Mary Spratt Provoost Alexander was an influential colonial era merchant in New York City. Mary was born in New York City on April 16, 1693, she was the daughter of John Spratt and Maria de Peyster, who were both from prominent families of colonial era New York. Her father, John Spratt, was born near Glasgow and became a merchant in New York and a speaker for the irregular assembly during the Leisler Rebellion in 1689, her mother, Maria de Peyster, was from a respected Dutch family of goldsmiths. Her mother's siblings included Abraham de Peyster, the 20th Mayor of New York City, Johannes de Peyster, the 23rd Mayor of New York City, Elizabeth de Peyster, who married John Hamilton, provincial governor of New Jersey, her mother was first married to Paulus Schrick, remarried to John Spratt in 1687. After Spratt’s death in 1697 she married again to one David Provoost, a merchant of Huguenot-Dutch ancestry who served as the mayor of New York City. After Mary's mother died in 1700, the Spratt children went to live with their maternal grandmother, Cornelia DePeyster, a major merchant rated as one of the wealthiest people in New York in 1695.
Her maternal grandfather was Johannes de Peyster Sr. a Dutch merchant who emigrated to New Amsterdam. Mary’s life was divided between caring for her growing family, continuing the Provoost mercantine enterprises, supporting her husband’s political career. Mary played a pivotal role in the case of John Peter Zenger, she traveled to Philadelphia and convinced prominent lawyer Andrew Hamilton to represent Zenger in his New York libel case. Under her leadership, the Provoost business grew extensively, she imported goods on such a large scale that it was said that hardly a ship docked in New York City without a consignment of goods for her. She sold these goods in her own store and, during the French and Indian Wars, supplied William Shirley’s Fort Niagara expedition with food, tools and boats. In 1743 her fortune was estimated at 100,000 pounds, she and her family lived in a mansion on Broad Street. One of her sons, William Alexander, Lord Stirling, became her business partner. On October 15, 1711, Seventeen year old Mary Spratt married Samuel Provoost, a younger brother of her mother’s third husband.
Samuel Provoost was a merchant haberdasher, dry goods importer, real estate agent. Mary invested her inheritance in his trading venture, she had three children with Provoost: Maria Provoost. John Provoost, who married Eva Rutgers, daughter of Harman Rutgers and aunt of Henry Rutgers, in 1741. David Provoost. On June 5, 1721, widowed Mary Spratt Provoost married James Alexander, a prominent attorney and politician. Alexander became one of the leading lawyers in New York City. Mary Alexander had seven children by her second husband: Mary Alexander II, who married Peter Van Brugh Livingston, the son of Philip Livingston and brother of Governor William Livingston, in 1739. James Alexander, who died young. William Alexander, who married married Sarah Livingston, a daughter of Philip Livingston, in 1748. Elizabeth Alexander, who married John Stevens, the Vice President of the New Jersey Legislative Council. Catherine Alexander, who married Walter Rutherfurd, born in Edgerston, Scotland, in 1758. Anna Alexander, who died young.
Susannah Alexander, who married John Reid, a British army General and founder of the chair of music at the University of Edinburgh. Alexander died on April 18, 1760, she was buried alongside her husband in the family vault at Wall Street. Indicative of her social influence, the pallbearers at her funeral included the governors of New York and New Jersey. Mary was a member of the Dutch Reformed Church, but joined the Anglican church, her son John was the father of the first Protestant Episcopal Bishop of New York. Through her daughter Mary, she was the grandmother of 12 grandchildren, including Philip Peter Livingston. Through her son William, she was the grandmother of three, William Alexander, Mary Alexander, who married a wealthy merchant named Robert Watts of New York, Catherine Alexander, who married Congressman William Duer. Through her daughter Elizabeth, she was the grandmother of John Stevens III, a lawyer and inventor who constructed the first U. S. steam locomotive and first steam-powered ferry, Mary Stevens, who married Chancellor Robert Livingston, negotiator of the Louisiana Purchase.
