Norton Motorcycle Company
The Norton Motorcycle Company is a British motorcycle marque from Birmingham, UK. It was founded in 1898 as a manufacturer of "fittings and parts for the two-wheel trade". By 1902 the company had begun manufacturing motorcycles with bought-in engines. In 1908 a Norton-built engine was added to the range; this began a long series of production of single and twin-cylinder motorcycles, a long history of racing involvement. Production of the military Model 16 H and Big 4 sidevalve motorcycles was Norton's contribution to the WWII war effort 100,000 being manufactured; when major shareholders started to leave Norton in 1953 the company declined and Associated Motor Cycles bought the shares. Although motorcycle sales went through a recession in the 1950s, Norton Motors Ltd was only a small manufacturer, Norton sales flourished. A series of Norton Dominator Twins of 500 cc 600 cc 650 cc and the 750 cc Norton Atlas kept sales buoyant with sales to the United States. In 1968 the new 750 cc Norton Commando Model appeared, with the engine/gearbox/swingarm unit isolastically insulated from the frame with a series of rubber mountings.
This kept the vibrations from the rider. The Commando was a best seller, voted #1 Motorcycle of the Year a number of times in Britain. 850 cc models appeared for 1973. For 1975 an electric start arrived in the 850 Mk3; the largest UK motorcycle manufacturer at the time was BSA-Triumph, comprising Birmingham Small Arms Company in Birmingham, Triumph Motorcycles in Meriden. BSA-Triumph faced difficulties caused by poor management, outdated union practices, old-fashioned motorcycle designs and antiquated factory conditions. A merger with Norton Motorcycles was proposed; the Triumph factory Meriden was the least modern. Poore was CEO of Manganese Bronze Holdings, a company more concerned with asset stripping than with motorcycle production. Subsequent political manoeuvrings led to the downfall of NVT, as taxpayer-assisted wranglings over amalgamations and sell-offs all but killed the once extensive UK motorcycle industry. In late 2008 Stuart Garner, a UK businessman, bought the rights to Norton from some US concerns and relaunched Norton in its Midlands home at Donington Park where it will develop the 961cc Norton Commando, a new range of Norton motorcycles.
The original company was formed by James Lansdowne Norton at 320, Bradford Street, Birmingham, in 1898. In 1902 Norton began building motorcycles with Swiss engines. In 1907 a Norton ridden by Rem Fowler won the twin-cylinder class in the first Isle of Man TT race, beginning a sporting tradition that went on until the 1960s; the first Norton engines were made in 1907, with production models available from 1908. These were the 3.5 hp and the'Big 4', beginning a line of side-valve single-cylinder engines which continued with few changes until the late 1950s. The first Norton logo was a simple, art nouveau design, with the name spelled in capitals. However, a new logo appeared on the front of the catalogue for 1914, a joint effort by James Norton and his daughter Ethel, it became known as the "curly N" logo, with only the initial letter as a capital, was used by the company thereafter, first appearing on actual motorcycles in 1915. Ethel Norton did some testing of her father's motorcycles. In 1913 the business declined, R. T.
Shelley & Co. the main creditors and saved it. Norton Motors Ltd was formed shortly afterwards under joint directorship of James Norton and Bob Shelley. Shelley's brother-in-law was tuner Dan O'Donovan, he managed to set a significant number of records on the Norton by 1914 when the war broke out - and as competition motorcycling was suspended during the hosilities, these records still stood when production restarted after the war. 1914 Dan O'Donovan records set in April 1914: Under 500 cc flying km 81.06 mph, flying mile 78.60 mph - 490 cc Norton Under 750 cc flying km and flying mile see above Under 500 cc with sidecar flying km 65.65 mph, flying mile 62.07 mph - 490 cc Norton Under 750 cc with sidecar flying km and flying mile see aboveOn 17 July 1914 O'Donovan took the flying 5 mile record at 75.88 mph, the standing start 10 mile record at 73.29 mph, again on the 490 cc Norton. Norton continued production of their 3.5 hp and Big 4 singles well into the war period, though in November 1916 the Ministry of Munitions issued an order that no further work on motor cycles or cars would be allowed from 15 November 1916 without a permit.
