craiglockhart; the exhibition provides War Poets Collection based on the work of Siegfried Sassoon, Wilfred Owen and selected contemporary poets. The exhibition was opened on 11 November 2005 by BBC's World Affairs Correspondent, Allan Little; this campus is the home of the law and business courses and is operates as a conference centre. The Craiglockhart Campus was extensively refurbished and extended in 2004 and contains two lecture theatres, language labs, computing facilities and an extensive library.
The Merchiston Campus is home to the Schools of Art & Creative Industries and Engineering & the Built Environment. It is built around the refurbished shell of Merchiston Castle, the family home of John Napier, after whom the University is named. Merchiston Castle is the ancient seat of Clan Napier. Merchiston Castle is a "Category A" listed building in Scotland due to its national significance; the campus includes the 500-seat, 24-hour Jack Kilby Computing Centre, named after the inventor of integrated circuits and the handheld calculator. Facilities for students include a computer game laboratory, professional music studios and in 2016, TV presenter and University alumna Lorraine Kelly opened a new integrated broadcast journalism newsroom. Edinburgh Napier Students' Association is located at the Merchiston Campus. Edinburgh Napier has student accommodation located at three sites across the city: Bainfield in Fountainbridge, Slateford Road and Orwell Terrace. Edinburgh Napier provides assistance to students looking to rent in the private sector.
Edinburgh Napier University comprises six specialist schools: School of Applied Science
A decimal separator is a symbol used to separate the integer part from the fractional part of a number written in decimal form. Different countries designate different symbols for the decimal separator; the choice of symbol for the decimal separator affects the choice of symbol for the thousands separator used in digit grouping, so the latter is treated in this article. Any such symbol can be called decimal marker or decimal sign, but symbol-specific names are used. In many contexts, when a number is spoken, the function of the separator is assumed by the spoken name of the symbol: comma or point in most cases. In some specialized contexts, the word decimal is instead used for this purpose. In mathematics the decimal separator is a type of radix point, a term that applies to number systems with bases other than ten. In the Middle Ages, before printing, a bar over the units digit was used to separate the integral part of a number from its fractional part, e.g. 9995. This practice derived from the decimal system used in Indian mathematics and was popularized by the Persian mathematician Al-Khwarizmi, when Latin translation of his work on the Indian numerals introduced the decimal positional number system to the Western world.
His Compendious Book on Calculation by Completion and Balancing presented the first systematic solution of linear and quadratic equations in Arabic. A similar notation remains in common use as an underbar to superscript digits for monetary values without a decimal separator, e.g. 9995. A "separatrix" between the units and tenths position became the norm among Arab mathematicians, while an L-shaped or vertical bar served as the separatrix in England; when this character was typeset, it was convenient to use the existing comma or full stop instead. Gerbert of Aurillac marked triples of columns with an arc when using his Hindu–Arabic numeral-based abacus in the 10th century. Fibonacci followed this convention when writing numbers such as in his influential work Liber Abaci in the 13th century. Tables of logarithms prepared by John Napier in 1614 and 1619 used the period as the decimal separator, adopted by Henry Briggs in his influential 17th century work. In France, the full stop was in use in printing to make Roman numerals more readable, so the comma was chosen.
Many other countries, such as Italy chose to use the comma to mark the decimal units position. It has been made standard by the ISO for international blueprints. However, English-speaking countries took the comma to separate sequences of three digits. In some countries, a raised dot or dash may be used for decimal separator. In the United States, the full stop or period was used as the standard decimal separator. In the nations of the British Empire, although the full stop could be used in typewritten material and its use was not banned, the interpunct was preferred for the decimal separator in printing technologies that could accommodate it, e.g. 99·95. However, as the mid dot was in common use in the mathematics world to indicate multiplication, the SI rejected its use as the decimal separator. During the beginning of British metrication in the late 1960s and with impending currency decimalisation, there was some debate in the United Kingdom as to whether the decimal comma or decimal point should be preferred: the British Standards Institution and some sectors of industry advocated the comma and the Decimal Currency Board advocated for the point.