Through her daughter Catherine, she was the grandmother of John Rutherfurd, a Federalist member of the United States Senate from New Jersey who served from 1791 to 1798. He was married to daughter of Congressman Lewis Morris of Morrisania; the Alexander Papers at the New-York Historical Society Library contain the records of the mercantile business. New York Business Woman Mary Alexander 1693-1760 Eighteenth Century American Women. Accessed October 2013 Guide to the Alexander papers New York Historical Society. Accessed October 2013
The Delaware River is a major river on the Atlantic coast of the United States. It drains an area of 14,119 square miles in five U. S. states: Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania. Rising in two branches in New York state's Catskill Mountains, the river flows 419 miles into Delaware Bay where its waters enter the Atlantic Ocean near Cape May in New Jersey and Cape Henlopen in Delaware. Not including Delaware Bay, the river's length including its two branches is 388 miles; the Delaware River is one of nineteen "Great Waters" recognized by the America's Great Waters Coalition. The Delaware River rises in two main branches that descend from the western flank of the Catskill Mountains in New York; the West Branch begins near Mount Jefferson in the Town of Jefferson in Schoharie County. The river's East Branch begins at Grand Gorge near Roxbury in Delaware County; these two branches flow west and merge near Hancock in Delaware County, the combined waters flow as the Delaware River south. Through its course, the Delaware River forms the boundaries between Pennsylvania and New York, the entire boundary between New Jersey and Pennsylvania, most of the boundary between Delaware and New Jersey.
The river meets tide-water at the junction of Morrisville and Trenton, New Jersey, at the Falls of the Delaware. The river's navigable, tidal section served as a conduit for shipping and transportation that aided the development of the industrial cities of Trenton and Philadelphia; the mean freshwater discharge of the Delaware River into the estuary of Delaware Bay is 11,550 cubic feet per second. Before the arrival of European settlers, the river was the homeland of the Lenape Native Americans, they called the river Lenapewihittuk, or Lenape River, Kithanne, meaning the largest river in this part of the country. In 1609, the river was first visited by a Dutch East India Company expedition led by Henry Hudson. Hudson, an English navigator, was hired to find a western route to Cathay, but his discoveries set the stage for Dutch colonization of North America in the 17th century. Early Dutch and Swedish settlements were established along the lower section of river and Delaware Bay. Both colonial powers called the river the South River, compared to the Hudson River, known as the North River.
After the English expelled the Dutch and took control of the New Netherland colony in 1664, the river was renamed Delaware after Sir Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and the Virginia colony's first royal governor who defended the colony during the First Anglo-Powhatan War. The Delaware River is named in honor of Thomas West, 3rd Baron De La Warr, an English nobleman and the Virginia colony's first royal governor who defended the colony during the First Anglo-Powhatan War. Lord de la Warr waged a punitive campaign to subdue the Powhatan after they had killed the colony's council president, John Ratcliffe, attacked the colony's fledgling settlements. Lord de la Warr arrived with 150 soldiers in time to prevent colony's original settlers at Jamestown from giving up and returning to England and is credited with saving the Virginia colony; the name of barony is pronounced as in the current spelling form "Delaware" and is thought to derive from French de la Guerre. It has been reported that the river and bay received the name "Delaware" after English forces under Richard Nicolls expelled the Dutch and took control of the New Netherland colony in 1664.
However, the river and bay were known by the name Delaware as early as 1641. The state of Delaware was part of the William Penn's Pennsylvania colony. In 1682, the Duke of York granted Penn's request for access to the sea and leased him the territory along the western shore of Delaware Bay which became known as the "Lower Counties on the Delaware." In 1704, these three lower counties were given political autonomy to form a separate provincial assembly, but shared its provincial governor with Pennsylvania until the two colonies separated on June 15, 1776 and remained separate as states after the establishment of the United States. The name became used as a collective name for the Lenape, a Native American people who inhabited an area of the basins of the Susquehanna River, Delaware River, lower Hudson River in the northeastern United States at the time of European settlement; as a result of disruption following the French & Indian War, American Revolutionary War and Indian removals from the eastern United States, the name "Delaware" has been spread with the Lenape's diaspora to municipalities and other geographical features in the American Midwest and Canada.