By this time most motor cycle companies were either producing munitions, or devoted to the export trade. Norton were involved in exporting and earlier that year had announced a new'Colonial Model' of their 633cc Big 4; this featured an increase in ground clearance from 4.25" to 6.5", by altering the frame, larger tank, greater clearance on mudguards, a sturdy rear carrier. The engine was unaltered, transmission was via a Sturmey-Archer 3-speed gearbox. In February 1918 Motor Cycle reported on a visit to Norton Motors. Mr Norton had stated that he expected three post-war models, the 3.5 hp 490 cc TT with belt drive, two utility mounts, one with detuned TT engine, the other being the Big Four for heavy solo or sidecar work, both of these with three-speed Sturmey-Archer countershaft gearbox and all chain drive. It was stated that he had been experimenting with aluminium pistons, a
Imperial Brands plc Imperial Tobacco Group plc, is a British multinational tobacco company headquartered in Bristol, United Kingdom. It is the world’s fourth-largest international cigarette company measured by market share after Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco, Japan Tobacco, the world's largest producer of cigars, fine-cut tobacco, tobacco papers. Imperial Brands produces over 320 billion cigarettes per year, has 51 factories worldwide, its products are sold in over 160 countries, its brands include Davidoff, Gauloises Blondes, Golden Virginia and Rizla. Imperial Brands is a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index, it had a market capitalization around £24.3 billion as of 23 December 2011, the 19th-largest of any company with a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange. Imperial Tobacco Canada has no relationship to Imperial Tobacco Group plc. Imperial Tobacco Canada is the Canadian subsidiary of British American Tobacco; the Imperial Tobacco Company was created in 1901 through the amalgamation of 13 British tobacco and cigarette companies: W.
D. & H. O. Wills of Bristol, John Player & Sons of Nottingham, 11 other independent family businesses, which were in competition with companies from the United States by the American Tobacco Company. First W. D. & H. O. Wills of Bristol merged with Stephen Son of Glasgow. Subsequently, other smaller companies including Lambert & Butler, William Clarke & Son, Franklyn Davey, Edwards Ringer & Bigg, Hignett Brothers, Hignett's Tobacco, Adkins & Sons, Richmond Cavendish, D&J MacDoland, F&J Smith joined in the amalgamation. In 1904, James & Finlay Bell Ltd merged with Stephen Son; the Company's first chairman was Sir William Henry Wills, Bt. of the Wills Company. In 1902, the Imperial Tobacco Company and the American Tobacco Company agreed to form a joint venture: the British-American Tobacco Company Ltd; the parent companies agreed not to trade in each other's domestic territory and to assign trademarks, export businesses, overseas subsidiaries to the joint venture. It built the Imperial Tobacco Company Building at Mullins, South Carolina, between 1908 and 1913.
American Tobacco sold its share in 1911, but Imperial maintained an interest in British American Tobacco until 1980. In 1973, the Imperial Tobacco Company, having become diversified by acquisition of restaurant chains, food services and distribution businesses, changed its name to Imperial Group. In 1910, Imperial Tobacco formed the Imperial Tobacco Company of India. In 1985, the company acquired the Peoples Drugstore chain and all subsidiaries from A. C. Israel. In 1986 the Company was acquired by the conglomerate Hanson Trust plc for £2.5billion. Divestments during the period of ownership by Hanson included Courage Brewery to Elders, Golden Wonder to Dalgety, Finlays to Arunbhai J. Patel, the wholesaling arm of Sinclair & Collis to Palmer & Harvey, Imperial Hotels and Catering to Trust House Forte and Ross Frozen Foods to United Biscuits; this led to a dispute over pension payments to employees, as seen in Imperial Group Pension Trust Ltd v Imperial Tobacco Ltd. In 1996, following a decision to concentrate on core tobacco activities, Hanson de-merged Imperial and it was listed as an independent company on the UK stock exchange.