In the event, the point was chosen by the Ministry of Technology in 1968. When South Africa adopted the metric system, it adopted the comma as its decimal separator, although a number of house styles, including some English-language newspapers such as The Sunday Times, continue to use the full stop; the three most spoken international auxiliary languages, Ido and Interlingua, all use the comma as the decimal separator. Interlingua has used the comma as its decimal separator since the publication of the Interlingua Grammar in 1951. Esperanto uses the comma as its official decimal separator, while thousands are separated by non-breaking spaces: 12 345 678,9. Ido's Kompleta Gramatiko Detaloza di la Linguo Internaciona Ido states that commas are used for the decimal separator while full stops are used to separate thousands, etc. So the number 12,345,678.90123 for instance, would be written 12.345.678,90123 in Ido. The 1931 grammar of Volapük by Arie de Jong uses the comma as its decimal separator, uses the middle dot as the thousands separator.
In 1958, disputes between European and American delegates over the correct representation of the decimal separator nearly stalled the development of the ALGOL computer programming language. ALGOL ended up allowing different decimal separators, but most computer languages and standard data formats specify a dot; the 22nd General Conference on Weights and Measures declared in 2003 that "the symbol for the decimal marker shall be either the point on the line or the comma on the line". It further reaffirmed that "numbers may be d
Flanders is the Dutch-speaking northern portion of Belgium and one of the communities and language areas of Belgium. However, there are several overlapping definitions, including ones related to culture, language and history, sometimes involving neighbouring countries; the demonym associated with Flanders is Fleming. The official capital of Flanders is Brussels, although the Brussels Capital Region has an independent regional government, the government of Flanders only oversees the community aspects of Flanders life in Brussels such as culture and education. Flanders, despite not being the biggest part of Belgium by area, is the area with the largest population. 7,876,873 out of 11,491,346 Belgian inhabitants live in the bilingual city of Brussels. Not including Brussels, there are five modern Flemish provinces. In medieval contexts, the original "County of Flanders" stretched around AD 900 from the Strait of Dover to the Scheldt estuary and expanded from there; this county still corresponds with the modern-day Belgian provinces of West Flanders and East Flanders, along with neighbouring parts of France and the Netherlands.
Although this original meaning is still relevant, during the 19th and 20th centuries it became commonplace to use the term "Flanders" to refer to the entire Dutch-speaking part of Belgium, stretching all the way to the River Meuse, as well as cultural movements such as Flemish art. In accordance with late 20th century Belgian state reforms the Belgian part of this area was made into two political entities: the "Flemish Community" and the "Flemish Region"; these entities were merged, although geographically the Flemish Community, which has a broader cultural mandate, covers Brussels, whereas the Flemish Region does not. Flanders, by every definition, has figured prominently in European history since the Middle Ages. In this period, cities such as Ghent and Antwerp made it one of the richest and most urbanized parts of Europe and weaving the wool of neighbouring lands into cloth for both domestic use and export; as a consequence, a sophisticated culture developed, with impressive achievements in the arts and architecture, rivaling those of northern Italy.
Belgium was one of the centres of the 19th century industrial revolution but Flanders was at first overtaken by French-speaking Wallonia. In the second half of the 20th century, due to massive national investments in port infrastructures, Flanders' economy modernised and today Flanders and Brussels are more wealthy than Wallonia and in general one of the wealthiest regions in Europe and the world. Geographically, Flanders is flat, has a small section of coast on the North Sea. Much of Flanders is agriculturally fertile and densely populated, with a population density of 500 people per square kilometer, it touches France to the west near the coast, borders the Netherlands to the north and east, Wallonia to the south. The Brussels Capital Region is an bilingual enclave within the Flemish Region. Flanders has exclaves of its own: Voeren in the east is between Wallonia and the Netherlands and Baarle-Hertog in the north consists of 22 exclaves surrounded by the Netherlands; the term "Flanders" has several main modern meanings: The "Flemish community" or "Flemish nation", i.e. the social and linguistic, scientific and educational and political community of the Flemings.
