John Popham (military commander)
Sir John Popham was MP for Hampshire and Sheriff of Hampshire. He was a military speaker-elect of the House of Commons, he took part in Henry V's invasion of France in 1415 and in the French wars under John of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Bedford. He was elected Speaker of the House of Commons in 1449 but was permitted by King Henry VI to decline the office on the ground of infirmity, he was the son of Sir John Popham of South Charford, a younger son of Sir John Popham of Popham, Hampshire and a younger brother of Henry Popham of Popham, seven times MP for Hampshire. He may have been educated at Bishop Wykeham's College of St Mary at Winchester. John and his first cousin Sir Stephen Popham, MP, were men-at-arms under Edward, Duke of York, in the French campaign of 1415 and John was knighted after the Battle of Agincourt, he served again in 1417 in the conquest of Lower Normandy and was appointed bailli of Caen in December 1417 and captain of Bayeux in January 1421. In October 1418, he was awarded the governorship of Southampton Castle in succession to his father, holding it until 1441.
After Henry V's death his appointments at Bayeux and Caen were terminated and he served the regent, Duke of Bedford as chancellor of France or of Normandy between September 1422 and January 1424, as Bedford's chancellor, lieutenant at Rouen and chamberlain. He fought at the sieges of Pontorson and Orléans and was involved with arranging the defence of Paris following French successes under Jeanne d'Arc in 1429. Back in England, he became Treasurer of the Household from 17 April 1437 until April 1439 and was elected knight of the shire for Hampshire in November 1439, he was again returned for Hampshire in 1449 and was nominated as Speaker of the House, but declined the responsibility on the grounds of ill-health. He died on 14 April 1463, was buried in the Charterhouse, he had never married, his estates passed to the four daughters of his cousin Stephen Popham of Popham, Hampshire. Tait, Biography of Popham, Dictionary of National Biography, 1885-1900, Volume 46 AttributionCurry, Anne. "Popham, Sir John".
Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/22542. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Popham, Sir John". Dictionary of National Biography. Index and Epitome. Cambridge University Press. P. 1059
Cambridge (UK Parliament constituency)
Cambridge is a parliamentary constituency created in 1295 represented in the House of Commons of the U. K. Parliament, it has been represented since May 2015 by a member of the Labour Party. Cambridge returned two Members to Parliament from 1295 until 1885; these were townsmen who were involved in local government until many acquired government positions in the 18th century. Under the Redistribution of Seats Act 1885 representation was reduced to one member with effect from the 1885 general election. From 1910 to 1992, Cambridge was Conservative-won, save for 1945-1950 and 1966-1968 when it was Labour-won. Related extra representation 1603–1950Historically the city of Cambridge retained some electors and was the source of MPs to a second constituency, for Cambridge University, covering all successful alumni in its electorate; the university seat was created in 1603 as part of the scheme of University constituencies. Its MPs included Isaac Newton, William Pitt the Younger, Lord Palmerston, George Stokes, Richard Jebb, Archibald Hill before abolition in 1950.
In 1992 Cambridge was won by Labour's Anne Campbell. In 2005 it was taken by David Howarth of the Liberal Democrats, the first time the party including its two forerunner parties had taken the seat since the 1906 Liberal-progressive landslide. In 2015 Huppert was unseated by the Labour candidate Daniel Zeichner who took the seat with a thin majority of 599 votes; the 2015 result gave the seat the 7th-smallest majority of Labour's 232 seats by percentage of majority. Most recent results of other partiesIn 2015 three other parties candidates kept their deposits by winning more than 5% of the vote. In order of public preference these candidates stood for the Conservatives, Green Party and UKIP respectively. Turnout since 1918Turnout at general elections has ranged between 86.48% in 1950 to 60.6% in 2001. 1868-1918: The Municipal Borough of Cambridge, plus the village of Chesterton.1918-1983: The Municipal Borough of Cambridge. Under the Representation of the People Act 1918, the boundaries were expanded to align with those of the Municipal Borough, incorporating further parts of the former Urban District of Chesterton not included in the Parliamentary Borough to the north, the parish of Cambridge Without to the south.