In 2003, Imperial acquired the world's fourth-largest tobacco company, Reemtsma Cigarettenfabriken GmbH of Germany: the deal added brands such as Davidoff, Peter Stuyvesant, West to its portfolio. In 2007, Imperial Tobacco entered the United States tobacco market with its $1.9-billion acquisition of Commonwealth Brands Inc. the fourth-largest tobacco company in the US. In February 2008, Imperial acquired the world's fifth-largest tobacco company, whose brands included Fortuna, Gauloises Blondes, Gitanes. A number of factory closures were subsequently announced, including the long-running cigar factory in Bristol. Following the Scottish Parliament's decision in January 2010 to ban the display of tobacco products in shops, as well as the availability of tobacco vending machines in public buildings with effect from autumn 2011, Imperial Tobacco attempted to challenge the change in the law on the grounds that regulations of the sale goods rested with the Houses of Parliament in Westminster. However, this case was dismissed on 30 September 2010 by Lord Bracadale in the Court of Session in Edinburgh.
In 2011, Altadis USA Inc. said it would add to its Fort Lauderdale, Florida and move Commonwealth Brands Inc. employees from Bowling Green, Kentucky. The company's name changed to Commonwealth-Altadis Inc. In 2013, Imperial opened a new global headquarters in Bristol. In April 2014, Imperial announced the closure of its long-running Horizon factory in Nottingham; the factory closed in 2016. On 15 July 2014, Reynolds American agreed to buy Greensboro, North Carolina-based Lorillard Tobacco Company, for $27.4 billion. The deal included the sale of the Kool, Winston and blu eCigs brands to Imperial for $7.1 billion. In November 2014, Imperial said Commonwealth-Altadis and the Lorillard operations being acquired would be called ITG Brands LLC; the deal with Lorillard was completed on 12 June 2015, as part of the deal, Greensboro became the location of the ITG headquarters. On 1 November 2018, ITG announced production would move from the former American Tobacco Company plant in Reidsville, North Carolina, built in 1892 and expanded, to Greensboro by 2020.
The plant made USA Gold, Sonoma, Mo
Association football trading card
An association football trading card is a type of trading card relating to association football printed on cardboard, silk, or plastic. These cards feature one or more players, stadiums, or trophies. Football cards are most found in Europe and South America; some notable producing companies include Panini Topps. The first football cards were produced in 1896 by the Marcus & Company Tobacco in Manchester, England; the set consisted of over 100 cards and was issued under the title of "Footballers & Club Colours". They featured illustrated images of players on the front of the card, a tobacco advertisement on the back of the card; the tobacco companies soon realised. Production of football cards spread over the United Kingdom. Other football sets issued at that time were released by other tobacco manufacturers such as Kinner, Ogden's, J. F. Bell, F. J. Smith, W. D. & H. O. Wills, Percy E. Cadle and Singleton & Cole. One of the first full-colour sets was released in 1906 by Ogden's; the set of cards depicted illustrations of footballers in their club shirts.
The set featured clubs Everton, Aston Villa, Wolverhampton Wanders, Newcastle United, Blackburn Rovers, Tottenham Hotspur, Sheffield United and Arsenal. The following year, Cohen Weenen published a similar series entitled "Football Club Captains"; this included captains of lower divisions teams of English football. Taddy & Company introduced the oval-shaped images on its cards, with the collection "Prominent Footballers" of 1907 that consisted of 595 cards. Other cards manufacturers were Churchman's cigarettes, that in 1914 launched an illustrated series featuring action pictures with individual portraits as inserts, Godfrey Phillips Ltd. and Lacey's. Argentina is the oldest producer of football cards in South America, when local tobacco company "Cigarrillos Monterrey" released a series about Primera División teams. Cards showed full-colors illustrations of players in their club colours. Another popular series was released in 1925 by "Cigarrillos Dólar", with hand-colored photographs of players and teams.
In 1926, another cigarettes brand, "Cigarrillos Plus Ultra", released a set of cards featuring photos of teams and players. Taking advantage of the rise popularity of football cards in the 1920s, Godfrey Phillips released collections in 1920, 1922 and 1923. Lacey's produce its own series of cards in 1925. Ogden's reintroduced the illustration in card with the "Captains of Association Football Clubs and Colours" series with paintings of players that captained in their respective clubs. Following the trend, John Player & Sons, produced three consecutive series of illustrated cards: the first in 1926 consisting in caricatures of notable players by R. P. Hill, another with caricatures by cartoonist George Douglas Machin in 1927, the last in 1928. In 1928, Gallaher published the "Football in Action" series, depicting illustrated scenes of matches in England. Another illustrated series by Player's came in 1934, "Hints on association football", it consisted of illustrations where some football movements were shown.
