Paul Wayland Bartlett
Paul Wayland Bartlett was an American sculptor working in the Beaux-Arts tradition of heroic realism. He was born in New Haven, the son of Truman Howe Bartlett, when fifteen he began to study in Paris under Emmanuel Frémiet, modelling from animals in the Jardin des Plantes. He was twenty-nine when the Cross of a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor was bestowed upon him, bartletts masterwork was the House of Representatives pediment at the U. S. Capitol building, The Apotheosis of Democracy, begun in 1908 and completed in 1916. His bronze patinas of reptiles and fish, several of which are in the collection of the Berkshire Museum, are remarkable, in 1895, he was named a Chevalier of the French Legion of Honor. In 1916 he was admitted to the American Academy of Arts and he was a member of the National Sculpture Society and the International Society of Sculptors and Gravers. A retrospective exbition was held after his death, Paul Wayland Bartlett, Musée de lOrangerie, eternal Light Flagstaff Attribution Chisholm, Hugh, ed.
Bartlett, Paul Wayland
Americans are citizens of the United States of America. The country is home to people of different national origins. As a result, Americans do not equate their nationality with ethnicity, although citizens make up the majority of Americans, non-citizen residents, dual citizens, and expatriates may claim an American identity. See Names for United States citizens. S, virgin Islands and Northern Mariana Islands in the 20th century. It includes influences of African-American culture, westward expansion integrated the Creoles and Cajuns of Louisiana and the Hispanos of the Southwest and brought close contact with the culture of Mexico. Large-scale immigration in the late 19th and early 20th centuries from Southern and Eastern Europe introduced a variety of elements, immigration from Asia and Latin America has had impact. A cultural melting pot, or pluralistic salad bowl, describes the way in which generations of Americans have celebrated and exchanged distinctive cultural characteristics, in addition to the United States and people of American descent can be found internationally.
As many as seven million Americans are estimated to be living abroad, the United States of America is a diverse country and ethnically. Some other race is an option in the census and other surveys, people of European descent, or White Americans, constitute the majority of the 308 million people living in the United States, with 72. 4% of the population in the 2010 United States Census. They are considered people who trace their ancestry to the peoples of Europe, the Middle East. Of those reporting to be White American,7,487,133 reported to be Multiracial, with largest combination being white, there are 29,184,290 White Hispanics or Latinos. Non-Hispanic Whites are the majority in 46 states, there are four minority-majority states, Texas, New Mexico, and Hawaii. In addition, the District of Columbia has a non-white majority, the state with the highest percentage of non-Hispanic White Americans is Maine. The largest continental ancestral group of Americans are that of Europeans who have origins in any of the peoples of Europe.
This includes people via African, North American, Central American or South American and Oceanian nations that have a large European diaspora, the Spanish were the first Europeans to establish a continuous presence in what is now the United States. Martín de Argüelles born 1566, San Agustín, La Florida, was the first person of European descent born in what is now the United States. Twenty-one years later, Virginia Dare born 1587 Roanoke Island in present-day North Carolina, was the first child born in the Thirteen Colonies to English parents. 8% of the total population, Hispanic or Latino Americans constitute the largest ethnic minority in the United States. They form the second largest group after non-Hispanic Whites in the United States, hispanic/Latino Americans are very racially diverse, and as a result form an ethnic category, rather than a race
The Ether Monument, known as The Good Samaritan, is a statue and fountain near the northwest corner of Bostons Public Garden, near the intersection of Arlington Street and Marlborough Street. It commemorates the use of ether in anesthesia and its design has been attributed to the Boston architect William Robert Ware and to the sculptor John Quincy Adams Ward. It is 40 feet tall and is the oldest monument in the public garden, the statue depicts a medical doctor in medieval Moorish-Spanish robe and turban—representing a Good Samaritan—who holds the drooping body of an almost naked man on his left knee. The doctor holds in his hand a cloth, suggesting the use of ether that would be developed in centuries to come. A handful of individuals had claimed credit for the discovery of anesthesia, most notably WTG Morton, at the base of the statue are inscriptions explaining the significance of the discovery of the use of ether as an anesthetic. The operating theater at MGH where the experiment took place was renamed the Ether Dome and it is now a National Historic Landmark.