The boundaries were further expanded for the 1950 General Election, under the Representation of the People Act 1948. 1983-2010: The City of Cambridge wards of Abbey, Castle, Cherry Hinton, East Chesterton, King's Hedges, Newnham, Petersfield and West Chesterton.2010-present: The City of Cambridge wards of Abbey, Castle, Cherry Hinton, East Chesterton, King’s Hedges, Newnham, Romsey and West Chesterton. The constituency covers the city of Cambridge, including areas such as Chesterton and Cherry Hinton, although one ward in the south of the city is in South Cambridgeshire constituency. From 1983 to 1997, both wards were in the now-abolished seat of South West Cambridgeshire, from 1997 to 2010 in South Cambridgeshire; the Boundary Commission for England submitted their final proposals in respect of the Sixth Periodic Review of Westminster Constituencies in September 2018. If these proposals are approved by Parliament they will reduce the total number of MPs from 650 to 600 and come into effect at the next UK general election, due to take place in May 2022 under the terms of the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011.
The Commission has recommended that the Queen Edith's ward be transferred back from South Cambridgeshire, resulting in the boundaries of the constituency being co-terminous with those of the City of Cambridge. Constituency created Election of William Forsyth declared void on petition, due to his holding an office of profit under the Crown. Resignation of Andrew Steuart. Previous election declared due to bribery and treating. By-election triggered by the appointment of Fitzroy Kelly as Solicitor-General of England and Wales By-election triggered by the resignation of Sir Alexander Cray Grant, Bt. by accepting the office of Steward of the Manor of Poynings Previous by-election declared void on petition due to bribery and treating by Manners-Sutton's agents. By-election triggered by the appointment of Thomas Spring Rice as Secretary of State for War and the Colonies. By-election triggered by the appointment of Thomas Spring Rice as Chancellor of the Exchequer. By-election triggered by the elevation to the peerage of Thomas Spring Rice as Lord Monteagle of Brandon.
By-election triggered by the death of Charles Madryl Cheere. By-election triggered by the appointment of the Marquess of Graham as Commander of the Board of Control. By-election triggered by the appointment of Frederick William Trench as Storekeeper of Ordnance. By-election triggered by the resignation of the Hon. Edward Finch. By-election triggered by the appointment of Robert Manners as First Equerry and Clerk Marshal of the Mews. By-election triggered by the simultaneous election of Francis Dickins for Northamptonshire, his decision to sit for that constituency instead of Cambridge. By-election triggered by the appointment of John Mortlock to office. By-election triggered by the appointment of James Whorwood Adeane to office. By-election triggered by the elevation to the peerage of Charles Sloane Cadogan. By-election triggered by the appointment of Charles Sloane Cadogan to office. By-election triggered by the appointment of Charles Sloane C
Little Berkhamsted is a village and civil parish in Hertfordshire, five miles south-west of the town of Hertford. The village is in some 120 metres above sea level, it has a row of weather-boarded cottages opposite St Andrews Church. Conservative Cabinet Minister Reginald Maudling and his widow Beryl were buried here. Nearby there is ` Stratton's Folly', a 1789 brick tower. There is a shop, a public house, a playground and a sports field there, in the summer a traditional hog roast takes place. Ice cream can be bought from the Village Shop, however it is not the only communal attraction. Little Berkhamsted has many cycle paths, as well as a road named after itself: Little Berkhamsted Lane; the manor of Little Berkhampstead is mentioned in the Domesday Book as Berchehamstede when it was held by Hardwin de Scales. The Parish Church of St Andrew is faced with Kentish ragstone and has a wooden bell-cote for three bells; the church was first mentioned in the 12th Century but was rebuilt in 1647, although little from that date survived reconstruction in the 19th century.
