Land's End to John o' Groats
Land's End to John o' Groats is the traversal of the whole length of the island of Great Britain between two extremities, in the southwest and northeast. The traditional distance by road takes most cyclists 10 to 14 days. Off-road walkers walk about 1,200 miles and take two or three months for the expedition. Two much-photographed signposts indicate the traditional distance at each end. Land's End is the traditionally acknowledged extreme southern point of mainland England, it is in western Cornwall at the end of the Penwith peninsula. The O. S. Grid Reference of the road end is SW342250, Post Code TR19 7AA. In fact it, or speaking Dr Syntax's Head, SW341253, a few hundred yards NW of the road end, is mainland England's most westerly point; the most southerly point is about 9 miles further south. Land's End is sometimes reckoned incorrectly as mainland England's most southwesterly point; this accolade belongs to Gwennap Head, SW365215, at least 2 miles further south than Dr Syntax's Head but only about 1.5 miles less west.
John o' Groats is the traditionally acknowledged extreme northern point of mainland Scotland, in northeastern Caithness, O. S. Grid Reference ND380735, Post Code KW1 4YR; the actual northernmost point is Dunnet Head about 2 miles further north. The point, farthest by road from Land's End is Duncansby Head, about 2 miles east of John o' Groats. Duncansby Head is the most northeasterly point of the Scottish mainland; the straight-line distance from Land's End to John o' Groats is 603 miles as determined from O. S. Grid References. Google Earth reports a distance of 602.70 miles between the two iconic marker points. According to a 1964 road atlas, the shortest route using classified roads was 847 miles but in a 2008 road atlas, the shortest route using classified roads was 838 miles. An online route planner in 2011 calculated the quickest route by road as 838 miles, estimating a time of 15 hours 48 minutes for the journey but the overall shortest route by road, using minor roads in numerous places and utilising modern bridges, is only about 814 miles.
This route is as follows: Land's End, Okehampton, Taunton, the M5 Avon Bridge, the M48 Severn Bridge, Hereford, Tarporley, St Helens, Carlisle, Carstairs, Falkirk, Crieff, Dalchalloch, A9, Kessock Bridge, Cromarty Bridge, Dornoch Firth Bridge, Wick, John o' Groats. Google Maps, on 2 August 2017, calculated the fastest route by car, from the Land's End Visitor Centre to John o' Groats as being 837 miles and taking 14 hours 40 minutes, it showed a walking route of 811 miles, which it suggested would take 268 hours, involve an elevation gain of 30,148 ft and an elevation fall of 30,272 ft. There are many ways to go from Land's End to John o' Groats. Traditionally considered to be a walk, the route is now traversed in a number of ways, with cycling and multi-modal expeditions being popular in recent years. Most trips are done by small groups for personal fulfilment; some expeditions are organised as charity fundraisers, sometimes involving celebrities: examples include cricketer Ian Botham's 1985 walk and athlete Jane Tomlinson in 2003.
In recent history the route has been used as a rite of passage by cyclists taking on the most iconic cycling challenge in Britain. The first recorded end-to-end walk was undertaken by the brothers John and Robert Naylor in 1871. Since the walk has been undertaken many times, more since 1960, after a well-publicised road walk by Dr Barbara Moore. In 1960 the entrepreneur Billy Butlin organised a road walking race, which gave further impetus to the idea. Since the 1960s, walkers have chosen off-road routes, using the growing network of long-distance footpaths. A classic account is from 1966 by the travel writer John Hillaby. Off-road walkers complete the journey in two to three months. There is a considerable choice of off-road routes, but all are much longer than the shortest road distance 1,200 miles or more; the walk is still undertaken by road walkers doing the walk, like Sir Ian Botham, for charity, or as a "challenge walk". They take a month or less; some walkers aim to complete the route piecemeal over several years, to achieve the walk within the time constraints of a working life and before the possible health problems of retirement.
There is no continuous long-distance path from Land's End to John o' Groats. There are long-distance paths for substantial sections of the route, where they do not exist walkers connect them by rights of way and minor roads. Most walkers broadly follow these routes: from Land's End to Exmoor by the South West Coast Path.