It comprises 6.5 million Belgians. The political subdivisions of Belgium: the Flemish Region and the Flemish Community; the first does not comprise Brussels, whereas the latter does comprise the Dutch-speaking inhabitants of Brussels. The political institutions that govern both subdivisions: the operative body "Flemish Government" and the legislative organ "Flemish Parliament"; the two westernmost provinces of the Flemish Region, West Flanders and East Flanders, forming the central portion of the historic County of Flanders. An ancien régime territory that existed from the 8th century until its absorption by the French First Republic; until the 1600s, this county extended over parts of what are now France and the Netherlands. One of the Flemish regions which are now part of France, in the Nord department; this is referred to as French Flanders, can be divided into two smaller regions: Walloon Flanders and Maritime Flanders. The first region was predominantly French-speaking in the 1600s, the latter became so in the 20th century.
The city of Lille identifies itself as "Flemish", this is reflected, for instance, in the name of its local railway station TGV Lille Flandres. The Flemish region which became part of the Dutch Republic, now part of the Dutch province of Zeeland; the significance of the County of Flanders and its counts eroded through time, but the designation remained in a broad sense. In the Early modern period, the term Flanders was associated with the southern part of the Low Countries: the Southern Netherlands. During the 19th and 20th centuries, it became commonplace to refer to the Dutch-speaking part of Belgium as "Flanders"; the linguistic limit between French and Dutch was recorded in the early'60's, from Kortrijk to Maastricht. Now, Flanders extends over the northern part of Belgium, including Belgian Limburg (corresponding to t
Simon Stevin, sometimes called Stevinus, was a Flemish mathematician and military engineer. He made various contributions in many areas of science and engineering, both theoretical and practical, he translated various mathematical terms into Dutch, making it one of the few European languages in which the word for mathematics, was not a loanword from Greek but a calque via Latin. Little is known with certainty about Stevin's life and what we know is inferred from other recorded facts; the exact birth date and the date and place of his death are uncertain. It is assumed he was born in Bruges since he enrolled at Leiden University under the name Simon Stevinus Brugensis, his name is written as Stevin, but some documents regarding his father use the spelling Stevijn. This is a normal spelling shift in 16th-century Dutch, he was born around Anthonis Stevin and Catelyne van der Poort. His father is believed to have been a cadet son of a mayor of Veurne and a member of the schuttersgilde Sint-Barbara of Bruges.
While Simon's father was not mentioned in the book of burghers, the fact that he was a member of the militia allows a safe assumption that he was. Many other Stevins were mentioned in the Poorterboeken. Simon Stevin's mother Cathelijne was the daughter of a wealthy family from Ypres, her father Hubert was a poorter of Bruges. Simon's mother Cathelijne married Joost Sayon, involved in the carpet and silk trade and a member of the schuttersgilde Sint-Sebastiaan. Through her marriage Cathelijne became a member of a family of Calvinists and Simon was brought up in the Calvinist faith, it is believed that Stevin grew up in a affluent environment and enjoyed a good education. He was educated at a Latin school in his hometown. Stevin left Bruges in 1571 without a particular destination. Stevin was most a Calvinist since a Catholic would not have risen to the position of trust he occupied with Maurice, Prince of Orange, it is assumed that he left Bruges to escape the religious persecution of Protestants by the Spanish rulers.
Based on references in his work "Wisconstighe Ghedaechtenissen", it has been inferred that he must have moved first to Antwerp where he began his career as a merchant's clerk. Some biographers mention that he travelled to Prussia, Denmark and Sweden and other parts of Northern Europe, between 1571 and 1577, it is possible. In 1577 Simon Stevin returned to Bruges and was appointed city clerk by the aldermen of Bruges, a function he occupied from 1577-1581, he worked in the office of Jan de Brune of the castellany of Bruges. Why he had returned to Bruges in 1577 is not clear, it may have been related to the political events of that period. Bruges was the scene of intense religious conflict. Catholics and Calvinists alternately controlled the government of the city, they opposed each other but would collaborate in order to counteract the dictates of King Philip II of Spain. In 1576 a certain level of official religious tolerance was decreed; this could explain why Stevin returned to Bruges in 1577. The Calvinists seized power in many Flemish cities and incarcerated Catholic clerics and secular governors supportive of the Spanish rulers.
