Sorrento is a coastal township in Victoria, located on the shores of Port Phillip on the Mornington Peninsula, about one and a half hours by car south of Melbourne. The first permanent European settlers in the area were the Skeltons and Watts, it is thought that the name'Sorrento' was conferred upon what was known as Sullivans Bay when the first developer arrived in Sorrento in the 1870s. In 1803, 30 years before the founding of Melbourne, Sullivan Bay in Sorrento became the site of Victoria's first mainland European settlement. Due to a lack of fresh water the settlement was short lived and subsequently moved to Hobart in Tasmania. Victoria's first magistrates' court, public hospital, postal service and government printing office were established in Sorrento; the first Victorian wedding and funeral services were held at Sullivan Bay. The first settlement site overlooking Sullivan Bay includes. Sorrento Post Office opened on 10 January 1871. A horse and steam powered tram which ran between the foreshore and the back beach opened in 1890 and closed in 1920.
The town has a number of grand historic homes and hotels which date back to the 1860s all of which have been constructed with local limestone. The Australia ICOMOS charter for the conservation of places of cultural significance in the practice of local heritage protection has listed 30 properties. Mechanics' Institute, Sorrento was built in 1877 using local limestone and the building, now classified by the National Trust of Australia, houses the Nepean Historical Society's museum. Other notable limestone buildings still standing include: Sorrento Hotel, Anglican Church, Athenaeum Theatre, Continental Hotel, Whitehall Guest House; the Koonya Hotel and Morgans were built by the Skelton/Clark family. The sandstone Presbyterian Church was built around 1880. Ophir House, opposite the Masonic Lodge, a miniature Whitehall, was replaced by contemporary units; the Sorrento Park, established in 1870, contains a variety of trees, including an Aleppo Pine grown from the seed of the Lone Pine of Gallipoli.
Situated above the beach and overlooking the bay, Sorrento Park has a children's playground, BBQ facilities, public toilets. In the 2016 Census, there were 1,592 people in Sorrento. 78.0% of people were born in Australia and 86.8% of people spoke only English at home. The most common responses for religion were No Religion 29.0%, Catholic 24.7% and Anglican 19.3%. The town has an Australian Rules football team, The Sorrento Sharks, competing in the Mornington Peninsula Nepean Football League before winning flags in the PFA in 1929 and 1933 the MPFL in 1935, 1953, 1964, 1969, 1979, 1980 the MPNFL in 2004, 2008, 2010, 2011 and 2012. Former St. Kilda footballer Troy Schwarze coached the four grand finals between 2008 and 2011, before Nick Claringbold took over for 2012 so Troy could follow his dream coaching St. Kilda's mid-fielders on match days. Troy played with Sorrento in about 9 matches during 2012 when not required in the AFL, the finals series. Ben McCormack took over the captaincy from Dave Lawson when Dave was appointed coach at Crib Point 3 years ago.
The Sorrento Cricket Club, coached by former Melbourne CC player and mystic guru Nick Davern known as "Tin Hat", competes in the Provincial Division of the Mornington Peninsula Cricket Association, having won the Sub-District in 1989/90 and 2002/03, District Division in 2005/2006. It won senior premierships in the Southern Peninsula Cricket Association six in succession between 1946/47 and 1951/52, under Bill Clark and Arthur Robertson again in 1955/56 under Jack Mullen and 1957/58 under Derek Minter, its first and only Provincial First XI premiership was 1971/72 under ex-Northcote and Collingwood player Graham Burt. Forty years on, the seniors had their next opportunity in a Provincial Grand Final losing to rivals Baxter in 2011/12. Season 2012/13 looked promising with the inclusion of ex-Victorian batsman Nick Jewell who scored 3 centuries before the Christmas interval, going on to win the Club Championship with 706 runs and 7 catches, including an opening partnership with Jedd Falck of 205.
