Houston and Texas Central Railway
The Houston and Texas Central Railway, operated by the Houston and Texas Central Railway Company, was a railway system in Texas. Ebenezer Allen of Galveston, Texas obtained the charter to establish a railroad company on March 11, 1848. A series of meetings about the establishment of the company occurred in Chappell Houston. In 1852, the Galveston and Red River Railway company became active; the start of construction occurred on January 1, 1853, when Paul Bremond and Thomas William House broke ground in Houston. Track-laying of the 5 ft 6 in gauge railroad began in early 1856. On July 26, 1856, the track-laying reached the 25-mile point, at Cypress; the railroad company name changed from G&RR to H&TC on September 1, 1856. By April 22, 1861 the railroad construction had reached the 81-mile point at Millican; because of the American Civil War, the railroad construction was halted. In 1867, with the Civil War over, construction resumed. In 1867, the H&TC railroad company took control of the Washington County Railroad.
That railroad consisted of 25 miles of railroad line between Brenham and Hempstead, chartered in 1856 and completed in April 1861 with a gauge of 5 feet 6 inches. The H&TC extended the Washington County Railroad line to Austin. On December 25 1871 the extension to Austin was completed. In 1871, the railroad track of the original Houston & Central Texas Railway line appeared in Corsicana. In 1872 the original line extended to Dallas. In 1873 the original railroad line reached Red River City, where it connected with the Missouri and Texas Railroad; this formed an all-railroad route from Texas to St. Louis and the Eastern United States; the H&TC was sold to Charles Morgan in March 1877 but continued to operate independently until 1927, when it was leased to the Texas and New Orleans. Confederate railroads in the American Civil War List of Texas railroads Abandoned rails Houston Metropolitan Research Center, Houston Public Library 1902 Houston and Texas Central Map Texas State Library and Archives Commission Schedule of the Houston and Texas Central Railway, 1879
Dallas County, Texas
Dallas County is a county in the U. S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, the population was 2,368,139, it is the ninth-most populous in the United States. Its county seat is Dallas, Texas' third-largest city and the ninth-largest city in the United States; the county was founded in 1846 and was named for George Mifflin Dallas, the 11th Vice President of the United States under U. S. President James K. Polk. Dallas County is included in the TX Metropolitan Statistical Area. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 909 square miles, of which 873 square miles is land and 36 square miles is water. Collin County Rockwall County Kaufman County Ellis County Tarrant County Denton County As of the 2015 Texas population estimate program, the population of the county was 2,541,528: non-Hispanic whites, 713,835; as of the census of 2010, there were 2,368,139 people, 807,621 households, 533,837 families residing in the county. The population density was 2,523 people per square mile.
There were 854,119 housing units at an average density of 971/sq mi. The racial makeup of the county was 53.54 White, 22.30% Black or African American, 0.10% Native American, 5.15% Asian, 0.06% Pacific Islander, 14.04% from other races, 2.70% from two or more races. 38.30% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. There were 807,621 households out of which 35.10% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.90% were married couples living together, 14.10% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.90% were non-families. 27.30% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.90% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.71 and the average family size was 3.34. As of the 2010 census, there were about 8.8 same-sex couples per 1,000 households in the county. In the wider county, the population was spread out with 27.90% under the age of 18, 10.70% from 18 to 24, 34.40% from 25 to 44, 18.90% from 45 to 64, 8.10% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females there were 99.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.00 males. The median income for a household in the county was US$43,324, the median income for a family was $49,062. Males had a median income of $34,988 versus $29,539 for females; the per capita income for the county was $22,603. About 10.60% of families and 13.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.00% of those under age 18 and 10.50% of those age 65 or over. Dallas County, like all counties in Texas, is governed by a Commissioners Court; this court consists of the county judge, elected county-wide, four commissioners who are elected by the voters in each of four precincts. The Commissioners Court is the policy-making body for the county; the Commissioners Court sets the county tax rate, adopts the budget, appoints boards and commissions, approves grants and personnel actions, oversees the administration of county government. Each commissioner supervises a Road and Bridge District.
The Commissioners Court approves the budget and sets the tax rate for the hospital district, charged with the responsibility for providing acute medical care for citizens who otherwise would not receive adequate medical services. The Parkland Health & Hospital System operates the Parkland Memorial Hospital and various health centers; the Commissioners Court meets the first and third Tuesday at the Commissioners Courtroom located in the Dallas County Administration Building at 411 Elm St. corner of Elm and Houston streets. The building was the headquarters of the Texas School Book Depository Company until 1970. Assassin Lee Harvey Oswald shot President John F. Kennedy from a window located on the sixth floor which today houses the Sixth Floor Museum dedicated to the late president's memory. Acts of the commissioners court are known as'court orders'; these orders include setting county policies and procedures, issuing contracts, authorizing expenditures, managing county resources and departments.