Between 1578 and 1584 Bruges was ruled by Calvinists. In 1581 Stevin moved to Leiden where he attended the Latin school. On 16 February 1583 he enrolled, under the name Simon Stevinus Brugensis, at Leiden University, founded by William the Silent in 1575. Here he befriended William the Count of Nassau. Stevin is listed in the University's registers until 1590 and never graduated. Following William the Silent's assassination and Prince Maurice's assumption of his father's office, Stevin became the principal advisor and tutor of Prince Maurice. Prince Maurice asked his advice on many occasions, made him a public officer – at first director of the so-called "waterstaet" from 1592, quartermaster-general of the army of the States-General. Prince Maurice asked Stevin to found an engineering school within the University of Leiden. Stevin moved to The Hague where he bought a house in 1612, he had four children. It is known that he left a widow with two children at his death in Leiden or The Hague in 1620.
Stevin is responsible for many inventions. He was a pioneer of the development and the practical application of science such as mathematics and applied science like hydraulic engineering and surveying, he was thought to have invented the Decimal fractions until the middle of the 20th century, but researchers discovered that decimal fractions were introduced by the medieval Islamic scholar al-Uqlidisi in a book written in 952. Moreover, a systematic development of decimal fractions was given well before Stevin in the book Miftah al-Hisab written in 1427 by Al-Kashi, his contemporaries were most struck by his invention of a so-called land yacht, a carriage with sails, of which a model was preserved in Scheveningen until 1802. The carriage itself had been lost long before. Around the year 1600 Stevin, with Prince Maurice of Orange and twenty-six others, used the carriage on the beach between Sche
France the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean, it is bordered by Belgium and Germany to the northeast and Italy to the east, Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic and Indian oceans; the country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres and a total population of 67.3 million. France, a sovereign state, is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Toulouse, Bordeaux and Nice. During the Iron Age, what is now metropolitan France was inhabited by a Celtic people. Rome annexed the area in 51 BC, holding it until the arrival of Germanic Franks in 476, who formed the Kingdom of Francia.
The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned Francia into Middle Francia and West Francia. West Francia which became the Kingdom of France in 987 emerged as a major European power in the Late Middle Ages following its victory in the Hundred Years' War. During the Renaissance, French culture flourished and a global colonial empire was established, which by the 20th century would become the second largest in the world; the 16th century was dominated by religious civil wars between Protestants. France became Europe's dominant cultural and military power in the 17th century under Louis XIV. In the late 18th century, the French Revolution overthrew the absolute monarchy, established one of modern history's earliest republics, saw the drafting of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, which expresses the nation's ideals to this day. In the 19th century, Napoleon established the First French Empire, his subsequent Napoleonic Wars shaped the course of continental Europe. Following the collapse of the Empire, France endured a tumultuous succession of governments culminating with the establishment of the French Third Republic in 1870.
France was a major participant in World War I, from which it emerged victorious, was one of the Allies in World War II, but came under occupation by the Axis powers in 1940. Following liberation in 1944, a Fourth Republic was established and dissolved in the course of the Algerian War; the Fifth Republic, led by Charles de Gaulle, remains today. Algeria and nearly all the other colonies became independent in the 1960s and retained close economic and military connections with France. France has long been a global centre of art and philosophy, it hosts the world's fourth-largest number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites and is the leading tourist destination, receiving around 83 million foreign visitors annually. France is a developed country with the world's sixth-largest economy by nominal GDP, tenth-largest by purchasing power parity. In terms of aggregate household wealth, it ranks fourth in the world. France performs well in international rankings of education, health care, life expectancy, human development.