Austin Motor Company
The Austin Motor Company Limited was a British manufacturer of motor vehicles, founded in 1905 by Herbert Austin. In 1952 it was merged with Morris Motors Limited in the new holding company British Motor Corporation Limited, keeping its separate identity; the marque Austin was used until 1987. The trademark is owned by SAIC after being transferred from bankrupt subsidiary Nanjing Automotive which had acquired it with MG Rover Group in July 2005. While running the original Wolseley business, which had a cyclical sales pattern, Herbert Austin searched for products with a steady demand. Starting in 1895, he built three cars in his free time, they were among Britain's first cars. The third car, a four-wheeler, was completed in 1899. By 1901 his fellow directors could not see future profit in motor vehicles and so with their blessing and the backing of the Vickers brothers Austin started a separate car manufacturing business still using the name Wolseley. In 1905 he fell out with Albert Vickers over engine design.
Leaving his creation, which he had made Britain's largest motor vehicle manufacturer, Austin obtained the backing of steel magnate Frank Kayser for his own enterprise. Kayser provided funds through mortgages and loans and guarantees to the Midland Bank thereby allowing Austin to keep total ownership of his own business through his personal savings. Further assistance came from Dunlop patent holder Harvey du Cros. However, Austin's great rival, William Morris, was able to enter the industry proper a little funding his operation from his own resources. In November 1905 Herbert Austin acquired a disused printing works, less than ten years old, it was located seven miles south-west of Birmingham in the small village of Longbridge. The following month The Austin Motor Company Limited was incorporated. In the last week of April 1906 a large body of motorists travelled to Longbridge "where snow lay full three inches deep on the ground and was still falling fast" to see the new Austin car, a conventional four-cylinder model with chain drive.
It was available as a 15/20 hp complete at £500 and a 25/30 hp for £650. The sole concessionaire for sale of the cars was Mr Harvey Du Cros junior. Two things were noticeable about Austin's new design, he had parted from the Vickers brothers because he had refused to use the more conventional vertical engine in Wolseley cars. His new car had a vertical engine and, in all but minor detail, was identical to the English-built Clément-Gladiators assembled in the same factory. A further injection of capital was needed in 1906 and William Harvey Du Cros joined the board of directors. After that Harvey Du Cros junior of the Swift Cycle Co and Austin each held half of the ordinary capital. Herbert Austin remained managing director. Austin's cars, like Wolseley's, were luxury vehicles; the published customer list included Russian Grand Dukes, Bishops, high officials of the Spanish government and a long list of Britain's highest nobility. Sources Note: in 1912 Wolseley sold 3,000 cars. In February 1914 Austin-manufactured bodies in tourer, limousine and coupé styles could be provided with engines of 15, 20, 30 and 60 hp.
Ambulances and commercial vehicles were provided. Austin became a public listed company in 1914 when the capital was increased to £650,000. At that time in number of cars produced it ranked fifth after Wolseley, Humber and Rover; the Austin Motor Co. grew enormously during the First World War fulfilling government contracts for aircraft, heavy guns and generating sets and 1,600 three-ton trucks most of which were sent to Russia. The workforce expanded from around 2,500 to 22,000. After the war Herbert Austin decided on a one-model policy based on the 3620 cc 20 hp engine. Versions included cars, commercials and a tractor, but sales volumes were never enough to fill the vast factory built during wartime; the company rose again after financial restructuring. Though Herbert Austin remained chairman he was no longer managing director and from that time decisions were made by committee. Critical to the recovery was the appointment in 1922 of a new finance director, Ernest Payton with the backing of the Midland Bank, a new works director in charge of car production, Carl Engelbach, at the insistence of the creditors' committee.