Several books have been written about this specific event, the monument was restored and rededicated in 2006. As an outdoor monument in an area with a harsh climate, one source of revenue for upkeep of the monument has been income from R. A
New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange, is an American stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York. It is by far the worlds largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its companies at US$19.3 trillion as of June 2016. The average daily trading value was approximately US$169 billion in 2013, the NYSE trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street and is composed of 21 rooms used for the facilitation of trading. A fifth trading room, located at 30 Broad Street, was closed in February 2007, the main building and the 11 Wall Street building were designated National Historic Landmarks in 1978. The NYSE is owned by Intercontinental Exchange, an American holding company that it lists, previously, it was part of NYSE Euronext, which was formed by the NYSEs 2007 merger with Euronext. NYSE and Euronext now operate as divisions of Intercontinental Exchange, the NYSE has been the subject of several lawsuits regarding fraud or breach of duty and in 2004 was sued by its former CEO for breach of contract and defamation.
The earliest recorded organization of securities trading in New York among brokers directly dealing with each other can be traced to the Buttonwood Agreement, previously securities exchange had been intermediated by the auctioneers who conducted more mundane auctions of commodities such as wheat and tobacco. In 1817 the stockbrokers of New York operating under the Buttonwood Agreement instituted new reforms, after sending a delegation to Philadelphia to observe the organization of their board of brokers, restrictions on manipulative trading were adopted as well as formal organs of governance. Several locations were used between 1817 and 1865, when the present location was adopted, the invention of the electrical telegraph consolidated markets, and New Yorks market rose to dominance over Philadelphia after weathering some market panics better than other alternatives. The Civil War greatly stimulated speculative securities trading in New York, by 1869 membership had to be capped, and has been sporadically increased since.
The latter half of the century saw rapid growth in securities trading. Securities trade in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries was prone to panics. The Stock Exchange Luncheon Club was situated on the floor from 1898 until its closure in 2006. The main building, located at 18 Broad Street, between the corners of Wall Street and Exchange Place, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978, as was the 11 Wall Street building. The NYSE announced its plans to merge with Archipelago on April 21,2005, NYSEs governing board voted to merge with rival Archipelago on December 6,2005, and became a for-profit, public company. It began trading under the name NYSE Group on March 8,2006, Wall Street is the leading US money center for international financial activities and the foremost US location for the conduct of wholesale financial services. It comprises a matrix of wholesale financial sectors, financial markets, financial institutions, the principal sectors are securities industry, commercial banking, asset management, and insurance.
Prior to the acquisition of NYSE Euronext by the ICE in 2013, Marsh Carter was the Chairman of the NYSE, the chairman is Jeffrey Sprecher
Henry Kirke Brown
Henry Kirke Brown was an American sculptor. He spent four years in Italy, but returning to New York he wanted to ensure he remained distinctively American and he bemoaned the fact that so many of the early American sculptors were dominated by Italian influence. Even so, his work combines American subject matter with the style of the Italian masters, in 1847, Brown was elected into the National Academy of Design as an Associate member, and became a full member in 1851. The New York Times remarked that the DeWitt Clinton was the first American full-length sculpture cast in a single piece and his nephew and adopted son, Henry Kirke Bush-Brown, was a sculptor and pupil of Browns
John F. Reynolds
John Fulton Reynolds was a career United States Army officer and a general in the American Civil War. One of the Union Armys most respected senior commanders, he played a key role in committing the Army of the Potomac to the Battle of Gettysburg and was killed at the start of the battle. Reynolds was born in Lancaster, one of nine surviving children of John Reynolds, two of his brothers were James LeFevre Reynolds, Quartermaster General of Pennsylvania, and Rear Admiral Will Reynolds. Prior to his training, Reynolds studied in nearby Lititz. Next he attended a school in Long Green, Reynolds was nominated to the United States Military Academy in 1837 by Senator James Buchanan, a family friend, and graduated 26th of 50 cadets in the class of 1841. He was commissioned a second lieutenant in the 3rd U. S. Artillery. From 1842 to 1845 he was assigned to St. Augustine, during the war, he became friends with fellow officers Winfield Scott Hancock and Lewis A. Armistead. On his return from Mexico, Reynolds was assigned to Fort Preble, New Orleans and Fort Lafayette, New York.