Stratton's Tower is a 97 ft tall observation tower in the village. It was built in 1789 for John Stratton, who lived at "Gay's", since renamed The Gage. Legend has it that John Stratton was a retired Admiral and that he wanted to see ships in the Thames. After being derelict for more than 100 years, it was restored and converted to living accommodation in 1971 by William Tatton Brown, it is a Grade II* Listed Building. Media related to Little Berkhamsted at Wikimedia Commons Little Berkhamsted community website
Order of the Bath
The Most Honourable Order of the Bath is a British order of chivalry founded by George I on 18 May 1725. The name derives from the elaborate medieval ceremony for appointing a knight, which involved bathing as one of its elements; the knights so created were known as "Knights of the Bath". George I "erected the Knights of the Bath into a regular Military Order", he did not revive the Order of the Bath, since it had never existed as an Order, in the sense of a body of knights who were governed by a set of statutes and whose numbers were replenished when vacancies occurred. The Order consists of the Sovereign, the Great Master, three Classes of members: Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross Knight Commander or Dame Commander Companion Members belong to either the Civil or the Military Division. Prior to 1815, the order had Knight Companion, which no longer exists. Recipients of the Order are now senior military officers or senior civil servants. Commonwealth citizens who are not subjects of the Queen and foreign nationals may be made Honorary Members.
The Order of the Bath is the fourth-most senior of the British Orders of Chivalry, after The Most Noble Order of the Garter, The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle, The Most Illustrious Order of St Patrick. In the Middle Ages, knighthood was conferred with elaborate ceremonies; these involved the knight-to-be taking a bath during which he was instructed in the duties of knighthood by more senior knights. He was put to bed to dry. Clothed in a special robe, he was led with music to the chapel. At dawn he made confession and attended Mass retired to his bed to sleep until it was daylight, he was brought before the King, who after instructing two senior knights to buckle the spurs to the knight-elect's heels, fastened a belt around his waist struck him on the neck, thus making him a knight. It was this accolade, the essential act in creating a knight, a simpler ceremony developed, conferring knighthood by striking or touching the knight-to-be on the shoulder with a sword, or "dubbing" him, as is still done today.
In the early medieval period the difference seems to have been that the full ceremonies were used for men from more prominent families. From the coronation of Henry IV in 1399 the full ceremonies were restricted to major royal occasions such as coronations, investitures of the Prince of Wales or Royal dukes, royal weddings, the knights so created became known as Knights of the Bath. Knights Bachelor continued to be created with the simpler form of ceremony; the last occasion on which Knights of the Bath were created was the coronation of Charles II in 1661. From at least 1625, from the reign of James I, Knights of the Bath were using the motto Tria juncta in uno, wearing as a badge three crowns within a plain gold oval; these were both subsequently adopted by the Order of the Bath. Their symbolism however is not clear. The'three joined in one' may be a reference to the kingdoms of England and either France or Ireland, which were held by English and British monarchs; this would correspond to the three crowns in the badge.
Another explanation of the motto is. Nicolas quotes a source who claims that prior to James I the motto was Tria numina juncta in uno, but from the reign of James I the word numina was dropped and the motto understood to mean Tria juncta in uno; the prime mover in the establishment of the Order of the Bath was John Anstis, Garter King of Arms, England's highest heraldic officer. Sir Anthony Wagner, a recent holder of the office of Garter, wrote of Anstis's motivations: It was Martin Leake's opinion that the trouble and opposition Anstis met with in establishing himself as Garter so embittered him against the heralds that when at last in 1718 he succeeded, he made it his prime object to aggrandise himself and his office at their expense, it is clear at least that he set out to make himself indispensable to the Earl Marshal, not hard, their political principles being congruous and their friendship established, but to Sir Robert Walpole and the Whig ministry, which can by no means have been easy, considering his known attachment to the Pretender and the circumstances under which he came into office...