This triumvirate of Austin and Engelbach steered the company's fortunes through the interwar years. In a quest to expand market share, smaller cars were introduced, the 1661 cc Twelve in 1922 and the same year, the Seven, an inexpensive, simple small car and one of the earliest to be directed at a mass market. One of the reasons for a market demand for a cars like the Austin 7 was the British tax code. In 1930 every personal car was taxed by its engine size, which in American dollars was $2.55 per square inch of piston displacement. As an example, the owner of an Austin 7 in England, which sold for $455, would have to pay a yearly engine tax of $39. In comparison, the owner in England of a Ford Model-A would have to pay $120 per year in an engine tax, and this system of engine displacement tax was common in other European nations as well in the 1930s. At one point, the "Baby Austin" was built under licence by the fledgling BMW of Germany, and in England the Austin was the most produced car in 1930 (the American Austin Car Company operated as a independent subsidiary from 1929 to 1934, was revived under the name "American Bantam" from 1937 t
Dunlop Rubber was a multinational company involved in the manufacture of various rubber goods. Its business was founded in 1889 by Harvey du Cros and he involved John Boyd Dunlop who had invented and developed the first pneumatic tyre, it was one of the first multinationals, under du Cros and, after him, under Eric Geddes grew to be one of the largest British industrial companies. J B Dunlop had dropped any ties to it; the business and manufactory was founded in Upper Stephens Street in Dublin. A plaque marks the site, now part of the head office of the Irish multinational departments store brand, Dunnes Stores. Dunlop Rubber failed to adapt to evolving market conditions in the 1970s despite having recognised by the mid 1960s the potential drop in demand as the new much more durable tyres swept throughout the market. After taking on excessive debt Dunlop was acquired by the industrial conglomerate BTR in 1985. Since ownership of the Dunlop trade-names has been fragmented. In 1888, John Boyd Dunlop, a Scottish veterinary surgeon living in Ireland discovered the pneumatic tyre principle.
Willie Hume created publicity for J B Dunlop's discovery by winning seven out of eight races with his pneumatic tyres. To own the rights and exploit the discovery, the Pneumatic Tyre and Booth's Cycle Agency Co. Ltd was incorporated in 1889 and floated by Harvey du Cros who was, amongst other things, president of the Irish Cyclists' Association; the invitation to du Cros to participate was made by a Dublin cycle agent. J B Dunlop who could see no prosperous future in his discovery, had informally made over his rights to Bowden. J B Dunlop held a 20 percent stake in the venture; the company and manufactory was first founded in Stephens Street in Dublin. The late 1880s was a period of great demand for John Kemp Starley's new safety bicycles. Pneumatic Tyre began cycle tyre production in Belfast in late 1890, expanded to fill consumer demand. However, in 1890, J B Dunlop's patent was withdrawn, it had been discovered that Robert William Thomson had first patented the pneumatic tyre in 1845. J B Dunlop and Harvey du Cros together worked through the ensuing considerable difficulties.
They employed inventor Charles Kingston Welch and acquired other rights and patents which allowed them to protect their business's position to some extent. In the early 1890s, Pneumatic Tyre established divisions in Europe and North America sending there four of du Cros's six sons. Factories were established overseas because foreign patents rights would only be maintained if the company was engaged in active manufacture where its tyres were sold. Pneumatic Tyre partnered with local cycle firms such as Clement Cycles in France and Adler in Germany in order to limit the necessary capital expenditure. An American business was established in the USA in 1893 with a factory in Buffalo, New York after Harvey du Cros junior was old enough to sign the necessary deeds. In 1893 home manufacture was relocated from Belfast and Dublin to Coventry, the centre of the British cycle industry; the Dublin Corporation had launched a case against Pneumatic Tyre claiming nuisance from the smell of rubber and naphtha.
Pneumatic Tyre soon spread developing interests in Birmingham. The following year a major interest was taken in their component supplier Byrne Bros India Rubber of Lichfield Road, Aston Birmingham; the same year du Cros started Cycle Components Manufacturing in Selly Oak to supply inner tubes. J B Dunlop resigned in 1895, sold most of his interest in Pneumatic Tyre. In 1896 Harvey Du Cros persuaded his board to sell Pneumatic Tyre to financier Ernest Terah Hooley for £3 million. Hooley drummed up support by offering financial journalists cheap shares and appointing aristocrats to the board, sold the business again this time as the Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre Company for £5 million providing a gross profit to Hooley's syndicate including du Cros of £1.7 million. Associate and supplier, Byrne Bros India Rubber, at their Manor Rubber Mills, Aston Cross, had moved from making tyre and tube components to complete inner tubes and covers. In June 1896 du Cros formed Rubber Tyre Manufacturing, to acquire Byrne Bros..