Most the commissioners court sets the annual tax rate and the budget for Dallas County government and the courts. The commissioners set the tax rate and budget for the Dallas County Hospital District which operates Parkland Hospital; the commissioners court has direct control over all county offices and departments not otherwise administered by a county elected official. Those departments include Dallas County Elections and Human Services, Facilities Management and Open Space Program, I. T. Services, Homeland Security and Emergency Services, among others. Through their budget making powers, the commissioners exercise indirect control over the District Attorney's office, District Clerk, County Clerk and County Treasurer; the commissioners set the budget for each of the District and Justice courts. Dallas County employs a commissioners court administrator, responsible for the day-to-day management of the commissioners court and implementing the Dallas County Master Plan and the directives of the commissioners court.
The current commissioners court administrator is Darryl Martin, hired by the commissioners in 2008. Dallas Count
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
Presentations – Presentations from both guest speakers and OCLC research from conferences and other events. The presentations are organized into five categories: Conference presentations, Dewey presentations, Distinguished Seminar Series, Guest presentations, Research staff
The United States of America known as the United States or America, is a country composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U. S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D. C. and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico; the State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean; the U. S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The diverse geography and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.
Paleo-Indians migrated from Siberia to the North American mainland at least 12,000 years ago. European colonization began in the 16th century; the United States emerged from the thirteen British colonies established along the East Coast. Numerous disputes between Great Britain and the colonies following the French and Indian War led to the American Revolution, which began in 1775, the subsequent Declaration of Independence in 1776; the war ended in 1783 with the United States becoming the first country to gain independence from a European power. The current constitution was adopted in 1788, with the first ten amendments, collectively named the Bill of Rights, being ratified in 1791 to guarantee many fundamental civil liberties; the United States embarked on a vigorous expansion across North America throughout the 19th century, acquiring new territories, displacing Native American tribes, admitting new states until it spanned the continent by 1848. During the second half of the 19th century, the Civil War led to the abolition of slavery.
By the end of the century, the United States had extended into the Pacific Ocean, its economy, driven in large part by the Industrial Revolution, began to soar. The Spanish–American War and World War I confirmed the country's status as a global military power; the United States emerged from World War II as a global superpower, the first country to develop nuclear weapons, the only country to use them in warfare, a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council. Sweeping civil rights legislation, notably the Civil Rights Act of 1964, the Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968, outlawed discrimination based on race or color. During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union competed in the Space Race, culminating with the 1969 U. S. Moon landing; the end of the Cold War and the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991 left the United States as the world's sole superpower. The United States is the world's oldest surviving federation, it is a representative democracy.
The United States is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, International Monetary Fund, Organization of American States, other international organizations. The United States is a developed country, with the world's largest economy by nominal GDP and second-largest economy by PPP, accounting for a quarter of global GDP; the U. S. economy is post-industrial, characterized by the dominance of services and knowledge-based activities, although the manufacturing sector remains the second-largest in the world. The United States is the world's largest importer and the second largest exporter of goods, by value. Although its population is only 4.3% of the world total, the U. S. holds 31% of the total wealth in the world, the largest share of global wealth concentrated in a single country. Despite wide income and wealth disparities, the United States continues to rank high in measures of socioeconomic performance, including average wage, human development, per capita GDP, worker productivity.
The United States is the foremost military power in the world, making up a third of global military spending, is a leading political and scientific force internationally. In 1507, the German cartographer Martin Waldseemüller produced a world map on which he named the lands of the Western Hemisphere America in honor of the Italian explorer and cartographer Amerigo Vespucci; the first documentary evidence of the phrase "United States of America" is from a letter dated January 2, 1776, written by Stephen Moylan, Esq. to George Washington's aide-de-camp and Muster-Master General of the Continental Army, Lt. Col. Joseph Reed. Moylan expressed his wish to go "with full and ample powers from the United States of America to Spain" to seek assistance in the revolutionary war effort; the first known publication of the phrase "United States of America" was in an anonymous essay in The Virginia Gazette newspaper in Williamsburg, Virginia, on April 6, 1776. The second draft of the Articles of Confederation, prepared by John Dickinson and completed by June 17, 1776, at the latest, declared "The name of this Confederation shall be the'United States of America'".
