John Rae (explorer)

John Rae was a Scottish Orcadian surgeon who explored parts of northern Canada. Rae explored the Gulf of Boothia, northwest of the Hudson Bay, from 1846 to 1847, the Arctic coast near Victoria Island from 1848 to 1851. In 1854, back in the Gulf of Boothia, he obtained credible information from local Inuit peoples about the fate of the Franklin Expedition, which had disappeared in the area in 1848. Rae was noted for his physical stamina, skill at hunting, boat handling, use of native methods, ability to travel long distances with little equipment while living off the land. Rae was born at the Hall of Clestrain on Orkney with family ties to Clan MacRae. After studying medicine in Edinburgh, he graduated with a degree from the University of Edinburgh and was licensed by the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh, he went to work for the Hudson's Bay Company as a surgeon, accepting a post at Moose Factory, where he remained for ten years. While working for the company, treating both European and indigenous employees, Rae became known for his prodigious stamina and skilled use of snowshoes.

He learned to live off the land like a native and, working with the local craftsmen, designed his own snowshoes. This knowledge allowed him to travel great distances with little equipment and few followers, unlike many other explorers of the Victorian era. From 1836 to 1839, Thomas Simpson sailed along much of the northern coast of Canada. Sir George Simpson proposed to link the furthest-east point Thomas Simpson had reached by sending an overland expedition from Hudson Bay. Rae was chosen because of his well-known skill in overland travel, but he first had to travel to the Red River Colony to learn the art of surveying. On 20 August 1844, Rae left Moose Factory, went up the Missinaibi River, took the usual voyageur route west; when he reached the Red River Colony on 9 October, he found his instructor ill. After the man died, Rae headed for Sault Ste. Marie to find another instructor; the two-month, 1,200-mile winter journey was by dog sled along the north shore of Lake Superior. From there, Sir George told him to go to Toronto to study under John Henry Lefroy at the Toronto Magnetic and Meteorological Observatory.

Returning from Toronto, he received final instructions at Sault Ste. Marie. Rae departed on the voyage to Simpson's furthest-east on 5 August 1845, taking the usual voyageur route via Lake Winnipeg and reaching York Factory on 8 October, where he wintered. On 12 June 1846, he headed north in two 22-foot boats and reached Repulse Bay in July; the local Inuit told him that there was salt water to the northwest, so he chose this as his base. On his first journey, which began on 26 July, he dragged one of his boats 40 miles northwest to Committee Bay in the Gulf of Boothia. Here he learned from the Inuit that the Gulf of Boothia was a bay and that he would have to cross land to reach Simpson's furthest-east. In 1830, John Ross had been told that the Gulf of Boothia was a bay, he sailed partway up the east coast of the Gulf, but soon turned back because he needed to make preparations for winter. He became one of the first Europeans to winter in the high Arctic without the aid of a depot ship. By December he had learned how to build igloos, which he found warmer than European tents.

Rae's second journey began on 5 April 1847. He crossed to Committee Bay, traveled up its west coast for four days and headed west across the base of the Simpson Peninsula to Pelly Bay, he went north and from a hill thought he could see Lord Mayor Bay, where John Ross had been trapped in ice from 1829 to 1833. He returned to Repulse Bay, his third journey began on 13 May 1847. He crossed from Repulse Bay to Committee Bay and went up the east coast hoping to reach the Fury and Hecla Strait, which William Edward Parry's men had seen in 1822; the weather was bad and they began to run short of food. On 28 May, Rae turned back at a place he called Cape Crozier which he thought was about 25 miles south of the strait, he left Repulse Bay on 12 August, when the ice broke up, reached York Factory on 6 September 1847. He soon left for Scotland. Although he had not reached Simpson's furthest-east, he had reduced the gap to less than 100 miles. From 1848 to 1851, Rae made three journeys along the Arctic coast.

The first took him from the Mackenzie River to the Coppermine River, done before. On the second he was blocked by ice. On the third he explored the whole south coast of Victoria Island. By 1848, it was clear that Sir John Franklin's expedition, which had traveled west from the coast of Greenland in 1845, had been lost in the Arctic. Three expeditions were sent to find him: one from the east, one through the Bering Strait, one overland to the Arctic coast, this last led by Sir John Richardson. Most of the Arctic coast had been traced a decade earlier by Thomas Simpson. North of the coast were two coastlines called Victoria Land. Franklin's crew was thought to be somewhere in the unexplored area north of that; the 61-year-old Richardson chose Rae as his second-in-command. The Rae–Richardson Arctic Expedition left Liverpool in March 1848, reached New York, took the usual voyageur routes west from Montreal. On 15 July 1848, the expedition reached Fort Resolution on Great Slave Lake. John Bell was sent downriver to establish winter quarters at Fort Confidence on the east arm of Great Bear Lake.

Richardson and Rae turned east along the coast. They hoped to cross north to Wollaston Land, as southern Victoria Island was known, but ice conditions made this impossible. Thr


Kamenín is a village and municipality in the Nové Zámky District in the Nitra Region of south-west Slovakia. The village lies at an altitude of 127 metres and covers an area of 28.058 km². In historical records the village was first mentioned in 1183. After the Austro-Hungarian army disintegrated in November 1918, Czechoslovak troops occupied the area acknowledged internationally by the Treaty of Trianon. Between 1938 and 1945 Kamenín once more became part of Miklós Horthy's Hungary through the First Vienna Award. From 1945 until the Velvet Divorce, it was part of Czechoslovakia. Since it has been part of Slovakia, it has a population of about 1523 people. The population is about 1179 Hungarian, 250 has 29 Romany and 19 Czech minorities; the village has primary school and a DVD rental store. The records for genealogy are available at the state archive "Statny Archiv in Nitra, Slovakia" Roman Catholic Church records: 1724-1895 Reformed Church records: 1784-1953 List of municipalities and towns in Slovakia Kamenín – Nové Zámky Okolie Surnames of living people in Kamenin

K3 en het ijsprinsesje

K3 en het Ijsprinsessje is a 2006 Flemish preteen adventure film written by Hans Bourlon and Gert Verhulst, directed by Indra Siera, starring the women of the K3 girlband in a sequel to their 2004 blockbuster film K3 en het Magisch Medaillon. The sequel film was aired on Zappelin, SBS 6, Kindernet and RTL Telekids. King Flurkentijn invite the members of the K3 girlband to fairyland to sing for Princess Fleur because he hopes that K3 can cheer her up, but as the princess has been cursed by an evil wizard, the trio learn. K3 decide to undo the curse, learn that they need to find out the wizard's real name within 24 hours in order to cancel his curse. While seeking his name, they interact with fairy tale figures, including Snow White, Hansel & Gretel, Little Red Riding Hood, Alladin; the theme song Trouwen wasn't the only original K3-song used in the film. Other songs where: Cake en Chocolade, Betoverd etc. Trouwen, composed by Peter Gillis, performed by K3 Etiquetterap, composed by Peter Gillis, performed by K3 Cake met chocolade, composed by Peter Gillis, performed by K3 Meisje in de Spiegel, composed by Peter Gillis, performed by K3 Betoverd, composed by Peter Gillis, performed by K3 Cinemagazine praised the film, writing that in being intended for pre-teen audiences, the women of K3 kept the viewers in suspense throughout the film, keeping the film magical and fun to watch.

The review concluded by relating the performances "are fun to watch. But the magical atmosphere created by the decor and editing is fantastic!" Official website as archived February 24, 2008 K3 en het Ijsprinsesje at the Internet Movie Database