E J Byrne was contracted to be managing director for five years. From the late 1890s, Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre began to acquire its own rubber mills, began to process rubber, whereas it had assembled tyres using components from other manufacturers. In 1901 Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre used its majority holding to rename Rubber Tyre Manufacturing – Dunlop Rubber. Arthur Du Cros replaced E J Byrne. From 1900, Dunlop began to diversify from cycle tyres; the company manufactured its first motor car tyre in 1900. In 1906, a car wheel manufacturing plant was built. In 1910 Dunlop developed its first aeroplane golf ball. Between 1904 and 1909, the French Dunlop subsidiary lost a total of £200,000, as European rivals such as Michelin of France and Continental of Germany overtook it in the motor tyre market. In 1909, Dunlop of France, in 1910, Dunlop of Germany were wholly acquired by the British parent in order to enforce stronger quality control. In August 1912 Dunlop Pneumatic Tyre went out of business though retaining certain financial commitments.
It passed its activities to Dunlop Rubber in exchange for shares. It changed its name to The Parent Tyre Company Limited. Dunlop Rubber purchased certain of its assets including goodwill and trading rights and in exchange the tyre company shareholders now owned three-quarters of Dunlop Rubber; the amalgamation was intended to bring about a substantial reduction in overhead and clarify what had been seen as a confusing relationship between the two enterprises when they shared most shareholders. Arthur du Cros was made managin
Hawker Aircraft Limited was a British aircraft manufacturer responsible for some of the most famous products in British aviation history. Hawker had its roots in the aftermath of the First World War, which resulted in the bankruptcy of the Sopwith Aviation Company. Sopwith test pilot Harry Hawker and three others, including Thomas Sopwith, bought the assets of Sopwith and formed H. G. Hawker Engineering in 1920. In 1933 the company was renamed Hawker Aircraft Limited, it took advantage of the Great Depression and a strong financial position to purchase the Gloster Aircraft Company in 1934; the next year it merged with the engine and automotive company Armstrong Siddeley and its subsidiary, Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft, to form Hawker Siddeley Aircraft. This group encompassed A. V. Roe and Company. Hawker Aircraft continued to produce designs under its own name as part of Hawker Siddeley Aircraft, from 1955 a division of Hawker Siddeley Group; the "Hawker" brand name was dropped, along with those of the sister companies, in 1963.
The Hawker legacy was maintained by the American company Raytheon who produced business jets under the "Hawker" name. This was the result of purchasing British Aerospace's product line in 1993; the name was used by Hawker Beechcraft after Raytheon's business jet interests were acquired by investors and merged. In the interwar years, Hawker produced a successful line of bombers and fighters for the Royal Air Force, the product of Sydney Camm and his team; these included the Hawker Hind and the Hawker Hart, which became the most produced UK aeroplane in the years before the Second World War. During the Second World War, the Hawker Siddeley company was one of the United Kingdom's most important aviation concerns, producing numerous designs including the famous Hawker Hurricane fighter plane that, along with the Supermarine Spitfire, was instrumental in winning the Battle of Britain. During the battle, Hawker Hurricanes in service outnumbered all other British fighters combined, were responsible for shooting down 55 percent of all enemy aircraft destroyed.