The final version of the Articles sent to the states for ratification in late 1777 contains the sentence "The Stile of this Confederacy shall be'The United States of America'". In June 1776, Thomas Jefferson wrote the phrase "UNITED STATES OF AMERICA" in all capitalized letters in the headline of his "original Rough draught" of the Declaration of Independence; this draft of the document did not surface unti
Fayetteville is a city in and the county seat of Lincoln County, United States. The population was 6,994 at the 2000 census, 6,827 at the 2010 census. A census estimate from 2012 showed 7,072. Fayetteville is the largest city in Lincoln County; the city was established in 1809 by an Act of the Tennessee General Assembly. The act became effective on January 1, 1810; the lands that include Lincoln County and Fayetteville were part of Cherokee and Chickasaw land. They were ceded to the United States in 1806; the city was named for Fayetteville, North Carolina, where some of its earliest residents had lived before moving to Tennessee. The earlier town was named for Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, a French general who fought for the United States during the American Revolution. Lincoln County was named for Major General Benjamin Lincoln, second in command of the U. S. Army at the end of the Revolutionary War; the earliest white settler was Ezekiel Norris, who gave the one hundred acres upon which the city was built.
In addition to Ezekiel Norris, other founding fathers of Fayetteville include: Alexander and Andrew Greer, William Edmonson, Matthew Buchanan. In 1995, the International Gospel Hour radio broadcast, founded in Texarkana, Texas, by the clergyman V. E. Howard was transferred to the West Fayetteville Church of Christ in Fayetteville under the minister Winford Claiborne. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.3 square miles, all land. Climate is characterized by high temperatures and evenly distributed precipitation throughout the year; the Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfa". As of the census of 2000, there were 6,994 people, 3,054 households, 1,804 families residing in the city; the population density was 952.2 people per square mile. There were 3,370 housing units at an average density of 458.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 71.39% White, 26.22% African American, 0.30% Native American, 0.30% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 0.27% from other races, 1.43% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.81% of the population. There were 3,054 households out of which 24.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 38.0% were married couples living together, 18.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 40.9% were non-families. 37.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 20.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.81. In the city, the population was spread out with 21.2% under the age of 18, 8.1% from 18 to 24, 22.9% from 25 to 44, 22.1% from 45 to 64, 25.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 76.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 70.8 males. The median income for a household in the city was $23,830, the median income for a family was $32,477. Males had a median income of $26,957 versus $22,382 for females; the per capita income for the city was $18,391. About 15.1% of families and 20.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.8% of those under age 18 and 20.6% of those age 65 or over.
One of the most famous landmarks of Fayetteville is the remains of the Stone Bridge known by the locals of Fayetteville as the “Old Stone Bridge”. It was in 1860 that John Markum and Patrick Flannery, the architects and contractors, began the building of the bridge; the bridge, consisting of six arches, was completed in January 1862 with a final cost of $40,000. In 1863, during the Civil War, the bridge was ordered burned by General William T. Sherman, but this order was disobeyed because the river was forded at the base of the bridge; the bridge stood until 1969. The first courthouse for Lincoln County, made of brick, was completed in 1815, it was used as local headquarters by Union troops during the Civil War. The building was replaced by an Italianate structure in 1874; this second courthouse was demolished and replaced by the current Colonial Revival-style building in 1970. The Camp Blount marker, erected in 1998, stands along Huntsville Highway near the WalMart shopping center; the camp was located along the Elk River and was a meeting point for the Tennessee soldiers who were serving under General Andrew Jackson in the Creek War of 1813-1814.
Camp Blount was a meeting point for soldiers during the Seminole Wars in 1818 and 1836, for both Confederate and Federal troops during the Civil War. The Lincoln County Fair grounds are located in Fayetteville Tennessee; the Lincoln County Fair Association was issued its charter in 1906 and is a nonprofit organization with all profits going back into maintaining the fair grounds. In 1980, the fair became a district fair, serving five counties and paying over $10,000 in agriculture premiums; as far back as 1889, there are records for the harness racing that takes place still today at the fairgrounds. The racetrack was made of red clay until 1978 when it was converted to an all weather track by grading it and covering it in limestone dust. Other elements of the fair include a demolition derby, food vendors, a cattle showing, art competition, concerts. John Neely Bryan, founder of the city of Dallas, Texas Jim Bob Cooter, NFL offensive coordinator Rick Dempsey, former Major League Baseball player Bob Higgins, former Major League Baseball player Kelly Holcomb, former NFL quarterback Frank Kelso, U.