Gallaher released the series "Footballers in Action" in 1928. In 1930, Player's brought photograph to cards again with the series "Cup Winners", that homaged FA Cup winners teams of the past, although other companies continued printing illustrated cards in their new collections, such as Lambert & Butler and Carreras, Godfrey Phillips, Ardath, W. D. & H. O. Wills, Ogden's. Photographs returned with Churchman in 1938 and 1939; the outbreak of the Second World War caused a severe shortage of paper, tobacco companies were forced to bring an end to the production of cigarette cards. In the 1940s Argentine manufacturers introduced smaller, circular-shaped cards, such as "Figuritas Bicicleta" in 1949 that featured photos of footballers and illustrations of clubs' badges. Other companies that produced circular cards were "Starosta", "Lali" and "Sport" and "Gran Crack" in the 1950s, followed by "Deportito", "Fulbito", "Golazo" and "Campeón" in the 1960s. In 1967, "Figuritas Sport" collection introduced players' caricatures for the first time in Argentina.
Those were drawn by artist Jorge de los Ríos. De los Ríos' depictions of players would become a classic in football cards during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s; the breakthrough in Argentine card industry came in 1970 when the first metallic circular cards began to be marketed in the "Chapitas" album. They were promoted as "El golazo del año". Italian company Panini started to produce football cards in 1961, when the company released a collection set about Serie A. Since Panini has been producing football cards until consolidating as the world's leading manufacturer. In 1970 Panini began publishing L'manacco Illustrato del Calcio Italiano, after purchasing the rights from publishing house Carcano. Panini published its first FIFA World Cup sticker album for the 1970 World Cup in Mexico, in addition to using multilingual captions and selling stickers outside of Italy for the first time. Initiating a craze for collecting and trading
Andretti Autosport is an auto racing team that competes in the IndyCar Series, Indy Lights, the FIA Formula E Championship and the Americas Rallycross Championship. It is owned up by former CART series champion Michael Andretti. Andretti Autosport has won the Indianapolis 500 five times and the IndyCar Series championship four times; the team has won the Indy Lights championship in 2008, 2009 and 2018. Additionally the team has won the GRC Championship with Scott Speed in 2015, 2016 and 2017. During the team's early formative years as Team Green, they won both the Indianapolis 500 and CART Championship in 1995; the team was founded in 1993 by Gerald Forsythe as Forsythe Green Racing. Forsythe had competed in the CART series during the early 1980s under the Forsythe Racing banner, had achieved moderate success; the new team fielded two Atlantics entries for Claude Bourbonnais and Jacques Villeneuve during the 1993 season. In 1994, the team moved up to the CART series with Villeneuve as driver; the team scored a second place at the 1994 Indianapolis 500 and Villeneuve won one race as a rookie in the season at Road America.
For 1995, Green and Forsythe parted ways, Barry Green renamed the outfit Team Green, with his brother Kim Green joining as team manager. The team won the 1995 Indianapolis 1995 CART championship with driver Jacques Villeneuve. In 1996, the team became known as the Brahma Sports Team with driver Raul Boesel. In 1997, Parker Johnstone took over the seat, KOOL cigarettes came on board as major sponsor; the team became known as Team KOOL Green, expanded to a two-car effort in 1998 with Paul Tracy and rising star Dario Franchitti. The two stayed on as teammates for five seasons. In 2001, Michael Andretti joined the organization as a satellite team headed by Kim Green, known as Team Motorola. In addition to running the CART schedule, Andretti entered the 2001 Indianapolis 500. Andretti and Green competed at Indy for the first time after a five-year absence, due to the ongoing open wheel "split." Andretti won his last race as a driver at the 2002 Grand Prix of Long Beach. In 2002, the team switched from Reynard to Lola chassis, producing a striking new livery to coincide with the change.