Hawker Duiker 1923 prototype – first original design by Hawker, 1 aircraft built, J6918 Hawker Woodcock 1923 Hawker Cygnet 1924 Hawker Hedgehog 1924 prototype Hawker Horsley 1925 Hawker Heron 1925 Hawker Hornbill 1925 Hawker Danecock 1925 Hawker Harrier 1927 prototype Hawker Hawfinch 1927 Hawker Hart 1928 Operators of Hawker Hart and variants Hawker F.20/27 1928 prototype Hawker Hoopoe 1928 Hawker Tomtit 1928 Hawker Hornet 1929 Hawker Osprey 1929 Hawker Nimrod 1930 Hawker Fury 1931 Hawker Fury variants Hawker Audax 1931 Hawker Dantorp1932 Hawker Demon 1933 Hawker P. V.3 1934 prototype Hawker Hart 1934 Hawker Hind 1934 Hawker Hind variants Hawker P. V.4 1934 prototype Hawker Hartbees 1935 Hawker Hurricane 1935 Hawker Sea Hurricane Hawker Hurricane variants List of Hawker Hurricane operators List of surviving Hawker Hurricanes Hawker Hector 1936 Hawker Henley 1937 Hawker Hotspur 1938 Hawker Tornado 1939 Hawker Typhoon 1940 List of Hawker Typhoon operators Hawker Tempest 1942 List of Hawker Tempest operators Hawker F.2/43 Fury 1943 prototype Hawker Sea Fury 1944 List of Hawker Sea Fury operators Hawker P.1040 1947 prototype Hawker Sea Hawk 1947 List of Hawker Sea Hawk operators Hawker P.1052 1948 prototype Hawker P.1072 1950 prototype Hawker P.1078 prototype Hawker P.1081 1950 prototype Hawker Hunter 1951 Hawker Hunter variants List of Hawker Hunter operators Hawker Hunter in service with Swiss Air Force Hawker P.1127 1960 prototype Source: Hannah Hawker P.1000 Hawker P.1004 Hawker P.1005 Hawker P.1007 Hawker P.1008 Hawker P.1014 Hawker P.1017 Hawker P.1021 Hawker P.1025 Hawker P.1027 Hawker P.1028 Hawker P.1029 Hawker P.1030 Hawker P.1031 Hawker P.1037 Hawker P.1041 Hawker P.1044 Hawker P.1048 Hawker P.1049 Hawker P.1050 Hawker P.1051 Hawker P.1053 Hawker P.1054 Hawker P.1055 Hawker P.1056 Hawker P.1057 Hawker P.1058 Hawker P.1063 Hawker P.1064 Hawker P.1065 Hawker P.1069 Hawker P.1070 Hawker P.1071 Hawker P.1073 Hawker P.1077 Hawker P.1079 Hawker P.1082 Hawker P.1084 Hawker P.1085 Hawker P.1088 Hawker P.1089 Hawker P.1092 Hawker P.1093 Hawker P.1096 Hawker P.1098 Hawker P.1103 1950s interceptor project Hawker P.1104 Hawker P.1106 Hawker P.1107 Hawker P.1108 Hawker P.1121 late 1950s fighter project Hawker P.1124 Hawker P.1125 Hawker P.1126 Hawker P.1128 Hawker P.1129 Hawker P.1131 Hawker P.1132 Hawker P.1134 Hawker P.1136 Hawker P.1137 Hawker P.1139 Hawker P.1141 Hawker P.1143 Hawker P.1149 Hawker P.1152 Hawker P.1214 Harry Hawker Thomas Sopwith Sydney Camm Roy Chaplin Robert Lickley Richard Walker George Bulman Bill Humble Wimpy Wade Neville Duke Alfred William Bedford Aerospace industry in the United Kingdom Hawker – British Aircraft Directory
Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 1999. Vickers was formed in Sheffield as a steel foundry by the miller Edward Vickers and his father-in-law George Naylor in 1828. Naylor was a partner in the foundry Naylor & Sanderson and Vickers' brother William owned a steel rolling operation. Edward's investments in the railway industry allowed him to gain control of the company, based at Millsands and known as Naylor Vickers and Company, it began life making steel castings and became famous for casting church bells. In 1854 Vickers' sons Thomas and Albert joined the business and their considerable talents – Tom Vickers as a metallurgist and Albert as a team-builder and salesman – were key to its subsequent rapid development. "Its great architects," the historian Clive Trebilcock writes, "Colonel T. E. and Albert Vickers... provided both inspired technical leadership... and astute commercial direction. Both men were autocrats by temperament.
The company went public in 1867 as Vickers, Sons & Company and acquired more businesses, branching out into various sectors. In 1868 Vickers began to manufacture marine shafts, in 1872 they began casting marine propellers and in 1882 they set up a forging press. Vickers produced their first armour plate in 1888 and their first artillery piece in 1890. Vickers bought out the Barrow-in-Furness shipbuilder The Barrow Shipbuilding Company in 1897, acquiring its subsidiary the Maxim Nordenfelt Guns and Ammunition Company. At the same time, to become Sons & Maxim. Ordnance and ammunition made during this period, including World War I, was stamped V. S. M; the yard at Barrow became the "Naval Construction Yard". With these acquisitions, Vickers could now produce a complete selection of products, from ships and marine fittings to armour plate and a whole suite of ordnance. In 1901 the Royal Navy's first submarine, Holland 1, was launched at the Naval Construction Yard. In 1902 Vickers took a half share in the famous Clyde shipyard John Company.