The main object of Anstis's next move, the revival or institution of the Order of the Bath was that which it in fact secured, of ingratiating him with the all-powerful Prime Minister Sir Robert Walpole. The use of honours in the early eighteenth century differed from the modern honours system in which hundreds, if not thousands, of people each year receive honours on the basis of deserving accomplishments; the only honours available at that time were hereditary peerages and baronetcies and the Order of the Garter, none of which were awarded in large numbers The political environment was significantly different from today: The Sovereign still exercised a power to be reckoned with in the eighteenth century. The Court remained the centre of the political w
Hertfordshire is one of the home counties in the south east of England. It is bordered by Bedfordshire and Cambridgeshire to the north, Essex to the east, Greater London to the south, Buckinghamshire to the west. For government statistical purposes, it is placed in the East of England region. In 2013, the county had a population of 1,140,700 in an area of 634 square miles; the four towns that have between 50,000 and 100,000 residents are Hemel Hempstead, Watford and St Albans. Hertford, once the main market town for the medieval agricultural county, derives its name from a hart and a ford, used as the components of the county's coat of arms and flag. Elevations are high for the region in the west; these reach over 800 feet in the western projection around Tring, in the Chilterns. The county's borders are the watersheds of the Colne and Lea. Hertfordshire's undeveloped land is agricultural and much is protected by green belt; the county's landmarks span many centuries, ranging from the Six Hills in the new town of Stevenage built by local inhabitants during the Roman period, to Leavesden Film Studios.
The volume of intact medieval and Tudor buildings surpasses London, in places in well-preserved conservation areas in St Albans which includes some remains of Verulamium, the town where in the 3rd century an early recorded British martyrdom took place. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire. Hertfordshire is well-served with railways, providing good access to London; the largest sector of the economy of the county is in services. Hertfordshire was the area assigned to a fortress constructed at Hertford under the rule of Edward the Elder in 913. Hertford is derived from meaning deer crossing; the name Hertfordshire is first recorded in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1011. Deer feature in many county emblems. There is evidence of humans living in Hertfordshire from the Mesolithic period, it was first farmed during the Neolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age.
This was followed by tribes settling in the area during the Iron Age. Following the Roman conquest of Britain in AD 43, the aboriginal Catuvellauni submitted and adapted to the Roman life. Saint Alban, a Romano-British soldier, took the place of a Christian priest and was beheaded on Holywell Hill, his martyr's cross of a yellow saltire on a blue field is reflected in the flag and coat of arms of Hertfordshire as the yellow field to the stag or Hart representing the county. He is the Patron Saint of Hertfordshire. With the departure of the Roman Legions in the early 5th century, the now unprotected territory was invaded and colonised by the Anglo-Saxons. By the 6th century the majority of the modern county was part of the East Saxon kingdom; this short lived kingdom collapsed in the 9th century, ceding the territory of Hertfordshire to the control of the West Anglians of Mercia. The region became an English shire in the 10th century, on the merger of the West Saxon and Mercian kingdoms. A century William of Normandy received the surrender of the surviving senior English Lords and Clergy at Berkhamsted, resulting in a new Anglicised title of William the Conqueror before embarking on an uncontested entry into London and his coronation at Westminster.
Hertfordshire was used for some of the new Norman castles at Bishop's Stortford, at King's Langley, a staging post between London and the royal residence of Berkhamsted. The Domesday Book recorded the county as having nine hundreds. Tring and Danais became one—Dacorum—from Danis Corum or Danish rule harking back to a Viking not Saxon past; the other seven were Braughing, Cashio, Hertford and Odsey. The first shooting-down of a zeppelin over Great Britain during WW1 happened in Cuffley; as London grew, Hertfordshire became conveniently close to the English capital. However, the greatest boost to Hertfordshire came during the Industrial Revolution, after which the population rose dramatically. In 1903, Letchworth became the world's first garden city and Stevenage became the first town to redevelop under the New Towns Act 1946. From the 1920s until the late 1980s, the town of Borehamwood was home to one of the major British film studio complexes, including the MGM-British Studios. Many well-known films were made here including the first three Star Wars movies.