Sadly, a second consecutive grand final appearance failed. In 2010/2011 Ryan O'Connor became the first player to win the W. B. Wedgwood medal for Sorrento but it didn't take long for the club to win another with Captain Anthony Blackwell winning in 2011/2012; the original Macfarlan Reserve pavilion was erected in 1935 with a terraced grandstand upstairs. It was demolished and rebuilt in 1984 and re-opened as the Robert Keegan pavilion in 1985. Several balconies have been added since. Plans exist to add a gymnasium; the Sorrento Tennis Club occupied the land beside the Museum and is a sunken garden today. It was relocated to its current site in the 1960s followed by the Scout Hall and fire track a decade or so later. Netball courts, a skate park and basketball stadium followed creating a single sports complex together with the lawn bowls rinks. Golfers play at the course of the Sorrento Golf Club on Langford Road. Dame Nellie Melba sang to raise funds for cemetery gates which rusted over time and were taken down and dumped at the tip where they were souvenired and used as a garden ornament.
Notable interments include Federal Senator John Button, Member of the Legislative Assembly of Victoria, Vin Heffernan, actor Sophie Heathcote and Dame Zara Bate, the wife of former P
Keilor is a suburb of Melbourne, Australia, 18 km north-west of Melbourne's central business district. Its local government areas are the Cities of Hume. At the 2016 Census, Keilor had a population of 5,853. Whilst most of the suburb is contained within the City of Brimbank, the northern section of Keilor, north of the Calder Freeway, is within the City of Hume; this section of the suburb is located on the flood plain of the Maribyrnong River, is home to many market gardens. The suburb is residential with large industrial developments in adjacent suburbs. There are several shopping centres in the area including Keilor Shopping Centre and Watergardens Town Centre 5 km away. Keilor is a township in a basin of the Maribyrnong River. James Watson from Scotland was the first land-holder in the district. Keilor in the early times of the gold diggings was a noted camping place for bullock teams to and from the diggings at Castlemaine and Ballarat. Caroline Chisholm was responsible for having shelter sheds erected alongside the river.
The escorts from the goldfields passed through Keilor. They camped in a paddock near Keilor; this paddock was known as Escort Paddock and the remains of an old stone building is still to be seen there. The surrounding country is of basaltic formation. Spanning the river was a wooden bridge, replaced by an iron bridge in 1868. A new bridge had been built alongside the iron bridge. Both the Anglican and the Catholic Churches built during the early settlement years have been retained for future generations to view and to enjoy, they have been heritage listed. About 1 million years ago lava created basalt plains. Over time, the Maribyrnong River carved itself through the basalt plains. Australian megafauna including 3 metre high kangaroos and Diprotodons were found in the area until extinction about 13,000 years ago at the end of the ice age; the Wurundjeri Aborigines inhabited the area for 40,000 years. It is one of the oldest inhabited sites in Australia; the first Europeans to pass through the area were Charles Grimes surveying party who followed the Maribyrnong River upstream in the Summer of 1803.
Grimes report of the area was unfavourable. In June 1835, John Batman followed a similar route and remarked of Keilor that it was the "Most beautiful sheep pasturage I saw in my life". In about 1838-39 the first European settlements were established by pastoralists James Watson and Alexander and John Hunter. James Watson is thought to have named their home station after a farm called Keillor <sic> in Forfarshire, one of four which his father, Hugh Watson, tenanted. One of the earliest settlers in Keilor was William Taylor who in 1849 bought 13,000 acres in the district and built a house which he called Overnewton, he transformed this building in 1859 into a Scottish Baronial mansion, shown on the left. In the 1850s people would stopover at Keilor during their travels from Melbourne to the Bendigo goldfields. Keilor saw an influx of new settlers. Keilor Post Office opened on 2 March 1854 and a general store, hotel, police station and bridge were all built during this time; the area became an agricultural district and remained so until after World War II when the suburb saw a rapid increase in population due to cheap land and the establishment of large industries in surrounding suburbs.
