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John Oxley

John Joseph William Molesworth Oxley was an explorer and surveyor of Australia in the early period of British colonisation. He served as Surveyor General of New South Wales and is best known for his two expeditions into the interior of New South Wales and his exploration of the Tweed River and the Brisbane River in what is now the state of Queensland. John Oxley was born at Kirkham Abbey near Westow in Great Britain, he was baptised at Bulmer on 6 July 1784, his parents recorded as Arabella Oxley. In 1799, he entered the Royal Navy as a midshipman on the Venerable, he travelled to Australia in October 1802 as master's mate of the naval vessel Buffalo, which carried out coastal surveying, this first stay in the Colonies would last for five years. In 1805 Governor King appointed him acting lieutenant in charge of the Buffalo. In 1806 he commanded the Estramina on a trip to Van Diemen's Land, he returned to England in 1807 and from there he was appointed first lieutenant of HMS Porpoise, a British sloop of war, stationed at NSW.

To take up this appointment he sailed out again to NSW, traveling as agent for the Transport Board in the convict ship Speke, arriving in November 1808 and in which he shipped goods worth £800 as an investment. In 1809 Porpoise visited Van Diemen's Land, carrying as a passenger Governor William Bligh, deposed in the Rum Rebellion. During the period in which he'd returned to England, Oxley had obtained an order from the Colonial Office for a land grant of 600 acres near the Nepean River, but Lieutenant-Governor Paterson granted him more - 1,000 acres. Oxley had to surrender this land in 1810, but Governor Macquarie granted him 600 acres near Camden which he increased in 1815 to 1,000 acres again; this he called'Kirkham'. In 1810 he wrote a lengthy report on the settlements in Van Diemen's Land before returning again to England, in Porpoise, in May. Back in London he applied for the post of Naval Officer in Sydney, after paying Charles Grimes to resign, according to John Macarthur, he twice sought the post of Surveyor-General.

When Bligh was deposed, Oxley had denied that he had been a partisan of Macarthur, but his letters show that he was on intimate terms with Macarthur, the leader of the anti-Bligh faction. In 1812 he became engaged to daughter of John Macarthur. By that time, through the influence of Macarthur's friend Walter Davidson, Oxley's second application for the NSW surveyor-generalship had been successful. In 1811 he retired from the navy, in May 1812 sailed for Sydney, for the third time, in the Minstrel to take up his new duties as Surveyor-General though he had no land mapping experience at all. Oxley's appointment was at the time of Lachlan Macquarie's Governorship. Macquarie encouraged exploration – he had sent George Evans to confirm the exploratory work of Wentworth and Lawson over the Blue Mountains, instigated the building of the road over the Blue Mountains in 1814–1815, had travelled to Bathurst William Cox had completed it. From there he had sent George Evans on an expedition of exploration up the Lachlan River in May 1815.

Now Macquarie wanted the Macquarie River explored thoroughly. Opening up of the new lands over the mountains had created enthusiasm for further discoveries about them and the Macquarie River. Mysteriously, the Macquarie and the Lachlan flowed westwards to the interior of the country and not easterly towards the coastline. Successively, in 1817 and 1818 Governor Macquarie appointed John Oxley in charge of two expeditions to investigate these rivers. On the 1817 Lachlan expedition, Oxley was to come across marshy country and conclude this inland area was uninhabitable. If he had pressed on for two more days he would have reached the Murrumbidgee River. Oxley reported that, in his opinion, the Lachlan flowed into an extensive series of swamps, "which were the margin of a great inland sea." The Macquarie expedition the following year in 1818 came to a halt on that river at the Macquarie Marshes in a good season for the marshes as the Macquarie was in flood replenishing these vital wetlands. Oxley couldn't do so.

He returned to the encampment of the rest of his party now convinced that these westward flowing rivers terminated in an inland sea, he had been on the swampy edge of it. Through Oxley, the theory of the Australian inland sea was fed and perpetuated, In March 1817 John Oxley was instructed to take charge of an expedition to explore and survey the course of the Lachlan River, he left Sydney on 6 April 1817 with George Evans as second-in-command, Allan Cunningham as botanist. The previous year, Evans had accompanied Macquarie over the Blue Mountains to Bathurst on the celebratory completion of Cox's road, where Macquarie had directed him on an exploratory journey which resulted in Evans reaching and naming the Lachlan River west of Bathurst in May 1815; the party included William Parr as a mineralogist and draftsman. Oxley's party reached Bathurst after a week, where they were detained by bad weather. On 25 April 1817, they reached the Lachlan River Depot, prepared for them in advance by a separate party under the direction of William Cox.