The Delaware River's drainage basin has an area of 14,119 square miles and encompasses 42 counties and 838 municipalities in five U. S. states—New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania and Delaware. This total area constitutes 0.4% of the land mass in the United States. In 2001, the watershed was 18% agricultural land, 14% developed land, 68% forested land. There are 216 tributary streams and creeks—an estimated 14,057 miles of streams and creeks—in the watershed. While the watershed is home to 4.17 million people according to the 2000 Federal Census, these bodies of water provide drinking water to 17 million people—roughly 6% of the population of the United States. The waters of the Delaware River's basin are used to sustain "fishing, power, cooling and other industrial and residential purposes." It is the 33rd largest river in the United States in terms of flow, but the nation's most used rivers in daily volume of tonnage. The average annual flow rate of the Delaware is 11,700 cubic feet per s
Rutherford B. Hayes
Rutherford Birchard Hayes was the 19th president of the United States from 1877 to 1881, having served as an American representative and governor of Ohio. Hayes was a lawyer and staunch abolitionist who defended refugee slaves in court proceedings in the antebellum years. During the American Civil War, he was wounded while fighting in the Union Army, he was nominated as the Republican candidate for the presidency in 1876 and elected through the Compromise of 1877 that ended the Reconstruction Era by leaving the South to govern itself. In office he withdrew military troops from the South, ending Army support for Republican state governments in the South and the efforts of African-American freedmen to establish their families as free citizens, he promoted civil service reform, attempted to reconcile the divisions left over from the Civil War and Reconstruction. Hayes, an attorney in Ohio, served as city solicitor of Cincinnati from 1858 to 1861; when the Civil War began, he left a fledgling political career to join the Union Army as an officer.
Hayes was wounded five times, most at the Battle of South Mountain. He was promoted to the rank of brevet major general. After the war, he served in the Congress from 1865 to 1867 as a Republican. Hayes left Congress to run for governor of Ohio and was elected to two consecutive terms, from 1868 to 1872, he served a third two-year term, from 1876 to 1877. In 1876, Hayes was elected president in one of the most contentious elections in national history, he lost the popular vote to Democrat Samuel J. Tilden but he won an intensely disputed electoral college vote after a Congressional commission awarded him twenty contested electoral votes; the result was the Compromise of 1877, in which the Democrats acquiesced to Hayes's election on the condition that he withdraw remaining U. S. troops protecting Republican office holders in the South, thus ending the Reconstruction era. Hayes believed in equal treatment without regard to race, he ordered federal troops to guard federal buildings and in so doing restore order from the Great Railroad Strike of 1877.
He implemented modest civil service reforms that laid the groundwork for further reform in the 1880s and 1890s. He vetoed the Bland–Allison Act, which would have put silver money into circulation and raised nominal prices, insisting that maintenance of the gold standard was essential to economic recovery, his policy toward Western Indians anticipated the assimilationist program of the Dawes Act of 1887. Hayes kept his pledge not to run for re-election, retired to his home in Ohio, became an advocate of social and educational reform. Biographer Ari Hoogenboom said his greatest achievement was to restore popular faith in the presidency and to reverse the deterioration of executive power that had set in after the assassination of Abraham Lincoln. Although supporters have praised his commitment to civil service reform and defense of civil rights, Hayes is ranked as average or below average by historians and scholars. Rutherford Birchard Hayes was born in Delaware, Ohio, on October 4, 1822, to Rutherford Hayes, Jr. and Sophia Birchard.