In 2002, both Tracy and Franchitti joined Andretti to race at the Indianapolis 500. Due to the MSA, primary sponsor KOOL could not appear on the cars, associate sponsor 7-Eleven was on the sidepods instead. Tracy placed second in a controversial finish; the team protested the results, a lengthy and contentious appeals process dragged on into the summer. Green lost the appeal, to considerable disappointment and at considerable expense. After major problems in CART surfaced, who had purchased majority interest in the team, switched the newly renamed Andretti Green Racing in 2003 to the rival IndyCar Series. Tracy left the team to stay in the Champ Car World Series, with Tony Kanaan joining Franchitti and Andretti. Andretti retired after the 2003 Indianapolis 500, Dan Wheldon took his place. AGR ran four cars since the beginning of 2004, with Bryan Herta behind the wheel of the additional car. At the 2005 Grand Prix of St. Petersburg, AGR had all 4 drivers finishing 2nd, 3rd and 4th. Kanaan and Wheldon won consecutive IndyCar Series Championships in 2004 and 2005, with Wheldon winning the 2005 Indianapolis 500.
Andretti referred to the win as his own, as good as if he had won it as a driver, because of the nuances of car ownership and building his own team. Wheldon's championship was his only one before free agency, joining Target Chip Ganassi Racing in 2006, he was replaced by Marco Andretti. Michael Andretti came out of retirement to qualify for the 2006 Indianapolis 500 to race with his son; the Andrettis finished second and third in "the 500" with Marco being passed just prior to the finish by Sam Hornish, Jr. in the second closest finish in race history. From 2001 to 2010, the team had seen at least one of their drivers finish within the top three at the race, it was announced on July 25, 2006, that Danica Patrick would join the team for the 2007 IndyCar Series season to replace Herta, being transferred to AGR's new American Le Mans Series Acura LMP2 effort. In October 2007, after winning the 2007 Indianapolis 500 and 2007 Indy Racing League championship, Franchitti announced his departure from the team to pursue a full-time career in the NASCAR Sprint Cup with Chip Ganassi Racing.
That month, Hideki Mutoh was announced as his replacement in the 27 car. Mutoh was the runner up in the 2007 Indy Pro Series season; the 2008 IndyCar driver lineup returned to the team in 2009. However, for the first time since 2003, the team failed to win a race. Danica Patrick was the team's leading driver finishing 5th in points. Kanaan finished 6th with three podium finishes; the team repeated this time with American driver J. R. Hildebrand. On September 25, 2009, the Indianapolis Star reported that Danica Patrick had signed a contract to stay with Andretti Green and the IndyCar Series through 2012. On November 24, 2009, Andretti Green Racing announced that the team restructuring was complete, the team would be renamed Andretti Autosport with Michael Andretti as the sole owner, it was announced on January 4, 2010 that Ryan Hunter-Reay would join the team, replacing Hideki Mutoh. Hunter-Reay earned the team its first victory since 2008 by winning the Grand Prix of Long Beach. Kanaan picked up the team's second win of the season at Iowa.
Kanaan and Hunter-Reay led the team in the points standings, finishing 7th. Following the 2010 season, veteran driver Tony Kanaan w
Jim Richards (racing driver)
Jim Richards is a New Zealand racing driver who won numerous championships in his home country and in Australia. While now retired from professional racing, Richards continues to compete in the Touring Car Masters series, he was inducted into the New Zealand Motor-racing Hall of Fame in 1994 After a record number of starts and seven victories in the Bathurst 1000, four Australian Touring Car Championships, Richards was inducted into the V8 Supercars Hall of Fame in 2006 and the Australian Motorsports Hall of Fame in 2015. He is the father of racing driver Steven Richards, between them they have achieved 11 Bathurst 1000 wins, most in 2015. Jim Richards grew up in South Auckland, he left school at 16 to start a mechanic's apprenticeship at Speedway Auto Services in Manurewa owned by Brian Yates, a top midget-racer in New Zealand. By Richards had been successful in junior go-karts in a kart made by his father. At 18 he bought his first car, on hire-purchase, a Ford Anglia 105E, a car known for mechanical reliability that he could get into racing and still drive to work.