He was next sent west to Fort Orford, Oregon, in 1855, and participated in the Rogue River Wars of 1856 and the Utah War with the Mormons in 1857-58. He was the Commandant of Cadets at West Point from September 1860 to June 1861, while serving as an instructor of artillery, cavalry. During his return from the West, Reynolds became engaged to Katherine May Hewitt, soon after the start of the Civil War, Reynolds was offered the position as aide-de-camp to Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott, but declined. While in transit, his orders were changed to report to Cape Hatteras Inlet, Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan intervened with the Secretary of War to get his orders changed once again, assigning him to the newly formed Army of the Potomac. His first assignment was with a board that examined the qualifications of volunteer officers, as McClellans army moved up the Virginia Peninsula in the 1862 Peninsula Campaign, Reynolds occupied and became military governor of Fredericksburg, Virginia. His brigade was ordered to join the V Corps at Mechanicsville.
The Confederate attack continued on June 27 and Reynolds, exhausted from the Battle of Gaines Mill, thinking he was in a place of relative safety, he fell asleep and was not aware that his retreating troops left him behind. He was extremely embarrassed when brought before the Confederate general of the troops, D. H. Hill was an Army friend. Hill allegedly told him, Reynolds, do not feel so bad about your capture, Reynolds was transported to Richmond and held at Libby Prison, but was quickly exchanged on August 15. Upon his return, Reynolds was given command of the Pennsylvania Reserves Division, whose commander, the V Corps joined the Army of Virginia, under Maj. Gen. John Pope, at Manassas
University of Vermont
The University of Vermont, officially The University of Vermont and State Agricultural College, is a public research university and, since 1862, the U. S. state of Vermonts sole land-grant university. Founded in 1791, UVM is among the oldest universities in the United States and is the institution of higher education established in the New England region of the U. S. northeast. It is listed as one of the original eight Public Ivy institutions in the United States, the university is incorporated in the city of Burlington–Vermonts most populous municipality. The campus Dudley H. Davis Center was the first student center in the country to receive a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design Gold certification. The largest hospital complex in Vermont, the University of Vermont Medical Center, has its facility on the UVM campus and is affiliated with the Robert Larner College of Medicine. The University of Vermont was founded as a university in 1791. The university enrolled its first students 10 years and its first president, the Rev.
Daniel C. Sanders, was hired in 1800, and served as the faculty member for seven years. Instruction began in 1801, and the first class graduated in 1804, in 1865, the university merged with Vermont Agricultural College, emerging as the University of Vermont and State Agricultural College. Much of the funding and planning for the university was undertaken by Ira Allen. Allen donated a 50-acre parcel of land for the universitys establishment, most of this land has been maintained as the universitys main green, upon which stands a statue of Allen. The citizens of Burlington helped fund the universitys first edifice and this building came to be known as Old Mill for its resemblance to New England mills of the time. The Marquis de Lafayette, a French general who became a commander in the American Revolution, a statue of Lafayette stands at the north end of the main green. In 1871, UVM defied custom and admitted two women as students, Four years later, it was the first American university to admit women to full membership into the Phi Beta Kappa Society, the countrys oldest collegiate academic honor society.
Likewise, in 1877, it initiated the first African American into the society, in 1924, the first radio broadcast in Vermont occurred from the college station, WCAX, run by students then, now the call sign of a commercial television station. For 73 years, UVM held an annual Kake Walk where students wore blackface, the University of Vermont comprises seven undergraduate schools, an honors college, a graduate college, and a college of medicine. The Honors College does not offer its own degrees, students in the Honors College concurrently enroll in one of the seven undergraduate colleges or schools. UVM is ranked tied for 92nd in U. S. News & World Reports 2017 national university rankings, and is ranked tied for 38th among public universities
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
Public Garden (Boston)
The Public Garden, known as Boston Public Garden, is a large park in the heart of Boston, adjacent to Boston Common. Bostons Back Bay, including the land the garden sits on, was mudflats until filling began in the early 1800s, the land of the Public Garden was the earliest filled, as the area that is now Charles Street had been used as a ropewalk since 1796. The town of Boston granted ropemakers use of the land on July 30,1794, as a condition of its use, the ropewalks proprietors were required to build a seawall and fill in the land which is now Charles Street and the land immediately bordering it. Much of the material came from Mount Vernon, formerly a hill in the Beacon Hill area of Boston. Initially and dirt were brought from the hill to the area by handcart. In February 1824, the city of Boston purchased back the granted to the ropemakers. The next year, a proposal to turn the land into a graveyard was defeated by a vote of 1632 to 176, the Public Garden was established in 1837, when philanthropist Horace Gray petitioned for the use of land as the first public botanical garden in the United States.