Hayes's father, a Vermont storekeeper, took the family to Ohio in 1817. He died ten weeks before Rutherford's birth. Sophia took charge of the family, raising Hayes and his sister, the only two of the four children to survive to adulthood, she never remarried, Sophia's younger brother, Sardis Birchard, lived with the family for a time. He became a father figure to him, contributing to his early education. Through each of his parents, Hayes was descended from New England colonists, his earliest immigrant ancestor came to Connecticut from Scotland in 1625. Hayes's great-grandfather, Ezekiel Hayes, was a militia captain in Connecticut in the American Revolutionary War, but Ezekiel's son left his Branford home during the war for the relative peace of Vermont, his mother's ancestors migrated to Vermont at a similar time. Most of his close relatives outside Ohio continued to live there. John Noyes, an uncle by marriage, had been his father's business partner in Vermont and was elected to Congress, his first cousin, Mary Jane Mead, was the mother of sculptor Larkin Goldsmith Mead and architect William Rutherford Mead.
John Humphrey Noyes, the founder of the Oneida Community, was a first cousin. Hayes attended the common schools in Delaware and enrolled in 1836 at the Methodist Norwalk Seminary in Norwalk, Ohio, he did well at Norwalk, the following year transferred to The Webb School, a preparatory school in Middletown, where he studied Latin and Ancient Greek. Returning to Ohio, he attended Kenyon College in Gambier in 1838, he enjoyed his time at Kenyon, was successful scholastically. He addressed the class as its valedictorian. After reading law in Columbus, Hayes moved east to attend Harvard Law School in 1843. Graduating with an LL. B, he opened his own law office in Lower Sandusky. Business was slow at first, but he attracted a few clients and represented his uncle Sardis in real estate litigation. In 1847, Hayes became ill with. Thinking a change in climate would help, he considered enlisting in the Mexican–American War, but on his doctor's advice he instead visited family in New England. Returning from there and his uncle Sardis made a long journey to Texas, where Hayes visited with Guy M. Bryan, a Kenyon classm
Sussex County, New Jersey
Sussex County is the northernmost county in the State of New Jersey. Its county seat is Newton, it is part of the New York Metropolitan Area and is part of the state's Skylands Region, a term promoted by the New Jersey Commerce, Economic Growth, & Tourism Commission to encourage tourism. As of the 2017 Census estimate, the county's population was 141,682, making it the 17th-most populous of the state's 21 counties, a 5.1% decrease from the 149,265 enumerated in the 2010 United States Census, in turn an increase of 5,099 over the 144,166 persons enumerated in the 2000 Census. Based on 2010 Census data, Vernon Township was the county's largest in both population and area, with a population of 23,943 and covering an area of 70.59 square miles. In 2015, the county had a per capita personal income of $55,497, the ninth-highest in New Jersey and ranked 220th of 3,113 counties in the United States; as of 2010 The Bureau of Economic Analysis ranked the county as having the 131st-highest per capita income of the 3,113 counties in the United States.
The county was named after historic County Sussex, England. Until the mid-20th century, most of Sussex County's economy was based on agriculture and the mining industry. With the decline of these industries in the 1960s, Sussex County was transformed into a bedroom community that absorbed population shifts from New Jersey's more populated areas. Recent studies estimate that 60% of Sussex County residents work outside of the county, many seeking or maintaining employment in New York City or New Jersey's more suburban and urban areas; the area of Sussex County and its surrounding region was occupied for 8,000-13,000 years by succeeding cultures of indigenous peoples. The Munsee Indians inhabited the region at the time of European encounter; the Munsee were a loosely organized division of the Lenape, a Native American people called "Delaware Indians" after their historic territory along the Delaware River. The Lenape inhabited the mid-Atlantic coastal areas and inland along the Delaware rivers; the Munsee spoke a distinct dialect of the Lenape and inhabited a region bounded by the Hudson River, the head waters of the Delaware River and the Susquehanna River, south to the Lehigh River and Conewago Creek.