He was last in his first race, at Pukekohe, crashed after the end of the race. Painted in distinctive red with yellow trim and the number ‘105’, which became synonymous with his cars in NZ racing, he used the car for two seasons throughout the country, in race meetings, hill-climbs and rally-sprints, he upgraded to a race-proven and more modified Anglia, his first proper racing-car. In 1968, when working as a mechanic at Barry Pointon Motors, he bought one of the newly released 1300cc Mark I Ford Escorts; the car was underpowered but it further allowed Richards to improve his race-craft. In 1969 the patronage of amateur racer and fellow competitor, Jim Carney, allowed him to upgrade to his first competitive car, a Ford Escort with a new high-performance 1600cc BDA twin-cam engine, capable of 140 bhp; the combination of Richards as driver and mechanic Carney with the funding, Murray Bunn with reconditioning and tuning expertise, started to produce a number of victories. In 1970 Carney purchased the Ford Escort TC that Mike Crabtree had raced in that year's British Touring Car Championship for the John Willment Group and this car established Richards as a top racer.
Rushed straight off the boat, still in its original livery, he won with it first time out and went on to win the class championship that year, again in the following 1971-72 season. By now in popular demand, he would also race the Escort in the open-class as well, taking on and beating the V8 Mustangs and Firebirds, he would enter his tow-car, a Holden Monaro, in production races, as well as racing in the small class with a Hillman Imp owned by local driver Brian Patrick. It was the latter partnership that first got the sponsorship of the NZ division of Sidchrome – an Australian tool manufacturer – the major financial connection for the next decade. During this time, as in neighbouring Australia, big-engine production car racing was entering a golden age and drawing big crowds. Competitive cars included, from Holden, the HQ Monaro, new Torana GTR XU-1. Richards raced a Monaro for major Auckland car-dealer Jerry Clayton. In 1971 he was battling with Robbie Francevic in the Team McMillan Ford Falcon GT-HO.
In the next season's Castrol GTX Championship the two drivers swapped teams. Richards won the 72-73 championship in the Team McMillan GT-HO, with Murray Bunn still doing the engine-preparation. In the following season, his main competition would be from Neville Crichton in a 350 Monaro. For the 73-74 season and Carney had arranged to buy the John Fitzpatrick Ford Escort competing in the British championship to take on the big V8s. However, it was wrecked in the one of the last races and the deal fell through. Instead he and Murray Bunn set up building up a Ford Mustang at a remote farmstead out of Auckland. Sponsored by Sidchrome in red and yellow, it was fitted with the hitherto unreliable, but powerful, Cleveland 351 V8 engine and extra-wide rear tyres. Unsuccessful, after its teething troubles were resolved it was impressive enough to win Richards the 73-74 Saloon Car Championship. Changing jobs to work for Sidchrome gave Richards time during the week to work on the car during the next season.
In an exciting and close 74-75 championship he was narrowly pipped for the championship by Paul Fahey in his ex-European works Ford Capri Cologne V6. Richards was having success in endurance racing; the traditional season opener in October was the Benson & Hedges 500 – a 500-mile / 6-hour race run into the night for stock-standard production cars. He won the event in both 1971 and 1972 co-driving with friend and racing rival, Rod Coppins, in a Chrysler Charger; when Coppins wanted to upgrade his choice of car for the 74-75 racing season he decided to pick up a new Holden Torana L34 from the factory in Melbourne. Together he and Jim took it to the 1974 Hardie-Ferodo 1000 for its first race. Racing regulations were moving closer to the Australian Group C rules at the time and marked the demise of the standard production-car racing. Driving a McMillan-Ford Falcon XA in the 74-75 GTX season Richards was unbeatable, winning an unprecedented 17 consecutive wins, his final two races were in the 1975 winter-season co-driving Neville Crichton's Chevrolet Camaro with a win in his last race in New Zealand for some time.