By 1839, a corporation was formed, called Horace Gray and Associates, the corporation was chartered with creating what is now the Boston Public Garden. Nonetheless, there was constant pressure for the land to be sold to private interests for the construction of new housing, while most of the land of the present-day garden had been filled in by the mid-1800s, the area of the Back Bay remained an undeveloped tidal basin. The City of Boston petitioned the state to grant control over the basin, in hopes of generating significant revenue from any developments that would be built after filling it in. In the agreement, Boston gave up its rights to build upon the Public Garden, in return, it received a strip of land which is now a part of the garden, abutting Arlington Street. In October 1859, Alderman Crane submitted the plan for the Garden to the Committee on the Common and Public Squares. Construction began quickly on the property, with the pond being finished that year, today the north side of the pond has a small island, but it originally was a peninsula, connected to the land.
The site became so popular with lovers that John Galvin, the city forester, the 24 acres landscape was designed by George F. Meacham. The paths and flower beds were laid out by the city engineer, James Slade, the plan for the garden included a number of fountains and statues, many of which were erected in the late 1860s. The most notable statue is perhaps that of George Washington, done in 1869 by Thomas Ball, the signature suspension bridge over the middle of the pond was erected in 1869. Gas lamps were used to light the garden at night. A flagpole stands today on the side of the garden, close to Charles Street
Union Square, Manhattan
The park is under the aegis of the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation. Adjacent neighborhoods are the Flatiron District to the north, Chelsea to the west, Greenwich Village to the southwest, East Village to the southeast, many buildings of The New School are near the square, as are several dormitories of New York University. It features a wall sculpture and digital clock expelling bursts of steam. Among the heterogeneous assortment of buildings along the west side is the Decker Building, Union Square is noted for its impressive equestrian statue of U. S. A statue of Mahatma Gandhi in the southwest corner of the park was added in 1986, the 14th Street – Union Square New York City Subway station, served by the 456 <6> L N Q R W trains, is located under Union Square. In 1815, by act of the legislature, this former potters field became a public commons for the city. Ruggles obtained a lease on most of the surrounding lots from 15th to 19th Streets. In 1834 he convinced the Board of Aldermen to enclose and grade the square, sold most of his leases, a fountain was built in the center of Union Square to receive water from the Croton Aqueduct, completed in 1842.
The Everett House on the corner of 17th Street and Fourth Avenue was for one of the citys most fashionable hotels. In the early years of the park a fence surrounded the central oval planted with radiating walks lined with trees. In 1872, Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux were called in to replant the park, the last of the neighborhoods free-standing private mansions, Peter Goelets at the northeast corner of 19th Street, made way for a commercial building in 1897. The Rialto, New York Citys first commercial district, was located in. It was called the Rialto after the district in Venice. The theater district gradually re-located northward, into less expensive and undeveloped uptown neighborhoods, suppliers of props, wigs and other theatrical necessities grew up around the new theatres. The park has historically been the start or the end point for political demonstrations. In the summer of 1864 the north side of the square was the site of a Sanitary Fair, Union Square has been a frequent gathering point for radicals of all stripes to make speeches or demonstrate.
On September 5,1882, in the first Labor Day celebration, on March 28,1908, an anarchist set off a bomb in Union Square which only killed himself and another man. On August 21,1893, Emma Goldman took the stage at Union Square to make her Free Bread speech to a crowd of overworked garment workers
It was where the United States Bill of Rights was introduced in the First Congress. The building was demolished in 1812, Federal Hall National Memorial was built in 1842 as the United States Custom House, on the site of the old Federal Hall on Wall Street, and served as a sub-Treasury building. It is now operated by the National Park Service as a memorial commemorating the historic events that occurred there. The original structure on the site was built as New Yorks second City Hall in 1699 -1703, on Wall Street, in 1735, John Peter Zenger, an American newspaper publisher, was arrested for committing libel against the British royal governor and was imprisoned and tried there. His acquittal on the grounds that the material he had printed was true established freedom of the press as it was defined in the Bill of Rights. In October 1765, delegates from nine of the 13 colonies met as the Stamp Act Congress in response to the levying of the Stamp Act by the Parliament of Great Britain. After the American Revolution, the City Hall served as the place for the Congress of the Confederation of the United States under the Articles of Confederation.