Keilor Football Club, an Australian Rules football team, competes in the Essendon District Football League. Golfers play at the Keilor Public Golf Course on the Calder Highway in the neighbouring suburb of Keilor North. Keilor Fire Station is a Melbourne suburban fire station. Mark Viduka, English Premier League player and former captain of the Australian National Football Team, grew up in Keilor. Dante Exum, NBA basketball player, played for Keilor City of Keilor — the former local government area Brimbank Park Electoral district of Keilor The Keilor Historical Society Keilor Thunder Basketball - Big V
HMS Calcutta (1795)
HMS Calcutta was the East Indiaman Warley, converted to a Royal Navy 56-gun fourth rate. This ship of the line served for a time as an armed transport, she transported convicts to Australia in a voyage that became a circumnavigation of the world. The French 74-gun Magnanime captured Calcutta in 1805. In 1809, after she ran aground during the Battle of the Basque Roads and her crew had abandoned her, a British boarding party burned her; the East Indiaman Warley was built at John Perry's Blackwall Yard in 1788, the first vessel of the name that Perry built for the East India Company. She made two trading voyages to the Far East for the East India Company. Warley's captain for her two voyages was Henry Wilson, he received a letter of marque on 7 September 1793. Captain Henry Wilson sailed from Falmouth on 8 March 1789, bound for China. Warley reached Madras on 22 June, left on 9 August, arrived at Whampoa on 28 September. Homeward bound, she crossed the Second Bar on 11 February 1790, reached St Helena on 28 April, arrived at the Downs on 23 June.
Captain Henry Wilson sailed from the Downs on 19 January 1793, again bound for China. Warley reached the Cape of Good Hope on 3 April, arrived at Madras on 30 May. By 6 July 1793, Warley was off Pondicherry with Admiral Cornwallis's squadron. Warley and Royal Charlotte, together with HMS Minerva, participated in the capture of Pondicherry by maintaining a blockade of the port. By 28 August 1793, Warley was back at Madras; the Indiamen sailed for China in early September. By 4 October 1793, the East Indiamen were at Penang, two weeks at Malacca. On their way to China, the East Indiamen participated in an action in the Straits of Malacca, they came upon a French frigate, with some six or seven of her prizes, replenishing her water casks ashore. The three British vessels gave chase; the frigate fled towards the Sunda Strait. The Indiamen were able to catch up with a number of the prizes, after a few cannon shots, were able to retake them; the British took the French prize crews as prisoners of war. Had they not carried letters of marque, such behaviour might well have qualified as piracy.
Warley arrived at Whampoa on 13 December. When Warley was at Whampoa that December she joined other East Indiamen there, among which were several that on their return to Britain the Admiralty would purchase: Royal Charlotte, Earl of Abergavenny, Hindostan; the British Government had chartered Hindostan to take Lord Macartney to China in an unsuccessful attempt to open diplomatic and commercial relations with the Chinese empire. Homeward bound, Warley crossed the Second Bar on 13 March 1794, she reached St Helena on 18 June, arrived at the Downs on 7 September. In early 1795, the Royal Navy purchased Warley and had her original builders, Perry & Co. refit her as a 56-gun fourth rate, under the name Calcutta, at a cost of £10,300. She was one of nine large merchantmen that the Navy Board purchased that year for conversion to convoy escorts. Captain William Bligh was her first commander, assigned to her to supervise her conversion, he commissioned her in May. In October 1795, the crew of the 74-gun HMS Defiance mutinied.
Bligh, in Calcutta, was ordered to embark 200 troops and take them alongside Defiance so that they might board her and regain control. The threat of the soldiers ended the mutiny for the time being, though the crew of the Defiance mutinied again in 1797 and 1798. Bligh continued to command Calcutta until she was paid off in February 1796 and transferred to the Transport Board. In order for her to fulfill her new role, the Transport Board had the guns on her lower deck removed; as a result she no longer needed as her complement fell to 160 officers and men. Calcutta served in the transport role under Lieutenants Robert Arnold, Edward Jekyll Canes, Richard Pouldon. and John Anderson. Under Poulden Calcutta was at the capture of Menorca in December 1798. On 11 November she was part of a squadron that unsuccessfully chased four Spanish frigates, though two days Argo recaptured the sloop Peterel, which the Spaniards had captured on the 11th. Lieutenant John Anderson replaced Pouldon. On 6 June 1800 he sailed Calcutta to Gibraltar.
Between May 1802 and February 1803, the Navy had Calcutta fitted out as a transport for convicts being sent to Britain's penal colonies in Australia. She received new armament in the form of sixteen 24-pounder carronades on her upper deck and two six-pounder guns on the forecastle. Captain Daniel Woodriff recommissioned her in November 1802 and sailed her from Spithead on 28 April 1803, accompanied by Ocean, to establish a settlement at Port Phillip. Calcutta carried a crew of 150 and 307 male convicts, along with civil officers and some 30 wives and children of the convicts; the Reverend Robert Knopwood kept a journal on the voyage. Calcutta arrived at Teneriffe on 13 May, she reached Rio de Janeiro on 19 July, the Dutch colony at the Cape of Good Hope on 16 August. While Calcutta was at the Cape, a vessel arrived with news that Britain was now at war with the Batavian Republic; the colony's Dutch commodore sent a representative aboard Calcutta to demand her surrender and that of her contents.