As a result of disruption following the French and Indian War the American Revolutionary War and Indian removals from the eastern United States, the main Lenape groups now live in Ontario in Canada, in Wisconsin and Oklahoma in the United States. As early as 1690, Dutch and French Huguenot colonists from towns along the Hudson River Valley in New York began permanently settling in the Upper Delaware Valley; the route these Dutch settlers had taken was the path of an old Indian trail and became the route of the Old Mine Road and stretches of present-date U. S. Route 209; these Dutch settlers penetrated the Minisink Valley and settled as far south as the Delaware Water Gap, by 1731 this valley had been incorporated as Walpack Precinct. Throughout the 18th century, immigrants from the Rheinland Palatinate in Germany and Switzerland fled religious wars and poverty to arrive in Philadelphia and New York City. Several German families began leaving Philadelphia to settle along river valleys in Northwestern New Jersey and Pennsylvania's Lehigh Valley in the 1720s, spreading north into Sussex County in the 1740s and 1750s as additional German emigrants arrived.
During this time, Scottish settlers from Elizabethtown and Perth Amboy, English settlers from these cities, Long Island and Massachusetts, came to New Jersey and moved up the tributaries of the Passaic and Raritan rivers, settling in the eastern sections of present-day Sussex and Warren counties. By the 1750s, residents of this area began to petition colonial authorities for a new county to be formed. By this time, four large townships had been created in this sparsely populated Northwestern region: Walpack Township, Greenwich Township, Hardwick Township and Newtown Township. On June 8, 1753, Sussex County was created from these four municipalities, part of Morris County when Morris stretched over all of northwestern New Jersey. Sussex County at this time encompassed present-day Sussex and Warren Counties and its boundaries were drawn by the New York-New Jersey border to the north, the Delaware River to the west, the Musconetcong River to the south and east. After several decades of debate over where to hold the sessions of the county's courts, the state legislature voted to divide Sussex County in two, using a line drawn from the juncture of the Flat Brook and Delaware River in a southeasterly direction to the Musconetcong River running through the Yellow Frame Presbyterian Church in present-day Fredon Township.
On November 20, 1824, Warren County was created from the southern territory of the Sussex County. Throughout the 18th, 19th, 20th centuries, Sussex County's economy was centered around agriculture and the mining of iron and zinc ores. Early settlers established farms whose operations were chiefly focused towards subsistence agriculture; because of geological constraints, Sussex County's agricultural production was centered around dairy farming. Several farms had orchards—typically apples and peaches—and surplus fruit and grains were distilled or brewed into alcoholic beverages; this was the economic model until the mid-19th century when advances in food preservation and the intr
New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic and Northeastern regions of the United States. It is located on a peninsula, bordered on the north and east by the state of New York along the extent of the length of New York City on its western edge. New Jersey is the fourth-smallest state by area but the 11th-most populous, with 9 million residents as of 2017, the most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. New Jersey lies within the combined statistical areas of New York City and Philadelphia. New Jersey was the second-wealthiest U. S. state by median household income as of 2017. New Jersey was inhabited by Native Americans for more than 2,800 years, with historical tribes such as the Lenape along the coast. In the early 17th century, the Dutch and the Swedes founded the first European settlements in the state; the English seized control of the region, naming it the Province of New Jersey after the largest of the Channel Islands and granting it as a colony to Sir George Carteret and John Berkeley, 1st Baron Berkeley of Stratton.
New Jersey was the site of several decisive battles during the American Revolutionary War in the 18th century. In the 19th century, factories in cities, Paterson, Trenton, Jersey City, Elizabeth helped to drive the Industrial Revolution. New Jersey's geographic location at the center of the Northeast megalopolis, between Boston and New York City to the northeast, Philadelphia and Washington, D. C. to the southwest, fueled its rapid growth through the process of suburbanization in the second half of the 20th century. In the first decades of the 21st century, this suburbanization began reverting with the consolidation of New Jersey's culturally diverse populace toward more urban settings within the state, with towns home to commuter rail stations outpacing the population growth of more automobile-oriented suburbs since 2008. Around 180 million years ago, during the Jurassic Period, New Jersey bordered North Africa; the pressure of the collision between North America and Africa gave rise to the Appalachian Mountains.