Further diversification occurred in 1901 with the acquisition of a proposed business, incorporated as The Wolseley Tool and Motor Car Company and in 1905 the goodwill and patent rights of the Siddeley car. In 1911 a controlling interest was acquired in the torpedo manufacturers. In 1911 the company name was changed to Vickers Ltd and expanded its operations into aircraft manufacture by the formation of Vickers Ltd and a Vickers School of Flying was opened at Brooklands, Surrey on 20 January 1912. In 1919, the British Westinghouse electrical company was taken over as the Metropolitan Vickers Electrical Company. At the same time they came into Metropolitan's railway interests. A reorganisation during 1926 led to the retention of the rolling stock group: Metropolitan Carriage wagon and Finance Company and The Metropolitan -Vickers Company and the disposal of: Vickers-Petters Limited, British Lighting and Ignition Company, the Plywood department at Crayford Creek, Canadian Vickers, William Beardmore and Co, Wolseley Motors.
In 1927, Vickers merged with the Tyneside based engineering company Armstrong Whitworth, founded by W. G. Armstrong, to become Vickers-Armstrongs, Ltd. Armstrong Whitworth had developed along similar lines to Vickers, expanding into various military sectors and was notable for their artillery manufacture at Elswick and shipbuilding at a yard at High Walker on the River Tyne. Armstrongs shipbuilding interests became the "Naval Yard", those of Vickers on the west coast the "Naval Construction Yard". Armstrong Whitworth Aircraft was not absorbed by the new company. In 1928 the Aviation Department became Vickers Ltd and soon after acquired Supermarine, which became the "Supermarine Aviation Works Ltd". In 1938, both companies were re-organised as Vickers-Armstrongs Ltd, although the former Supermarine and Vickers works continued to brand their products under their former names. 1929 saw the merger of the acquired railway business with those of Cammell Laird to form Metropolitan Cammell Carriage and Wagon.
In 1960 the aircraft interests were merged with those of the Bristol, English Electric Company and Hunting Aircraft to form the British Aircraft Corporation. This was owned by English Electric and Bristol. BAC in turn owned 70% of Hunting; the Supermarine operation was closed in 1963 and the Vickers name for aircraft was dropped in 1965. Under the terms of the Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act BAC was nationalised in 1977 to become part of the British Aerospace group, which exists today in the guise of BAE Systems; the Aircraft and Shipbuilding Industries Act led to the nationalisation of Vickers' shipbuilding division as part of British Shipbuilders. These had been renamed Vickers Armstrong Shipbuilders in 1955, changing again to Vickers Limited Shipbuilding Group in 1968; this division was privatised as Vickers Shipbuilding and Engineering Ltd in 1986 part of GEC's Marconi Marine. It remains in operation to this day as BAE Systems Submarine Solutions. With their steelworking operations nationalised into British Steel Corporation the remnants of Vickers became Vickers plc.
In 1986, Vickers acquired the armaments manufacturer Royal Ordnance Factory, which became Vickers Defence Systems. Other acquisitions included automotive engineers Cosworth in 1990, waterjet manufacturer Kamewa in 1986 and
Crayford is a town and electoral ward located in south-east London, England within the London Borough of Bexley. It lies north west of Dartford. Crayford is in the historic county of Kent; the settlement developed around a ford over the river Cray, no longer used. An Iron Age settlement existed in the vicinity of the present St Paulinus Church between the Julian and Claudian invasions of Britain, from 30 BC to AD 40. Roman ruins have been discovered and Crayford is one of several places proposed as the site of Noviomagus, a place mentioned in the Antonine Itinerary as being on the Roman equivalent of the Watling Street. Crayford is plausible as the site of the bloody battle of Crecganford in 457 in which Hengist defeated Vortimer to become the supreme sovereign of Kent; the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle written around 400 years describes how Hengist and Æsc defeated the "Brettas" at that battle. Crayford is mentioned in the Domesday Book, compiled just prior to 1086, as a settlement within the Hundred of Litlelee with a church, three mills, a large population of 27 regular householders and 2 smallholders.