While the representative waited, Woodriff spent two hours preparing her for battle. He showed the representative her sailors and marines at their guns, told the Dutchman to inform the commod
A settler is a person who has migrated to an area and established a permanent residence there to colonize the area. Settlers are from a sedentary culture, as opposed to nomads who share and rotate their settlements with little or no concept of individual land ownership. Settlements are built on land claimed or owned by another group. Many times settlers are backed by large countries, they sometimes leave in search of religious freedom. One can witness how settlers often occupied land residents to long-established peoples, designated as indigenous. In some cases, as colonialist mentalities and laws change, the legal ownership of some lands is contested by indigenous people, who either claim or seek restoration of traditional usage, land rights, native title and related forms of legal ownership or partial control; the word "settler" was not usually used in relation to a variety of peoples who became a part of settler societies, such as enslaved Africans, indentured labourers, or convicts. In the figurative usage, a "person who goes first or does something first" applies to the American English use of "pioneer" to refer to a settler—a person who has migrated to a less occupied area and established permanent residence there to colonize the area.
In United States history it refers to those people. In Canada, the Indian Act, passed in 1876, created a fundamental division between First Nations peoples and all others, who are termed Settlers; as the Indian Act is still in force, this distinction continues to present day with an existing Indigenous-Settler division, set in a settler-colonial context where it reproduces an inequitable racial structure. In this usage, pioneers are among the first to an area, whereas settlers can arrive after first settlement and join others in the process of human settlement; this correlates with the work of military pioneers who were tasked with construction of camps before the main body of troops would arrive at the designated campsite. In Imperial Russia, the government invited Russians or foreign nationals to settle in sparsely populated lands; these settlers were called "colonists". See, e.g. articles Slavo-Serbia, Volga German, Russians in Kazakhstan. Although they are thought of as traveling by sea—the dominant form of travel in the early modern era—significant waves of settlement could use long overland routes, such as the Great Trek by the Boer-Afrikaners in South Africa, or the Oregon Trail in the United States.
Anthropologists record tribal displacement of native settlers who drive another tribe from the lands it held, such as the settlement of lands in the area now called Carmel-by-the-Sea, California where Ohlone peoples settled in areas inhabited by the Esselen tribe. In the Middle East, there are a number of references to various squatter and specific policies referred as "settler". Among those: Iraq – the Arabization program of the Ba'ath Party in the late 1970s in North Iraq, which aimed at settling Arab populations instead of Kurds following the Second Iraqi-Kurdish War. Israel – Israelis who moved to areas captured during the Six-Day War in 1967 are termed Israeli settlers. In recent years Israeli settlers have been settling in Palestinian territory such as the Gaza Strip and West Bank. However, this has caused political unrest and many settlers are forcibly removed from their settlements by the Israeli government. Syria – In recent times, Arab settlers have moved in large numbers to ethnic minority areas, such as northeast Syria.
Women and children experience violence in these dangerous areas because of the conflict. Many natives face displacement. During 1948 Palestine war, in which Israel was created, over 750,000 Palestinians were displaced from their homes and not allowed to return. Oftentimes fences or walls are built preventing the natives from traveling back onto the land. Settlements can make it difficult for native people to continue their work. For example, if the settlers take part of the land which the olive trees grow on the natives no longer have access to those olive trees and their livelihood is compromised. Many are met with violence. Settlers in hypothetical societies, such as on other planets feature in science fiction or fantasy fiction and/or video games. Mascot for Texas Woman's University, more there called the "Pioneer." The reasons for the emigration of settlers vary, but they include the following factors and incentives: the desire to start a new and better life in a foreign land, personal financial hardship, cultural, ethnic, or religious persecution, political oppression, government incentive policies aimed at encouraging foreign settlement.