S. Navy admiral Ira L. Kimes, Brigadier general and Marine Aviator Anthony Shelton, former NFL and CFL player Ed Townsend, singer-songwriter, co-wrote “Let’s Get It On” with Marvin Gaye Official website City charter
Handbook of Texas
The Handbook of Texas is a comprehensive encyclopedia of Texas geography and historical persons published by the Texas State Historical Association. The original Handbook was the brainchild of TSHA President Walter Prescott Webb of The University of Texas history department, it was published as a two-volume set in 1952, with a supplemental volume published in 1976. In 1996, the New Handbook of Texas was published, expanding the encyclopedia to six volumes and over 23,000 articles. In 1999, the Handbook of Texas Online went live with the complete text of the print edition, all corrections incorporated into the handbook's second printing, about 400 articles not included in the print edition due to space limitations; the handbook continues to be updated online, contains over 25,000 articles. The online version includes entries on general topics, such as "Texas since World War II", biographies such as notable Texans Samuel Houston and W. D. Twichell, ranches such as the Matador, geographical entries such as "Waco, Texas".
Many Texas scholars and professors, such as Robert A. Calvert and Art Martinez de Vara, have contributed to the Handbook. Texas State Historical Association Handbook of Texas 1952 2 volume edition at HathiTrust
A pergola is an outdoor garden feature forming a shaded walkway, passageway, or sitting area of vertical posts or pillars that support cross-beams and a sturdy open lattice upon which woody vines are trained. The origin of the word is the Late Latin pergula; as a type of gazebo, it may be an extension of a building or serve as protection for an open terrace or a link between pavilions. They are different from green tunnels, with a green tunnel being a type of road under a canopy of trees. Pergolas are sometimes confused with arbours, the terms are used interchangeably. An arbour is regarded as a wooden bench seat with a roof enclosed by lattice panels forming a framework for climbing plants. A pergola, on the other hand, is a much larger and more open structure and does not include integral seating. A pergola is a garden feature forming a shaded walkway, passageway, or sitting area of vertical posts or pillars that support cross-beams and a sturdy open lattice upon which woody vines are trained.
As a type of gazebo, it may be an extension of a building or serve as protection for an open terrace or a link between pavilions. Pergolas may link pavilions or extend from a building's door to an open garden feature such as an isolated terrace or pool. Freestanding pergolas, those not attached to a home or other structure, provide a sitting area that allows for breeze and light sun, but offer protection from the harsh glare of direct sunlight. Pergolas give climbing plants a structure on which to grow. Pergolas are more permanent architectural features than the green tunnels of late medieval and early Renaissance gardens, which were formed of springy withies—easily replaced shoots of willow or hazel—bound together at the heads to form a series of arches loosely woven with long slats on which climbers were grown, to make a passage, both cool and shaded and moderately dry in a shower. At the Medici villa, La Petraia and outer curving segments of such green walks, the forerunners of pergolas, give structure to the pattern, which can be viewed from the long terrace above it..
The origin of the word is the Late Latin pergula. The English term was borrowed from Italian, it was mentioned in an Italian context in 1645 by John Evelyn at the cloister of Trinità dei Monti in Rome He used the term in an English context in 1654 when, in the company of the fifth Earl of Pembroke, Evelyn watched the coursing of hares from a "pergola" built on the downs near Salisbury for that purpose. The artificial nature of the pergola made it fall from favor in the naturalistic gardening styles of the 18th and 19th centuries, yet handsome pergolas on brick and stone pillars with powerful cross-beams were a feature of the gardens designed in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by Sir Edwin Lutyens and Gertrude Jekyll and epitomize their trademark of firm structure luxuriantly planted. A extensive pergola features at the gardens of The Hill, designed by Thomas Mawson for his client W. H. Lever. Modern pergola design material including wood, fiberglass and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride rather than brick or stone pillars, are more affordable and are increasing in popularity.
Wooden pergolas are either made from a weather-resistant wood, such as western redcedar or of coast redwood, are painted or stained, or use wood treated with preservatives for outdoor use. For a low maintenance alternative to wood, fiberglass, aluminum and CPVC can be used; these materials do not require yearly paint or stain like a wooden pergola and their manufacture can make them stronger and longer-lasting than a wooden pergola. Breezeway Brise soleil Latticework Patio Trellis Vine training systems Media related to Pergolas at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of pergola at Wiktionary