Its overlord was not Christ Church, Canterbury. As a parish it included the hamlets of Northend, Perry Street and Slade Green which lie to the north. In 1831, the population of the parish was 2022 people. For centuries it was associated with brick-making, the printing of silk scarves and calico cloths, for a short period carpet-making. There were two main Manor Houses in the area during the Middle Ages, Newbery Manor on the site of what is now Crayford Manor House, Howbury Manor next to Slade Green. Roger Apylton had served Kings Henry V and Henry VI as auditor, resided at Marshalls Court, Crayford. Late in the reign of Elizabeth I Henry Partich sold Newbery Manor to Henry Apylton of Marshalls Court, Apylton built May Place close by. Hall Place, which lies alongside the River Cray, was built for Lord Mayor of the City of London Sir John Champneis in around 1537. There was an Iron Mill, replaced by a saw mill, which produced the timber for the floor of Buckingham Palace. In 1551 Francis Goldsmith bought a'Great tenement called The Place' next to the bridge in Crayford, between 1556 and 1586 purchased substantial amounts of local farmland and the Old Bell Public House.
In 1623 most of the parish of Crayford was purchased by Merchant Taylor Robert Draper including Newbery Manor, Howbury Manor, Marshalls Court and May Place, where his family took up residence. Draper's wife Anne was the daughter of Thomas Harman who lived at Ellam House which subsequently passed to the Drapers; the ownerships subsequently passed to Robert Draper's son William, selected to be the Sheriff of the County of Kent but died in 1650 before taking office, to Robert's grandson, parliamentarian Cresheld Draper. On the death of Cresheld Draper in 1694, his heirs sold all the properties to Sir Cloudesley Shovell'. Crayford Manor House was rebuilt in the eighteenth century, at the time a farmhouse until it was remodelled in 1816 for the Rev. Thomas Barne. Historic England state it was built piecemeal over several periods, with a porch and Italianate features being added to the 1816 building. Other notable 19th-century local houses included Shenstone, Martens Grove and Oakwood - the latter two designed by architect John Shaw, Jr. and built by George Locke of builders Locke & Nesham with each occupying one of the houses.
In 1819, the former saw mill site became a flour mill. Another major employer was the silk works set up by Augustus Applegath and run by David Evans; the Maxim Nordenfeldt Gun and Ammunition Factory was a major employer, until taken over by the Vickers Company in 1897. Vickers built military aeroplanes and armaments and became the dominant employer, building homes, a theatre and a canteen close to many workshops; the canteen became the town hall of the Crayford Urban District Council and remains a major landmark in municipal use. Another former major employer in Crayford was Dussek Brothers who operated their oils and waxes blending business on Thames Road from around 1928 until the site was bought by BP and subsequently closed down in 2001; the entire site was demolished in early 2010. The David Evans silk works is another recent closure, in 2002. According to the 2011 census, 84% of the population is White British. Crayford has a greyhound racing track; the theatre was named in honour of Geoffrey Whitworth who played a key part in developing a British tradition of amateur drama and in building political support for The Royal National Theatre.
The new Crayford Community Centre, located above the library, is the venue for many groups. Nearby Hall Place is a scheduled ancient monument lying between Bexley, it has gardens with the River Cray running through and a plant nursery, a cafe and restaurant plus the silkworks shop. "The Bear and Ragged Staff" public house are in the town centre. The large Sainsbury's supermarket situated next to the greyhound stadium was claimed by Sainsbury's to be the world first's use of technology which heats the store using natural energy captured through boreholes buried hundreds of metres beneath the ground and was at the time of its expansion the largest Sainsbury's in England; the Tower Retail Park is opposite Crayford Town Hall. The High Stre
Aluminium alloys are alloys in which aluminium is the predominant metal. The typical alloying elements are copper, manganese, silicon and zinc. There are two principal classifications, namely casting alloys and wrought alloys, both of which are further subdivided into the categories heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable. About 85% of aluminium is used for wrought products, for example rolled plate and extrusions. Cast aluminium alloys yield cost-effective products due to the low melting point, although they have lower tensile strengths than wrought alloys; the most important cast aluminium alloy system is Al–Si, where the high levels of silicon contribute to give good casting characteristics. Aluminium alloys are used in engineering structures and components where light weight or corrosion resistance is required. Alloys composed of aluminium have been important in aerospace manufacturing since the introduction of metal-skinned aircraft. Aluminium-magnesium alloys are both lighter than other aluminium alloys and much less flammable than alloys that contain a high percentage of magnesium.