From here, they commenced to follow its course, with part of the stores being conveyed in boats. As the exploring party travelled westward the country surrounding the

Israel at the Paralympics

Israeli athletes have participated in the Paralympic Games since 1960. At the 2004 Summer Paralympics in Athens, Israelis won four gold medals. Israel first competed at the Summer Games in Rome, Italy. In total, Israel has won 123 gold medals at the Summer Paralympic Games; the most successful Israeli Paralympian was Zipora Rubin-Rosenbaum, between 1964 and 1988, won 30 medals at the Paralympic Games, of which 15 were gold. Second successful Israeli Paralympian was Uri Bergman, between 1976 and 1988, won 14 medals at the Paralympic Games, of which 12 were gold. Tel Aviv was the host city of the 1968 Summer Paralympics, at which Israel finished third on the medal chart with 62 medals, of which 18 were gold. At the 2004 Summer Paralympics in Athens, Israelis won a total of thirteen medals, of which four were gold. Izhak Mamistvalov won three medals in swimming, while Keren Leibowitz won four medals, of which one was gold in swimming. Host nation Source: Paralympic competitors for Israel Sports in Israel Israel at the Olympics

Kraftwerke Oberhasli

Kraftwerke Oberhasli AG is a Swiss energy supply company, based in Innertkirchen and operating several hydroelectric plants in the Oberhasli area of the Canton of Berne. It operates a number of tourist attractions in the same area with some relationship to its energy supply business, it uses the brands Grimselstrom and Grimselwelt, the latter for its tourism ventures. Both brands are named after the Grimsel Pass. Founded in 1925, the company had its first power plant, Handeck 1, online by 1932. KWO is operating nine plants, fed by the reservoirs of Grimselsee, Oberaarsee, Räterichsbodensee and Totensee, with a total of 26 turbines giving a total maximum power output of 1.125 Gigawatts. The company produces around 2,350 Gigawatt hours of electricity annually, which represents about 7% of the country's total hydroelectric energy production; the company owns the Meiringen–Innertkirchen railway, the Gelmerbahn funicular, the Sidelhornbahn, Triftbahn and Tällibahn aerial lifts. All of these were built to assist the construction and maintenance of its hydroelectric plants, but now provide transport for local residents and/or tourists.

Additionally the Kraftwerke Oberhasli operates and maintains the Reichenbachfall Funicular, although this is owned by the neighbouring EWR Energie company. KWO employs a total of 364 full-time jobs. Media related to Kraftwerke Oberhasli at Wikimedia Commons

Million Death Study

The Million Death Study is an ongoing human premature mortality study conducted in India. It is still ongoing. Among a sample size of 14 million Indians 1 million deaths are assigned medical causes through the Verbal Autopsy method to determine disease patterns and direct public health policy; the principal investigator of the study is Dr. Prabhat Jha, director of the Centre for Global Health Research and professor of epidemiology at the Dalla Lana School of Public Health, University of Toronto, Canada. In India, like many low and middle income countries, the vast majority of deaths occur at home without medical attention, rather than with the standard of hospital care and supervision common in high income countries prior to death; as a result, estimates suggest a majority of the 60 million global annual deaths, over half of Indian at-home deaths, are undocumented and do not have a medically certified cause of death. Deaths occurring in hospitals may be documented with official death certificates issued by medical professionals.

The MDS was conceived to study undocumented at-home deaths to gain a more statistically representative understanding of disease patterns in India. Between the study period of 1998-2014, the MDS investigators collaborated with the Registrar General of India to monitor 14 million people in 2.4 million nationally representative Indian households, to produce underlying medical causes of deaths for about 1 million deaths. This made the MDS one of the largest studies of premature mortality in the world; the MDS used India’s existing Sample Registration System, a government program operated by the Registrar General of India since 1971, as a sampling framework for data harvest by trained surveyors. The collaborators of the MDS arranged to expand the overall size of the SRS at the inception of the study in 1998. Surveyors visited households in the sample units of the SRS every 6 months to inquire about deaths in the family; when a death was noted, an in-person interview of an extant, close family member was administered using the Verbal Autopsy method to determine the deceased’s health status prior to death and record a narrative of the events leading to death.