The colony concerned is sometimes controlled by the government of a settler's home country, emigration is sometimes approved by an imperial government
Melbourne is the capital and most populous city of the Australian state of Victoria, the second most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Its name refers to an urban agglomeration of 9,992.5 km2, comprising a metropolitan area with 31 municipalities, is the common name for its city centre. The city occupies much of the coastline of Port Phillip bay and spreads into the hinterlands towards the Dandenong and Macedon ranges, Mornington Peninsula and Yarra Valley, it has a population of 4.9 million, its inhabitants are referred to as "Melburnians". The city was founded on 30 August 1835, in the then-British colony of New South Wales, by free settlers from the colony of Van Diemen’s Land, it was incorporated as a Crown settlement in 1837 and named in honour of the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne. In 1851, four years after Queen Victoria declared it a city, Melbourne became the capital of the new colony of Victoria. In the wake of the 1850s Victorian gold rush, the city entered a lengthy boom period that, by the late 1880s, had transformed it into one of the world's largest and wealthiest metropolises.
After the federation of Australia in 1901, it served as interim seat of government of the new nation until Canberra became the permanent capital in 1927. Today, it is a leading financial centre in the Asia-Pacific region and ranks 15th in the Global Financial Centres Index; the city is home to many of the best-known cultural institutions in the nation, such as the Melbourne Cricket Ground, the National Gallery of Victoria and the World Heritage-listed Royal Exhibition Building. It is the birthplace of Australian impressionism, Australian rules football, the Australian film and television industries and Australian contemporary dance. More it has been recognised as a UNESCO City of Literature and a global centre for street art, live music and theatre, it is the host city of annual international events such as the Australian Grand Prix, the Australian Open and the Melbourne Cup, has hosted the 1956 Summer Olympics and the 2006 Commonwealth Games. Due to it rating in entertainment and sport, as well as education, health care and development, the EIU ranks it the second most liveable city in the world.
The main airport serving the city is Melbourne Airport, the second busiest in Australia, Australia's busiest seaport the Port of Melbourne. Its main metropolitan rail terminus is Flinders Street station and its main regional rail and road coach terminus is Southern Cross station, it has the most extensive freeway network in Australia and the largest urban tram network in the world. Indigenous Australians have lived in the Melbourne area for an estimated 31,000 to 40,000 years; when European settlers arrived in the 19th-century, under 2,000 hunter-gatherers from three regional tribes—the Wurundjeri and Wathaurong—inhabited the area. It was an important meeting place for the clans of the Kulin nation alliance and a vital source of food and water; the first British settlement in Victoria part of the penal colony of New South Wales, was established by Colonel David Collins in October 1803, at Sullivan Bay, near present-day Sorrento. The following year, due to a perceived lack of resources, these settlers relocated to Van Diemen's Land and founded the city of Hobart.
It would be 30 years. In May and June 1835, John Batman, a leading member of the Port Phillip Association in Van Diemen's Land, explored the Melbourne area, claimed to have negotiated a purchase of 600,000 acres with eight Wurundjeri elders. Batman selected a site on the northern bank of the Yarra River, declaring that "this will be the place for a village" before returning to Van Diemen's Land. In August 1835, another group of Vandemonian settlers arrived in the area and established a settlement at the site of the current Melbourne Immigration Museum. Batman and his group arrived the following month and the two groups agreed to share the settlement known by the native name of Dootigala. Batman's Treaty with the Aborigines was annulled by Richard Bourke, the Governor of New South Wales, with compensation paid to members of the association. In 1836, Bourke declared the city the administrative capital of the Port Phillip District of New South Wales, commissioned the first plan for its urban layout, the Hoddle Grid, in 1837.
Known as Batmania, the settlement was named Melbourne in 1837 after the British Prime Minister, William Lamb, 2nd Viscount Melbourne, whose seat was Melbourne Hall in the market town of Melbourne, Derbyshire. That year, the settlement's general post office opened with that name. Between 1836 and 1842, Victorian Aboriginal groups were dispossessed of their land by European settlers. By January 1844, there were said to be 675 Aborigines resident in squalid camps in Melbourne; the British Colonial Office appointed five Aboriginal Protectors for the Aborigines of Victoria, in 1839, however their work was nullified by a land policy that favoured squatters who took possession of Aboriginal lands. By 1845, fewer than 240 wealthy Europeans held all the pastoral licences issued in Victoria and became a powerful political and economic force in Victoria for generations to come. Letters patent of Queen Victoria, issued on 25 June 1847, declared Melbourne a city. On 1 July 1851, the Port Phillip District separated from New South Wales to become the Colony of Victoria, with Melbourne as its capital.