France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. It is a leading member state of the European Union and the Eurozone, a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, La Francophonie. Applied to the whole Frankish Empire, the name "France" comes from the Latin "Francia", or "country of the Franks". Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch, all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank. Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm, the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation.
Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.8 million years ago. Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux. At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron. France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who focuses their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth. They observe astronomical objects such as stars, moons and galaxies – in either observational or theoretical astronomy. Examples of topics or fields astronomers study include planetary science, solar astronomy, the origin or evolution of stars, or the formation of galaxies. Related but distinct subjects like physical cosmology. Astronomers fall under either of two main types: observational and theoretical. Observational astronomers analyze the data. In contrast, theoretical astronomers create and investigate models of things that cannot be observed; because it takes millions to billions of years for a system of stars or a galaxy to complete a life cycle, astronomers must observe snapshots of different systems at unique points in their evolution to determine how they form and die. They use these data to create models or simulations to theorize how different celestial objects work.
Further subcategories under these two main branches of astronomy include planetary astronomy, galactic astronomy, or physical cosmology. Astronomy was more concerned with the classification and description of phenomena in the sky, while astrophysics attempted to explain these phenomena and the differences between them using physical laws. Today, that distinction has disappeared and the terms "astronomer" and "astrophysicist" are interchangeable. Professional astronomers are educated individuals who have a Ph. D. in physics or astronomy and are employed by research institutions or universities. They spend the majority of their time working on research, although they quite have other duties such as teaching, building instruments, or aiding in the operation of an observatory; the number of professional astronomers in the United States is quite small. The American Astronomical Society, the major organization of professional astronomers in North America, has 7,000 members; this number includes scientists from other fields such as physics and engineering, whose research interests are related to astronomy.
The International Astronomical Union comprises 10,145 members from 70 different countries who are involved in astronomical research at the Ph. D. beyond. Contrary to the classical image of an old astronomer peering through a telescope through the dark hours of the night, it is far more common to use a charge-coupled device camera to record a long, deep exposure, allowing a more sensitive image to be created because the light is added over time. Before CCDs, photographic plates were a common method of observation. Modern astronomers spend little time at telescopes just a few weeks per year. Analysis of observed phenomena, along with making predictions as to the causes of what they observe, takes the majority of observational astronomers' time. Astronomers who serve as faculty spend much of their time teaching undergraduate and graduate classes. Most universities have outreach programs including public telescope time and sometimes planetariums as a public service to encourage interest in the field.
Those who become astronomers have a broad background in maths and computing in high school. Taking courses that teach how to research and present papers are invaluable. In college/university most astronomers get a Ph. D. in astronomy or physics. While there is a low number of professional astronomers, the field is popular among amateurs. Most cities have amateur astronomy clubs that meet on a regular basis and host star parties; the Astronomical Society of the Pacific is the largest general astronomical society in the world, comprising both professional and amateur astronomers as well as educators from 70 different nations. Like any hobby, most people who think of themselves as amateur astronomers may devote a few hours a month to stargazing and reading the latest developments in research. However, amateurs span the range from so-called "armchair astronomers" to the ambitious, who own science-grade telescopes and instruments with which they are able to make their own discoveries and assist professional astronomers in research.
List of astronomers List of women astronomers List of Muslim astronomers List of French astronomers List of Hungarian astronomers List of Russian astronomers and astrophysicists List of Slovenian astronomers Dallal, Ahmad. "Science and Technology". In Esposito, John; the Oxford History of Islam. Oxford University Press, New York. ISBN 0-300-15911-0. Kennedy, E. S.. "A Survey of Islamic Astronomical Tables. 46. Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. Toomer, Gerald. "Al-Khwārizmī, Abu Jaʿfar Muḥammad ibn Mūsā". In Gillispie, Charles Coulston. Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 7. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons. ISBN 0-684-16962-2. American Astronomical Society European Astronomical Society International Astronomical Union Astronomical Society of the Pacific Space's astronomy news