This written information was used by trained physicians to assign a probable cause of death using the International Classification of Diseases. The information for each death was provided to two physicians to ensure greater accuracy, with a senior physician adjudicating the assignment of a cause of death in the event of an initial disagreement. Logistical management and low costs made the MDS a success; the study was able to maintain a cost of less than US$1 per household surveyed by using the existing SRS framework and collaborating with India’s census department and the overall operational cost of the study was about US$2 million per year. The study had two main phases: the first, from 1998-2003, gathered information on 300 000 deaths within the sample, the second phase, from 2004-2014, gathered information on the remaining 700 000 deaths for the target of about 1 million; the large amount of data and wide range of causes of death from the MDS necessitated forming working groups of internal and external scientists to review and interpret results.

The MDS working groups, which reflect the broad categories of global mortality, are as follows: Maternal and Child Health: Rajesh Kumar, Shally Awasthi, Robert E. Black, Prabhat Jha, Bhaskar Mishra, Ann Montgomery, Shaun Morris, Vinod K. Paul, Usha Ram, Siddarth Ramji, Sandip Roy, Anita Shet, Mani Subramaniyam Alcohol: Prabhat Jha, Neeraj Bhala, Prakash Bhatia, Rajesh Dikshit, Vendhan Gajalakshmi, Prakash C. Gupta, Rajesh Kumar, Richard Peto, Chinthanie Ramasundarahettige, Dhirendra Sinha Cancer: Rajesh Dikshit, Lukasz Aleksandrowicz, Hellen Gelband, Prakash C. Gupta, Prabhat Jha, Richard Peto, Chinthanie Ramasundarahettige, Dhirendra Sinha Cardiovascular Disease: Rajeev Gupta and D. Prabkaharan, Onil Bhattacharya, Niteesh Choudhury, Dean T. Jamison, Prabhat Jha, Rajesh Kumar, Prem Mony, Rachel Nugent, Denis Xavier Injuries: JS Thakur, Marvin Hsiao, Jagnoor Jagnoor, Prabhat Jha, Ajai Malhotra, Vikram Patel Malaria: Vinod P. Sharma, Alan Cohen, Neeraj Dhingra, Prabhat Jha, Raju M. Jotkar, Ramanan Laxminaryan, SK Mishra, Richard Peto Suicide: Vikram Patel, Vendhan Gajalakshmi, G Gururaj, Prabhat Jha, Chinthanie Ramasundarahettige, K Srinivasan, Lakshmi Vijayakumar The World Health Organization’s estimates of disease rates in India are based on medically certified causes of death from hospital records, while results from the Million Death Study offered statistical representation of rural, undocumented deaths.

The following are results of the Million Death Study from a variety of scientific publications with several comparisons of disease deaths estimated from hospital record data. Annual Indian deaths based on the Million Death Study results: 2.3M deaths of children under age 5 1M tobacco related deaths 556K cancer deaths 100K alcohol related deaths 200K malaria deaths 100K HIV/AIDS deaths 50K snakebite deaths 30K cervical cancer deaths 183K road traffic deathsThe various results of the MDS, combined with geospatial analysis, show that each disease has varying prevalence rates throughout India, indicated that regional factors affect prevalence and that these sources of premature mortality are avoidable. One example is the wide variation between the estimated Indian national annual average rate of 30 000 cervical cancer deaths compared with only 6000 annual cervical cancer deaths at the reported rates of Jammu and Kashmir state an

Town of Bassendean

The Town of Bassendean is a local government area in the northeastern suburbs of the Western Australian capital city of Perth, 6 kilometres west of the industrial centre of Midland and about 12 kilometres northeast of Perth's central business district. The Town covers an area of 10.4 square kilometres, maintains 97 km of roads and had a population of 15,000 as at the 2016 Census. The Town of Bassendean is a member of the Eastern Metropolitan Regional Council; the West Guildford Road District was created on 10 May 1901. It was renamed the Bassendean Road District on 7 July 1922, on 1 July 1961, became the Shire of Bassendean following the enactment of the Local Government Act 1960, which reformed all remaining road districts into shires, it assumed its current name when it gained town status on 1 July 1975. The town is divided into each of three councillors; the mayor is elected by the councillors. North Ward East Ward West Ward Ashfield Bassendean Eden Hill Official website

Taratap, South Australia

Taratap is a locality in the Australian state of South Australia located in the state’s south-east about 223 kilometres south-east of the state capital of Adelaide and about 27 kilometres north-east of the municipal seat of Kingston SE. Tarap’s name and boundaries were assigned in 3 December 1998, its name is derived from the Taratap triangulation station which itself is derived from “an Aboriginal waterhole in the Hundred of Peacock.” The name was used for “a local homestead.”The principal land use in the locality is "primary production."The 2016 Australian census, conducted in August 2016 reports that Taratap had a population of 42 people. Taratap is located within the federal division of Barker, the state electoral district of Mackillop and the local government area of the Kingston District Council