The discovery of gold in Victoria in mid-1851 sparked a
A schooner is a type of sailing vessel with fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts. The most common type has the foremast being shorter than the main. While the schooner was gaff-rigged, modern schooners carry a Bermuda rig; the first detailed definition of a schooner, describing the vessel as two-masted vessel with fore and aft gaff-rigged sails appeared in 1769 in William Falconer's Universal Dictionary of the Marine. According to the language scholar Walter William Skeat, the term schooner comes from scoon, while the sch spelling comes from the adoption of the Dutch spelling. Another study suggests that a Dutch expression praising ornate schooner yachts in the 17th century, "een schoone Schip", may have led to the term "schooner" being used by English speakers to describe the early versions of the schooner rig as it evolved in England and America; the Dutch word "schoon" means nice, good looking, sexually arousing, or horny.. A popular legend holds that the first schooner was built by builder Andrew Robinson and launched in Gloucester, Massachusetts where a spectator exclaimed "Oh how she scoons", scoon being similar to scone, a Scots word meaning to skip along the surface of the water.
Robinson replied, "A schooner let her be." The launch is variously described as being in 1713 or 1745. Naval architects such as Howard Chapelle have dismissed this invention story as a "childish fable", but some language scholars feel that the legend may support a Gloucester origin of the word. Other sources state the etymology as uncertain. Although associated with North America, schooners were first used by the Dutch in the 16th or 17th century, they were further developed in North America from the early 18th century, came into extensive use in New England. Schooners were popular in trades requiring speed and windward ability, such as slaving, blockade running, offshore fishing. In the Chesapeake Bay area several distinctive schooner types evolved, including the Baltimore clipper and pungy. Schooners were popular among pirates in the West Indies during the Golden Age of Piracy, for their speed and agility, they could sail in shallow waters, while being smaller than other ships of the time period, they could still hold enough cannons to intimidate merchant vessels into submission.
Schooners first evolved in the late 17th century from a variety of small two-masted gaff-rigged vessels used in the coast and estuaries of the Netherlands. Most were working craft but some pleasure yachts with schooner rigs were built for wealthy merchants. Following the arrival of the Dutch Stadtholder William of Orange on the British throne, the British Royal Navy built a royal yacht with a schooner rig in 1695, HMS Royal Transport; this vessel, captured in a detailed Admiralty model, is the earliest documented schooner. Royal Transport was noted for its speed and ease of handling, mercantile vessels soon adopted the rig in Europe and in European colonies in North America. Schooners were popular with colonial traders and fishermen in North America with the first documented reference to a schooner in the United States appearing in Boston port records in 1716. North American shipbuilders developed a variety of schooner forms for trading and privateering. Essex, was the most significant shipbuilding center for schooners.
By the 1850s, over 50 vessels a year were being launched from 15 shipyards and Essex became recognized worldwide as North America's center for fishing schooner construction. In total, Essex launched over 4,000 schooners, most headed for the Gloucester, fishing industry. Bath, was another notable center, which during much of the 19th century had more than a dozen yards working at a time, from 1781 to 1892 launched 1352 schooners, including the Wyoming. Schooners were popular on both sides of the Atlantic in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, long dominating yacht races such as the America's Cup, but gave way in Europe to the cutter. Schooners were used to carry cargo in many different environments, from ocean voyages to coastal runs and on large inland bodies of water, they were popular in North America. In their heyday, during the late 19th century more than 2,000 schooners carried on the Great Lakes. Three-masted "terns" were a favourite rig of Canada's Maritime Provinces; the scow schooner, which used a schooner rig on a flat-bottomed, blunt-ended scow hull, was popular in North America for coastal and river transport.