Around 18,000 years ago, the Ice Age resulted in glaciers. As the glaciers retreated, they left behind Lake Passaic, as well as many rivers and gorges. New Jersey was settled by Native Americans, with the Lenni-Lenape being dominant at the time of contact. Scheyichbi is the Lenape name for the land, now New Jersey; the Lenape were several autonomous groups that practiced maize agriculture in order to supplement their hunting and gathering in the region surrounding the Delaware River, the lower Hudson River, western Long Island Sound. The Lenape society was divided into matrilinear clans; these clans were organized into three distinct phratries identified by their animal sign: Turtle and Wolf. They first encountered the Dutch in the early 17th century, their primary relationship with the Europeans was through fur trade; the Dutch became the first Europeans to lay claim to lands in New Jersey. The Dutch colony of New Netherland consisted of parts of modern Middle Atlantic states. Although the European principle of land ownership was not recognized by the Lenape, Dutch West India Company policy required its colonists to purchase the land that they settled.
The first to do so was Michiel Pauw who established a patronship called Pavonia in 1630 along the North River which became the Bergen. Peter Minuit's purchase of lands along the Delaware River established the colony of New Sweden; the entire region became a territory of England on June 24, 1664, after an English fleet under the command of Colonel Richard Nicolls sailed into what is now New York Harbor and took control of Fort Amsterdam, annexing the entire province. During the English Civil War, the Channel Island of Jersey remained loyal to the British Crown and gave sanctuary to the King, it was from the Royal Square in Saint Helier that Charles II of England was proclaimed King in 1649, following the execution of his father, Charles I. The North American lands were divided by Charles II, who gave his brother, the Duke of York, the region between New England and Maryland as a proprietary colony. James granted the land between the Hudson River and the Delaware River to two friends who had remained loyal through the English Civil War: Sir George Carteret and Lord Berkeley of Stratton.
The area was named the Province of New Jersey. Since the state's inception, New Jersey has been characterized by religious diversity. New England Congregationalists settled alongside Scots Presbyterians and Dutch Reformed migrants. While the majority of residents lived in towns with individual landholdings of 100 acres, a few rich proprietors owned vast estates. English Quakers and Anglicans owned large landholdings. Unlike Plymouth Colony and other colonies, New Jersey was populated by a secondary wave of immigrants who came from other colonies instead of those who migrated directly from Europe. New Jersey remained agrarian and rural throughout the colonial era, commercial farming developed sporadically; some townships, such as Burlington on the Delaware River and Perth Amboy, emerged as important ports for shipping to New York City and Philadelphia. The colony's fertile lands and tolerant religious policy drew more settlers, New Jersey's population had increased to 120,000 by 1775. Settlement for the first 10 years of English rule took place along Hackensack River and Arthur Kill –
James Alexander (lawyer)
James Alexander was a lawyer and statesman in colonial New York. He served in the Colonial Assembly and as attorney general of the colony in 1721–23, his son William was a major general in the Continental Army during the American revolution. Alexandria Township, New Jersey was named after James Alexander. Alexander was born in Muthill in Perthshire, Scotland on May 1691, to David Alexander, he was a distant relation of the Earl of Stirling and may have received his formal education at the High School of Stirling. He joined the navy, serving on the HMS Arundell in 1712–13, where he learned navigation and astronomy, but in 1714–15, he joined the uprising in support of James Francis Edward Stuart, the Prince of Wales, fled to America in 1715 when it failed. In November 1715, he was appointed surveyor general of New Jersey, he made surveys, using instruments he had brought from Scotland and resolved disputed titles. Alexander settled in New York, in January 1721 after marrying, he was appointed deputy-secretary of New York.