The studios used the name of Elstree. American director Stanley Kubrick not only used to shoot in those studios but lived in the area until his death. Big Brother UK and Who Wants To Be A Millionaire? have been filmed there. EastEnders is filmed at Elstree. Hertfordshire has seen development at Warner Bros. Studios, Leavesden. On 17 October 2000, the Hatfield rail crash killed four people with over 70 injured; the crash exposed the shortcomings of Railtrack, which saw speed restrictions and major track replacement. On 10 May 2002, the second of the Potters Bar rail accidents occurred killing seven people.
Thomas Chaucer was Speaker of the House of Commons and son of Geoffrey Chaucer, the poet, by his wife Philippa Roet. Thomas Chaucer was a relative by marriage of John of Gaunt, 1st Duke of Lancaster, through his aunt Katherine Swynford. Katherine was the sister of Philippa Roet. Swynford was first Gaunt's mistress, his third wife, their four children, John Beaufort, Henry Beaufort, Thomas Beaufort and Joan Beaufort, were first cousins to Thomas Chaucer, all prospered: John's family became Earls and subsequently Dukes of Somerset, Henry a Cardinal, Thomas became Duke of Exeter, Joan became Countess of Westmorland and was grandmother of Kings Edward IV and Richard III. King Henry IV - son of John of Gaunt by his first marriage to Blanche of Lancaster - was half-brother to Thomas Chaucer's Beaufort first cousins. Thomas was able to buy Donnington Castle for his only daughter Alice. Early in life, Thomas Chaucer married Matilda Burghersh, second daughter and coheiress of Sir John Burghersh, nephew of Henry Burghersh, Bishop of Lincoln and Lord Chancellor of England, younger son of Robert de Burghersh, 1st Baron Burghersh, a nephew of Bartholomew de Badlesmere, 1st Baron Badlesmere.
The marriage brought him large estates, including the manor of Oxfordshire. He was Chief Butler of England for thirty years, first appointed by Richard II, on 20 March 1399 received a pension of twenty marks a year in exchange for offices granted him by the Duke, paying at the same time five marks for the confirmation of two annuities of charges on the Duchy of Lancaster and granted by the Duke; these annuities were confirmed to him by Henry IV, who appointed him constable of Wallingford Castle, steward of the honours of Wallingford and St. Valery and of the Chiltern Hundreds. About the same time he succeeded Geoffrey Chaucer as forester of Somerset. On 5 November 1402, he received a grant of the chief butlership for life. Chaucer served as High Sheriff of Berkshire and Oxfordshire during 1400 and 1403 and as High Sheriff of Hampshire in 1413, he attended fifteen parliaments as knight of the shire for Oxfordshire and was Speaker of the House five times, a feat not surpassed until the 18th century.
He was chosen speaker in the parliament that met at Gloucester in 1407, on 9 November reminded the king that the accounts of the expenditure of the last subsidy had not been rendered. The chancellor interrupted him, declaring that they were not ready, that for the future the lords would not promise them, he was chosen again in 1410 and in 1411, when, on making his'protestation' and claiming the usual permission of free speech, he was answered by the king that he might speak as other speakers had done, but that no novelties would be allowed. He asked for a day's grace, made an apology, he was again chosen in 1414. On 23 February 1411 the queen gave him the manor of Woodstock and other estates during her life, on 15 March the king assigned them to him after her death. In 1414 he received a commission, in which he is called domicellus, to treat about the marriage of Henry V, to take the homage of the Duke of Burgundy. A year he served with the king in France, bringing into the field 12 men-at-arms and 37 archers.