Aluminium alloy surfaces will develop a white, protective layer of aluminium oxide if left unprotected by anodizing and/or correct painting procedures. In a wet environment, galvanic corrosion can occur when an aluminium alloy is placed in electrical contact with other metals with more positive corrosion potentials than aluminium, an electrolyte is present that allows ion exchange. Referred to as dissimilar-metal corrosion, this process can occur as exfoliation or as intergranular corrosion. Aluminium alloys can be improperly heat treated; this causes internal element separation, the metal corrodes from the inside out. Aluminium alloy compositions are registered with The Aluminum Association. Many organizations publish more specific standards for the manufacture of aluminium alloy, including the Society of Automotive Engineers standards organization its aerospace standards subgroups, ASTM International. Aluminium alloys with a wide range of properties are used in engineering structures. Alloy systems are classified by a number system or by names indicating their main alloying constituents.
Selecting the right alloy for a given application entails considerations of its tensile strength, ductility, workability and corrosion resistance, to name a few. A brief historical overview of alloys and manufacturing technologies is given in Ref. Aluminium alloys are used extensively in aircraft due to their high strength-to-weight ratio. On the other hand, pure aluminium metal is much too soft for such uses, it does not have the high tensile strength, needed for airplanes and helicopters. Aluminium alloys have an elastic modulus of about 70 GPa, about one-third of the elastic modulus of most kinds of steel and steel alloys. Therefore, for a given load, a component or unit made of an aluminium alloy will experience a greater deformation in the elastic regime than a steel part of identical size and shape. Though there are aluminium alloys with somewhat-higher tensile strengths than the used kinds of steel replacing a steel part with an aluminium alloy might lead to problems. With new metal products, the design choices are governed by the choice of manufacturing technology.
Extrusions are important in this regard, owing to the ease with which aluminium alloys the Al–Mg–Si series, can be extruded to form complex profiles. In general and lighter designs can be achieved with Aluminium alloy than is feasible with steels. For instance, consider the bending of a thin-walled tube: the second moment of area is inversely related to the stress in the tube wall, i.e. stresses are lower for larger values. The second moment of area is proportional to the cube of the radius times the wall thickness, thus increasing the radius by 26% will lead to a halving of the wall stress. For this reason, bicycle frames made of aluminium alloys make use of larger tube diameters than steel or titanium in order to yield the desired stiffness and strength. In automotive engineering, cars made of aluminium alloys employ space frames made of extruded profiles to ensure rigidity; this represents a radical change from the common approach for current steel car design, which depend on the body shells for stiffness, known as unibody design.
Aluminium alloys are used in automotive engines in cylinder blocks and crankcases due to the weight savings that are possible. Since aluminium alloys are susceptible to warping at elevated temperatures, the cooling system of such engines is critical. Manufacturing techniques and metallurgical advancements have been instrumental for the successful application in automotive engines. In the 1960s, the aluminium cylinder heads of the Corvair earned a reputation for failure and stripping of threads, not seen in current aluminium cylinder heads. An important structural limitation of aluminium alloys is their lower fatigue strength compared to steel. In controlled laboratory conditions, steels display a fatigue limit, the stress amplitude below which no failures occur – the metal does not continue to weaken with extended stress cycles. Aluminium alloys do not have this lower fatigue limit and will continue to weaken with continued stress cycles. Aluminium alloys are therefore sparsely used in parts that require high fatigue strength in the high cycle regime.
The metal's sensitivity to heat must be considered. A routine workshop procedure involving heating is complicated by the fact that aluminium, unlike steel, will m