Alexander read law in New York and was admitted to the provincial bar of New Jersey in 1720. He served as attorney general for the colony of New York from 1721 to 1723. Alexander sought membership of Gray’s Inn in February 1, 1725, returned from London with a large legal library that enabled him to cite legal precedent in court; this was a distinct advantage for a colonial lawyer. James Duane and son-in-law of Robert Livingston, third Lord of Livingston Manor, read law as a clerk in Alexander's office and became proficient in the area of rights and jurisdiction in land disputes. Alexander practiced law, engaged in mercantile pursuits, built a considerable fortune, he built a large brick mansion at Beaver Streets. In 1721, Alexander was appointed to the Governor's Council in New York. In 1723, he was added to the Council in New Jersey and that same year made Attorney General of New Jersey, he opposed the policies of New York Governor William Cosby and in 1732, Cosby succeeded in having Alexander removed from the Council.
In 1733, Alexander started an anti-Cosby newspaper, the New York Weekly Journal, with Peter Zenger as publisher. Alexander was the principal author of pieces critical of Governor Cosby; the following year, Zenger was arrested on sedition charges, but a jury acquitted Zenger in one of the first instances of jury nullification. Alexander and William Smith served as Zenger's attorneys until both were disbarred after they challenged the commissions of the judges hearing the case. In 1730, Alexander was chairman of the committee to revise the New York City charter; when Lord De La Warr was appointed governor in 1737, Alexander was reinstated to the bar and reappointed to the governor's Council of New York. His removal from the Council of New Jersey was disregarded. Alexander became a vocal proponent of the emerging Whig political views, engaged in various civic efforts as well. In 1751, he raised funds to establish King's College. Although he remained active in politics, his legal practice absorbed most of his time and energy, his political involvement waned.
He was an original member of the American Philosophical Society, founded in 1743 by Benjamin Franklin, Francis Hopkinson, John Bartram, Philip Syng, Jr. and others On June 5, 1721, Alexander married the wealthy widow Mary Spratt Provoost. She was the daughter of Maria de Peyster, her DePuyster uncles drafted the prenuptial agreements. Mary was the widow of Samuel Provoost, the younger brother of David Proovost, the 24th mayor of New York City, with whom she had three children. Together and Mary had seven children: Mary Alexander II, who married Peter Van Brugh Livingston, the son of Philip Livingston and brother of Governor William Livingston, in 1739. James Alexander, who died young. William Alexander, who married married Sarah Livingston, a daughter of Philip Livingston, in 1748. Elizabeth Alexander, who married John Stevens, the Vice President of the New Jersey Legislative Council. Catherine Alexander, who married Walter Rutherfurd, born in Edgerston, Scotland, in 1758. Anna Alexander, who died young.
Susannah Alexander, who married John Reid, a British army General and founder of the chair of music at the University of Edinburgh. In 1756, while on a trip to Albany to confer with other Whig leaders, he suffered a flare up of his gout which led to a deterioration of his health, he returned home ill as a result and died in Albany or New York City on April 2, 1756. Through his daughter Mary, he was the grandmother of 12 grandchildren, including Philip Peter Livingston. Through his son William, he was the grandfather of three, William Alexander, Mary Alexander, who married a wealthy merchant named Robert Watts of New York, Catherine Alexander, who married Congressman William Duer. Through his daughter Elizabeth, he was the grandfather of John Stevens III, a lawyer and inventor who constructed the first U. S. steam locomotive and first steam-powered ferry, Mary Stevens, who married Chancellor Robert Livingston, negotiator of the Louisiana Purchase. Through his daughter Catherine, he was the grandfather of John Rutherfurd, a Federalist member of the United States Senate from New Jersey who served from 1791 to 1798, who married Helena Magdalena Morris, daughter of Congressman Lewis Morris of Morrisania.