Schooners were used in North American fishing the Grand Banks fishery. Some Banks fishing schooners such as Bluenose became famous racers. Two of the most famous racing yachts and Atlantic, were rigged as schooners, they were about 152 feet in length. Although a schooner may have several masts, the typical schooner has only two, with the foremast shorter than the mainmast. There may be a bowsprit to help balance the rig; the principal issue with a schooner sail plan is how to fill the space between the two masts most effectively. Traditional schooners were gaff rigged, the trapezoid shape of the foresail occupied the inter-mast space to good effect, with a useful sail area and a low center of effort. A Bermuda rigged schooner has four triangular sails: a mainsail, a main staysail abaft the foremast, plus a forestaysail and a jib forward of the foremast. An advantage of the staysail schooner is that it is handled and reefed by a small crew, as both staysails can be self-tacking; the main staysail will not overlap the mainsail, so does little to prepare the wind for the mainsail, but is effective when close-hauled or when on a beam reach.
Thomas Davey (governor)
Thomas Davey was a New South Wales Marine and member of the First Fleet to New South Wales, who went on to become the second Lieutenant Governor of Van Diemen's Land. Davey was born in England in the son of a mill owner. There are no records of early youth. In 1775 Great Britain declared war on her American colonies. Strenuous lobbying by Davey's father secured political patronage for a commission as second lieutenant in His Majesty's Marine Forces, Davey was posted aboard HMS Vengeance in this capacity in 1779. In the following year he transferred to the 50-gun frigate HMS Preston and took part in attacks on French forces in the West Indies, he was promoted to first lieutenant in mid-1780 but fell ill shortly afterward and was invalided back to England. He did not return to active service until 1786, he left Sydney at the end of 1792, at the time of the mutiny at the Nore was a captain of marines, fought at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. In September 1811, through the influence of Lord Harrowby, he was appointed lieutenant-governor of Tasmania in June 1812.
It is said that he left England without informing his wife, but she got wind of his departure and, managed to get aboard. Upon being informed of her arrival Davey hurled his wig at the wall, he arrived in Sydney on 25 October 1812 and reported to Governor Lachlan Macquarie, whose orders he had been instructed to observe. He remained in Sydney for nearly four months, did not land at Hobart until 20 February 1813. All his possessions were Davey put in a claim of substantial length. Davey appears to have had no qualifications for his position, he was indolent and without sense of dignity, indulged in the hard-drinking, a characteristic of the period. He is still remembered for his invention of the "Blow My Skull" punch, the recipe for, found in Edward Abbott's The English and Australian Cookery Book. Macquarie had received a private letter from the authorities warning him to keep a close watch on Davey, on 30 April 1814 reported that his conduct was pretty correct, "except for making locations of land to persons not entitled", he had every reason to believe that he "is honest and means well" but that his character made him a "very unfit man for so important a station".
Nearly a year Macquarie again reported adversely, in April 1816 Earl Bathurst in a dispatch to Macquarie recalled Davey, but suggested that he should be allowed to resign, that a grant of land should be made to him. Davey was confronted by one of the largest, most daring and successful bushranging gangs of Australian history, that of Michael Howe. Davey was humiliated time and time again by Howe's exploits. Signing himself as "The Governor of the Rangers" in letters to Davey, Howe threatened to set the colony on fire from end to end and Davey feared that there would be a general uprising of the convicts. Davey handed over his position to Governor William Sorell on 9 April 1817. Considerable grants of land were made to him, but he was not successful with them and he sailed to England from Sydney in August 1821, leaving his wife and daughter in Tasmania, he died on 2 May 1823. Davey was of a weakly, amiable nature, but much progress was made during his administration, including the designation of Hobart as a free port.
As lieutenant governor he had encouraged humane treatment of aborigines, strong action against bushranging. His limited official powers had a consequential and negative effect in his subsequent reputation, as did his poor choices of subordinate officials, his service is commemorated in the name of Port Davey in Tasmania, an inlet on the south west coast of Tasmania. Davey Street in Hobart is named in his honour. Richard Davey was a descendant. Governor Davey's John; the First Fleet Marines. University of Queensland Press. ISBN 0702220655. Serle, Percival. "Davey, Thomas". Dictionary of Australian Biography. Sydney: Angus and Robertson. Alexander, Alison, ed.. The Companion to Tasmanian History. Hobart, Tasmania: Centre for Tasmanian Historical Studies, University of Tasmania. ISBN 1-86295-223-X. OCLC 61888464. Robson, L. L.. A History of Tasmania. Volume I. Van Diemen's Land From the Earliest Times to 1855. Melbourne: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-554364-5