From early in his racing career he had tried rallying, as the schedules did not conflict with the track-racing season. One of the first formal racing rallies in New Zealand was the 1968 Shell Silver Fern Rally. Richar
Australian Touring Car Championship
The Australian Touring Car Championship is a touring car racing award held in Australia since 1960. The series itself is no longer contested, but the title lives on, with the winner of the Virgin Australia Supercars Championship awarded the trophy and title of Australian Touring Car Champion; the first Australian Touring Car Championship was held in 1960 as a single race for Appendix J Touring Cars. This was an acknowledgement of the rising popularity of races held for passenger sedans as opposed to the more purpose built open wheel racing cars, or sports cars; the original race was held at the Gnoo Blas Motor Racing Circuit in Orange in rural New South Wales, west of Sydney. The original race was won by journalist racer, David McKay racing a Jaguar saloon prepared by his own racing team, which to this point had been better known for its preparation of open wheel and sports racing cars; the early years of the ATCC saw the once a year event visit rural circuits, before visiting a major city circuit, Lakeside Raceway on the outskirts of Brisbane in 1964.
This race was the first not won by a Jaguar saloon with Ian Geoghegan driving a Ford Cortina winning the first of his five titles. From 1965 the title would be won by an American V8 powered muscle car, most notably the Ford Mustang which would win five consecutive titles in 1965 and 1966–69; the first championship victory by the driver of an Australian car was that of Beechey in 1970 driving a Holden HT Monaro GTS350. As of 4 December 2011 Jamie Whincup & Norm Beechey are the only two people to have won the championship in both a Ford and a Holden in history of the ATCC and V8 Supercars Championship Series; the 1971 and 1972 championships were won by 1962 and 1963 champion Bob Jane who drove a 7.0 litre Chevrolet Camaro ZL-1 in 1971 before CAMS rule changes forced Jane to use the smaller 5.7 litre 350 Chevrolet in the Camaro in 1972. A major shift occurred in 1973; the championship had blossomed from a single race into a multi-event series in 1969, but the competition had not changed markedly.
The'Supercar scare' that had rocked the buildup to 1972 Bathurst 500 forced sweeping changes through touring car regulations. The Improved Touring Car regulations which governed the ATCC, known at the time as Group C were amalgamated with the more basic Group E Series Production Touring Cars regulations which governed the Bathurst touring car endurance race in a compromise between the two, creating a single class for touring car racing that would hold sway of Australian Touring Car racing until the introduction of Group A in 1985; this period saw a rise in the tribal style conflicts between Holden and Ford and in particular the two marques leading drivers Peter Brock and Allan Moffat who between them would claim seven of the eras 12 championships. By the mid-1980s Group C had become wracked with infighting and random parity adjustments between competing marques. Attention focussed purely on Holden and Ford had blurred as European and Japanese manufacturers joined the Australian agents of the two big American companies, the trend starting in 1981 with BMW, Mazda and Nissan.
The international Group A regulations that utilised by European and Japanese touring car series came into full effect in Australia from 1985 and allowed the international manufacturers to compete on equal terms. Holden was forced into catchup phase and all but backed out of the sport in 1992 after Group A had been dominated by more track focused production cars such as the turbocharged Ford Sierra RS500 and various Nissan Skylines, as well as the BMW M3. By the mid-1980s, a number of the leading teams including the Holden Dealer Team, Dick Johnson Racing, JPS Team BMW and the Peter Jackson Nissan team had begun to make a lot of noise about the little amount of prize money on offer for their efforts in criss-crossing the country in pursuit of the title. In 1984, the final year of the Group C rules, it was estimated that the Brisbane based Johnson team had covered some 20,000 km in travelling to and from championship meetings for as little as AU$1,500 for a win; when CAMS increased the title to 10 rounds in 1986, with little change to the prize money, the teams were threatening that the ATCC would see smaller and smaller grids unless CAMS found a series sponsor.