John Peter Zenger Jury nullification in the United States Notes SourcesAl
Commissioners' Plan of 1811
The Commissioners' Plan of 1811 was the original design for the streets of Manhattan above Houston Street and below 155th Street, which put in place the rectangular grid plan of streets and lots that has defined Manhattan to this day. It has been called "the single most important document in New York City's development," and the plan has been described as encompassing the "republican predilection for control and balance... distrust of nature". It was described by the Commission that created it as combining "beauty and convenience."The plan originated when the Common Council of New York City, seeking to provide for the orderly development and sale of the land of Manhattan between 14th Street and Washington Heights, but unable to do so itself for reasons of local politics and objections from property owners, asked the New York State Legislature to step in. The legislature appointed a commission with sweeping powers in 1807, their plan was presented in 1811; the Commissioners were a Founding Father of the United States.
Their chief surveyor was John Randel Jr., 20 years old when he began the job. The Commissioners' Plan is arguably the most famous use of the grid plan or "gridiron" and is considered by many historians to have been far-reaching and visionary. Since its earliest days, the plan has been criticized for its monotony and rigidity, in comparison with irregular street patterns of older cities, but in recent years has been viewed more favorably by urban planners. There were a few interruptions in the grid for public spaces, such as the Grand Parade between 23rd Street and 33rd Street, the precursor to Madison Square Park, as well as four squares named Bloomingdale, Hamilton and Harlem, a wholesale market complex, a reservoir. Central Park, the massive urban greenspace in Manhattan running from Fifth Avenue to Eighth Avenue and from 59th Street to 110th Street, was not a part of the plan, as it was not envisioned until the 1850s; the gridiron as a concept for the layout of a town or city is not new.
Gridirons can be found in the Old and New Kingdoms of Ancient Egypt, in Mohenjo-daro in the Indus Valley in 2154 BCE with a population of 40,000 people, where many historians claim it was invented, from where it may have spread to Ancient Greece. When the Greek city of Miletus was sacked by the Persians in 494 BCE and liberated by Athens in 476 BCE, over the next three centuries it was rebuilt on the grid plan, with Hippodamus – called "the father of European urban planning" – as the local originator of the rectilinear grid system for the city's center, a concept he did not invent, but had heard about from elsewhere. Hippodamus went on to spread the grid to Piraeus and other cities in Greece; the grid plan, or "Hippodamian plan", was utilized by the Ancient Romans for their fortified military encampments, or castra, many of which evolved into towns and cities. Over time and under the pressure of the needs of other cultures and Roman settlements, built using the grid became obliterated or so adapted that it is difficult to perceive the remains of the grid.
Most Muslim cities, for instance, are not built according to a strict gridiron, although there may be fractured grids within them. In France and Wales, castra evolved into bastides, agricultural communities under a centralized monarchy; this example was followed on the European continent in cities such as New Brandenburg in Germany, which the Teutonic Knights founded in 1248, in the many town planned and built in the 14th century in the Florentine Republic. The gridiron idea spread with the Renaissance, although in many cities, for instance London following the Great Fire of 1666, it failed to take root; however the rapid expansion of cities In the British Empire necessitated adoption of new neoclassical urban plans in particular the Scottish Enlightenment'New Towns' of Edinburgh of 1767 and Glasgow of 1781 were influential in the English-speaking countries. In some European cities, such as Amsterdam and Paris, destruction of parts of the city by fire and other calamities offered an opportunity for the grid system to be used to replace more evolutionary street layouts in outlying areas, while the central city sheltered behind medieval walls, remained organic and undesigned.
In what would become the United States, the gridiron now predominates. In areas that were under Spanish control, the 1753 Laws of the Indies specified the use of the gridiron, the results can be seen in Santa Fe and Albuquerque, New Mexico. By the time of the passage of the federal Land Ordinance of 1785, the grid plan was established in the US; the Ordinance required newly created states to have rectilinear boundaries, rather than boundaries shaped by natural features, within the new areas, beginning in the Northwest Territory, everything was to be divided into rectangles: townships were six miles by six miles, sections were one mile by one mile, individual lots were 60 by 125 feet. Cities such as Anchorage, Alaska. There was significant variation in the size of the grids used. Carson City, may have the smallest at 180-foot square and 60-foot streets, while Salt Lake City, Utah, is much larger at 600-foot square blocks surrounded by 120-foot streets; the most popul