In 1788, the building was remodeled and enlarged under the direction of Pierre Charles LEnfant and this was the first example of Federal Style architecture in the United States. It was renamed Federal Hall when it became the first Capitol of the United States under the Constitution in 1789 and he was inaugurated on the balcony of the building on April 30,1789. Many of the most important legislative actions in the United States occurred with the 1st Congress at Federal Hall, part of the original railing and balcony floor where Washington was inaugurated are on display in the memorial. The current structure, one of the best surviving examples of architecture in New York, was built as the first purpose-built U. S. Custom House for the Port of New York, designed by John Frazee, it was constructed of Tuckahoe marble and took more than a decade to complete. In 1862, Customs moved to 55 Wall Street and the served as one of six United States Sub-Treasury locations. Millions of dollars of gold and silver were kept in the basement vaults until the Federal Reserve Bank replaced the Sub-Treasury system in 1920.
In 1882, John Quincy Adams Wards bronze George Washington statue was erected on its front steps, in 1920, a bomb was detonated across the street from Federal Hall at 23 Wall Street, in what became known as the Wall Street bombing. Thirty-eight people were killed and 400 injured, and 23 Wall Street was visibly damaged, a famous photograph of the event shows the destruction and effects of the bombing, but shows the statue of Washington standing stoically in the face of chaos. The building was designated as Federal Hall Memorial National Historic Site on May 26,1939, as with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, the memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15,1966. Federal Hall was designated a landmark by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission on December 21,1965, held just four blocks from the World Trade Center site, the meeting was the first by Congress in New York since 1790
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a Census-estimated 2,636,735 residents in 2015. It borders the borough of Queens at the end of Long Island. Today, if New York City dissolved, Brooklyn would rank as the third-most populous city in the U. S. behind Los Angeles, the borough continues, however, to maintain a distinct culture. Many Brooklyn neighborhoods are ethnic enclaves, Brooklyns official motto, displayed on the Borough seal and flag, is Eendraght Maeckt Maght which translates from early modern Dutch as Unity makes strength. Since 2010, Brooklyn has evolved into a hub of entrepreneurship and high technology startup firms. The history of European settlement in Brooklyn spans more than 350 years, the neighborhood of Marine Park was home to North Americas first tidal mill. It was built by the Dutch, and the foundation can be seen today, the area was not formally settled as a town. Many incidents and documents relating to this period are in Gabriel Furmans early compilation, what is today Brooklyn left Dutch hands after the final English conquest of New Netherland in 1664, a prelude to the Second Anglo–Dutch War.
The English reorganized the six old Dutch towns on southwestern Long Island as Kings County on November 1,1683 and this tract of land was recognized as a political entity for the first time, and the municipal groundwork was laid for a expansive idea of Brooklyn identity. On August 27,1776 was fought the Battle of Long Island, the first major engagement fought in the American Revolutionary War after independence was declared, and the largest of the entire conflict. British troops forced Continental Army troops under George Washington off the heights near the sites of Green-Wood Cemetery, Prospect Park. The fortified American positions at Brooklyn Heights consequently became untenable and were evacuated a few days later, One result of the Treaty of Paris in 1783 was the evacuation of the British from New York City, celebrated by residents into the 20th century. The New York Navy Yard operated in Wallabout Bay for the entire 19th century, the first center of urbanization sprang up in the Town of Brooklyn, directly across from Lower Manhattan, which saw the incorporation of the Village of Brooklyn in 1817.
Reliable steam ferry service across the East River to Fulton Landing converted Brooklyn Heights into a town for Wall Street. Ferry Road to Jamaica Pass became Fulton Street to East New York and Village were combined to form the first, kernel incarnation of the City of Brooklyn in 1834. Industrial deconcentration in mid-century was bringing shipbuilding and other manufacturing to the part of the county. Each of the two cities and six towns in Kings County remained independent municipalities, and purposely created non-aligning street grids with different naming systems and it became the most popular and highest circulation afternoon paper in America. The publisher changed to L. Van Anden on April 19,1842, on May 14,1849 the name was shortened to The Brooklyn Daily Eagle, on September 5,1938 it was further shortened to Brooklyn Eagle