The sponsor, found was oil giant Shell who put up some $275,000 worth of prize money from the 1987 ATCC, ensuring the long term future of the series. 1992 saw the unhappy demise of Group A and with the international touring car scene fragmenting in several directions Australia forged its own path evolving the Group A specification Holden Commodores and re-introducing the Ford Falcon into the new Group 3A regulations that would be renamed as V8 Supercar. The ATCC continued to be used until the end of the 1998 season, after which V8 Supercar organisers altered the name of the series adopting its present identity, the V8 Supercars Championship. Accurate to the 2015 Coates Hire Sydney 500. Current full-time drivers are highlighted in bold text. V8 Supercars List of Australian Touring Car and V8 Supercar champions List of Australian Touring Car Championship races
The Norton Commando was a British Norton-Villiers motorcycle with an OHV pre-unit parallel-twin engine, produced by the Norton Motorcycle company from 1967 until 1977. Having a nominal 750 cc displacement 745 cc, in 1973 it became an 850 cc 828 cc, it had similar to all OHV Norton engines since the early 1920s. During its ten years of production, the Commando was popular all over the world. In the United Kingdom it won the Motor Cycle News "Machine of the Year" award for five successive years from 1968-1972. Given that its engine was an old pre-unit design Norton's chairman, Dennis Poore, expressed surprise at the Commando's remarkable success; the origins of the Norton Commando can be traced back to the late 1940s when the 497 cc Norton Model 7 Twin was designed by Bert Hopwood. The twin-cylinder design evolved into 600 cc the 650 cc Manxman and Dominator until superseded by 750 cc Atlas before being launched as the 750 cc Commando in 1967; as well as having a radical new frame, the Commando's engine was tilted forward.
This was easy as the engine was "pre-unit", that is, the gearbox was not integral with the crankcase, the change gave three benefits: the centre of gravity was moved further forward. The revolutionary part of the Commando, compared to earlier Norton models, was the award-winning frame developed by former Rolls-Royce engineer Dr. Stefan Bauer, he believed the classic Norton Featherbed frame design went against all engineering principles, so Bauer designed his frame around a single 2.25 in top tube. Bauer tried to free the Commando from classic twin vibration problems, which had increased as the volume of the basic engine design expanded from the 500 cc of Edward Turner's 1938 Triumph Speed Twin. He, with Norton-Villiers Chief Engineer Bernard Hooper and assistant Bob Trigg, decided that the engine and swing-arm assembly were to be bolted together and isolated from the frame by special rubber mountings; this eliminated the extreme vibration problems that were apparent in other models in the range, as it separated the rider from the engine.
Named the Isolastic anti-vibration system, the system's patent document listed Hooper as the lead inventor. Although the Isolastic system did reduce vibration, maintaining the required free play in the engine mountings at the correct level was crucial to its success. Too little play brought the vibration back; the Norton Commando was introduced in 1967 at the Earls Court Show. The first production machines completed in April 1968 had frame failure problems, which were resolved with the introduction of an improved frame in January 1969. There were numerous other design problems which were addressed over the years, although some persisted to the end; the early clutches could not handle the engine torque, two small internal pins would shear off, leading to severe slippage. The side-stand tended to break off if the owner insisted on starting the machine on the side-stand, leaving a hole in the frame beneath the engine, while the center-stand was too short to provide good support for the motorcycle, dragged on the pavement, tended to break in half.
The engine rubber mounting system, which isolated the rider from vibration well, left the engine to its own devices, it shook like a commercial paint can shaker at idle. The rocker arm oil supply pipe was steel, would fracture from vibration; the head steady would fatigue and fracture from vibration. The Amal carbs had float needle leakage from vibration, which led to flooding and fires, exacerbated by having the ignition points located under the right hand carb, and the carburetors wore out prematurely from vibration. The main bearings were of two types at first and roller. In 1972 both bearings became roller-type, the crankcase was stiffened; these main roller bearings in the now stiffer case would gall at high revs, leading to main bearing failure The threaded aluminum knobs holding the seat would strip, leaving the seat loose. The chain guard mount; the exhaust pipe manifold nuts were problematic to the end, loosening from vibration no matter how they were fastened, leading to a ruined cylinder head and constant rattling of the header pipes.
The brake light switches were unreliable. The steering head bearings were ball-type, took a permanent set under the bearing pre-load, leading to weaving at speed. There was a rear chain oiler which covered the rear wheel in oil, had to be pinched off by the owner; the speedometer drive mechanism operated with a long cable to the speedometer. This drive mechanism wore out quickly, as did any replacement, leading to no speedometer reading; the early tachometer drive jutted from the right side of the engine, was vulnerable to being struck and snapped off. The primary chain tensioning bolt tended to loosen at inconvenient times; the rear chain adjusting bolts pushed, rather than pulled, the rear axle, would bend, making them difficult to turn. Nor were there index marks to allow equal axle positioning on the right a