He was not present at the Battle of Agincourt, being sent back to England ill after the siege of Harfluer. It is unknown if he was sick, or used it as an excuse to return to England, his retinue did march on to Agincourt. In 1417, he was employed to treat for peace with France. On the accession of Henry VI he appears to have been superseded in the chief butlership, to have regained it shortly afterwards. In January 1424, he was appointed a member of the council, the next year was one of the commissioners to decide a dispute between the Earl Marshal and the Earl of Warwick about precedence. In 1430–1431, he was appointed one of the executors of the will of the Duchess of York, was by very wealthy. Thomas Chaucer died at Ewelme Palace in the village of Ewelme, Oxfordshire on 18 November 1434 and is buried in St Mary's church in the village. Thomas' only daughter Alice married William de la Pole, 1st Duke of Suffolk and her grandson John de la Pole, Earl of Lincoln was the designated heir of Richard III.
John and several of his brothers were executed when Richard lost power. They left descendants however, including the Earls of Rutland and Portmore, William Parker, 4th Baron Monteagle, who foiled the Gunpowder Plot and Sir Francis Sacheverel Darwin. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Hunt, William. "Chaucer, Thomas". In Stephen, Leslie. Dictionary of National Biography. 10. London: Smith, Elder & Co. pp. 167–168. CHAUCER, Thomas of Ewelme, Oxon Ewelme – The rise of the Chaucer and de la Pole families Royal Berkshire History: Thomas Chaucer
Henry Bourchier, 1st Earl of Essex
Henry Bourchier, 5th Baron Bourchier, 2nd Count of Eu, 1st Viscount Bourchier, 1st Earl of Essex, KG, was the eldest son of William Bourchier, 1st Count of Eu and Anne of Gloucester. On his mother's side, he was a great-grandson of Edward III of England, he inherited the title of 5th Baron Bourchier from his cousin Elizabeth Bourchier, 4th Baroness Bourchier on her death in 1433. He became the 1st Viscount Bourchier in 1446, a Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1452, was created 1st Earl of Essex in 1461, he saw considerable military action in France and for his services was created Viscount Bourchier during the parliament of 1445–6 and elected Knight of the Garter on his third nomination in 1452. He saw action in 1461 as a Yorkist supporter at the Second Battle of St Albans and the Battle of Towton, soon after which Edward IV created him Earl of Essex, he held the post of Lord High Treasurer from 29 May 1455 - 5 October 1456, 28 July 1460 - 14 April 1462, 22 April 1471 - 4 April 1483. He became Justice in Eyre south of the Trent in 1461, holding that title until his death.
He died on 4 April 1483 and was buried at Beeleigh Abbey, although his tomb was subsequently moved to Little Easton church. Prior to 1426, he married Isabel of Cambridge, a great-granddaughter Edward III, she was the elder sister of Richard Plantagenet, which made her the aunt of Richard's two sons, the future Edward IV and Richard III. Henry and Isabel were parents to at least eleven children. William Bourchier, Viscount Bourchier. Married Anne Woodville, daughter of Richard Woodville, 1st Earl Jacquetta of Luxembourg, they were parents of Henry Bourchier, 2nd Earl of Essex and Cicely Bourchier, wife of John Devereux, 8th Baron Ferrers of Chartley. Henry Bourchier. Married Elizabeth de Scales, Baroness Scales. No known children. Humphrey Bourchier, 1st and last Lord Bourchier of Cromwell. Killed in the Battle of Barnet. John Bourchier. Married first Elizabeth Ferrers and secondly Elizabeth Chichele. No known children. Edward Bourchier. Killed in the Battle of Wakefield. Thomas Bourchier. Married Isabella Barre.
No known children. Florence Bourchier. Fulk Bourchier. Considered to have died young. Hugh Bourchier. Considered to have died young. Isabella Bourchier. Considered to have died young. Laura Bourchier married John Courtenay On his death she did not remarry and died more than a year later. Clark, Linda. "Bourchier, first earl of Essex". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/2987. Luminarium Dictionary: Henry Bourchier, Earl of Essex